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Issues and challenges with Green housing


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Title: Issues and challenges with Green housing

Issues and challenges with Green housing
  • J. André Potworowski
  • Adjunct Professor

Dealing with global warming (1)
  • Mitigation (reducing effects)
  • Assume its real
  • and caused by man-generated GHG emissions from
    fossil fuel
  • Possible solutions
  • Switch to alternative energy supply
  • Reduce end-use demand
  • Re-design system for maximum efficiency (2nd law

Dealing with global warming (2)
  • Adaptation
  • Extreme weather events
  • Winds, hurricanes
  • Ice storms
  • Snow
  • Floods
  • Droughts

Residential sector
  • Contributes between 10 and 40 of GHG emissions
    depending on what you include
  • Only heating, cooling
  • GHG produced from electricity going into houses
  • Lifestyle of people living in them (play, work,
    travel use of cars to commute, etc.)

What is a Green house?
  • Low energy consumption (low gas, oil, or electric
    heating, cooling)
  • Low water usage
  • Recycled construction materials
  • Recycling of water, garbage
  • Higher density, closer to work (? green community)

Evolving standards for high performance houses
energy (ERS Energuide Residential
Standard) Source David Foster, CHBA 2009
One example of a sustainable vision
  • Torrie, Beyond Kyoto, Suzuki Foundation (2002)
  • Residential sector can reduce GHGs by 60 by 2030
    (from 2004)

What does it take to reduce GHG emissions by 60
in 10-15 million residential unit by 2030
Space Heating Insulation R-30 in attic, R-20 in
walls, basement walls, basement floor,
attic Windows double pane (triple?), low e
argon Doors polyurethane filled steel Air seal
caulking/weather stripping (4 air changes/hour),
plastic sheet in wall Passive solar south
facing, larger windows Wall thickness 2x6 2x4
to accommodate more insulation Heating systems
furnace, gas, high E, fuel cell (electricityheat
(EH)) Heat pump, efficiency below 5C Active
solar cost effective Waste heat recovery Grey
water and other recovery systems
Refrigeration Energy Star efficient compressor
Efficient usage keep full, less opening, use
storage section to defrost frozen foods, non-CFC
Hot water a) Reduce amount of water usage Faucet
aereator Shower head limited flow Washing
machine front load b) Reduce energy usage R-30
insulation Water heater high efficiency gas,
solar, fuel cell (EH), condensing, on demand hot
Lighting Light bulbs Low voltage halogen,
compact fluorescent (warm temp 2700-3000K),
Task lighting, timer, motion sensor
Dryers Energy Star efficient, insulation R-30,
microwave, solar, condensing Space Cooling Reduce
waste heat CF lights, cooler appliances, air
conditioner efficiencySEER-15, non CFC coolant
Plug-ins Energy Star, not instant on, timer,
motion sensor, LCD screens Cooking stoves Energy
Star Efficient, Gas, Microwave
How might we deploy
55 Technologies
into 10 to 15 million residential units, by 2030
EQuilibriumTM Demonstration Projects
Source Thomas C. Green, Project Manager,
EQuilibriumTM HousingCanada Mortgage and Housing
EQuilibriumTM Housing Demonstration Project
ÉcoTerraTM Building Pre-Engineered Sustainable
Eastman, QC Alouette Homes
Source Tom Green, CMHC
EQuilibriumTM Demonstration ÉcoTerra
  • Factory Integrated, Modern, Modular Construction
  • Six modules, including a technical
    pod in the basement and a
    PV/Thermal solar roof module

Source Tom Green, CMHC
EQuilibriumTM Demonstration ÉcoTerra
  • Passive Solar Optimization
  • Passive solar plan and section
  • Open design
  • Additional thermal mass
  • No cooling required

Source Tom Green, CMHC
(No Transcript)
EQuilibriumTM Demonstration ÉcoTerra
  • Energy Recovery
  • Heat recovery ventilator with ECM motor,
    controlled by home automation system
  • Drain-water heat recovery
  • Solar thermal harvesting beneath PV panels

Source Tom Green, CMHC
EQuilibriumTM Demonstration ÉcoTerra
  • Renewable Energy Sources
  • Photovoltaic System with Thermal Recovery
  • 3 KW PV array integrated with the metal
  • 3 Ton, two-stage, geothermal heat pump
  • Grid connected with net metering
  • Integration of systems through home
    automation system

Source Tom Green, CMHC
EQuilibriumTM Demonstration ÉcoTerra
  • Preservation of Natural Landscape
  • Off-site manufacturing optimises efficiency and
    reduces site disturbance due to construction
  • Most trees left in place
  • Some coniferous trees removed on the south side
    to permit better sun exposure
  • High performance septic tank reduces septic field
  • Rainwater capture for irrigation

Source Tom Green, CMHC
EQuilibriumTM Demonstration ÉcoTerra
CMHC EQuilibrium Housing Initiative Comparison of
Canadian National Average1, R-2000 Home2 and
ÉcoTerra3 (ÉT) Annual Residential Energy Profile
Source Tom Green, CMHC
Analysis of barriers to innovation and change
  • Use How might we?
  • Map it collectively
  • Result challenge map

HMW evolve to a sustainable society over next 50
HMW over the next 50 years replace our entire
social infrastructure roads, transportation,
factories, houses, buildings, schools, etc. to a
sustainable society
HMW redesign our infrastructure components in a
systems or holistic approach to reduce energy and
resource usage
HMW change our economic paradigms to reduce
energy and resource use while maintaining quality
of life
HMW accelerate innovation and transformation in
key sectors, eg. residential, industrial/
commercial and transportation sectors
HMW identify address barriers to innovation and
deployment to make the residential sector totally
1. HMW increase awareness of greening the
residential sector consumer information,
education, building basis for paradigm shift
3. HMW make green houses available (reliable,
proven, tested, inspected, / supported by
standards, codes, training skills)
2. HMW make green residential houses affordable
(new innovative financial instruments, business
models, price ranges)
4. HMW make green houses adaptable convert
existing housing stock to different shades of
green, maximize potential for upgrading
5. HMW make green houses acceptable new
regulatory models, standards, codes, by-laws
HMW share risks involved among all stakeholders
HMW address the difficulty and cost of
retrofitting existing stock of housing compared
to new development?
HMW increase market adoption and awareness of
existing technologies and reduce risk of known
HMW design innovative new models of ownership for
green/shared infrastructure to keep costs of
mortgage low
HMW educate consumers, skilled trades on energy
efficiency and labels, so they become part of
common language
HMW translate GHG reduction targets down into the
building sector both provincially and municipally
HMW developed a skilled labour force (GS)
HMW find 1000000 FTEs to retrofit existing houses
HMW bring forward truer costs of energy to
increase the value of green home investment?
HMW demonstrate green value proposition for all
stakeholders (builders, banks, real estate, etc.)
HMW use provincial code and role of government to
raise the baseline
HMW provide incentives all along the supply chain
in order to ensure that everyone has an interest
in improvement
HMW ensure that there are enough programs
available to train people in the right skills
HMW assign and quantify the benefits so that
the cost of sustainable home ownership is
HMW celebrate the govt and industry successes,
get the news out, and demonstrate that it works
HMW develop a municipal level set of performance
standards and look at how the regulatory regime
could do that
HMW increase capacity of industry to use the
building techniques that are known, proven and
available, starting with the building envelope?
HMW promote knowledge of technology (shared
learning) to make information available to all
HMW create subsidies and special mortgages as
incentives for green homes?
HMW let people know what is going on inside
energy efficient and green houses because so much
of it is invisible, and celebrate it instead (PL)
HMW attach some federal funding programs more
specifically to the building sector to encourage
integrated community
HMW standardize, simplify a rating system for
HMW create new financial instruments, e.g. for
solar hot water heater, to shift risk away from
the homeowners create a different ownership
mechanism so that utilities can accept more of
the risks
HMW bring home the operating costs of the location
HMW make metrics visible in the marketplace (DF)
HMW move to time of use meters (PL)
HMW go about putting ratings on MLS website
HMW overcome split incentives that affect a lot
of energy consumption some are focused on the
building, others on running it, and eliminate
disincentives. (PL)
HMW train agents, builders, etc. to evaluate
added value of energy efficient homes
HMW create the financial instruments to allow
performance home ownership costs to be shared
with others who benefit?
Ways of overcoming price barrier of net
zero-energy homes
  • Rental-Ownership model
  • Energy Services Companies (ESCOs)
  • Mortgages and Loans (including Green Mortgages
    and Location-based Mortgages, and Loans for home
  • Government Incentives (including Tax credits and
    rebates, Feed-in tariffs and Grants)
  • Community Level Systems
  • Local improvement charges

The next step sustainable communities (QUEST or
Quality Urban Energy Systems of Tomorrow)