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Office of National Drug Control Policy ONDCP

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Title: Office of National Drug Control Policy ONDCP


1
Office of National Drug Control Policy
(ONDCP)
  • Primary Mission
  • TO LEAD NATIONAL EFFORTS
  • TO REDUCE ILLICIT DRUG USE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES.

2
  • ONDCP
  • Created by the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988, as
    amended
  • Develops National Drug Control Strategies and
  • Coordinates and Oversees Implementation
  • Develops Federal National Drug Control Budgets
  • Recommends improvements in management and
  • organization of drug control efforts
  • Conducts evaluations and performance measurement
  • to improve program effectiveness

3
National Drug Control StrategyNational Priorities
  • Stopping Use Before It Starts Education and
    Community Action
  • Healing Americas Drug Users Getting Treatment
    Resources Where They Are Needed
  • Disrupting the Market Attacking the Economic
    Basis of the Drug Trade

4
Two and Five Year Goals
  • Two-Year Goals
  • A 10 percent reduction in current use of illegal
    drugs by the 12-17 age group
  • A 10 percent reduction in current use of illegal
    drugs by those aged 18 and older
  • Five-Year Goals
  • A 25 percent reduction in current use of illegal
    drugs by the 12-17 age group
  • A 25 percent reduction in current use of illegal
    drugs by those aged 18 and older

5
  • These Goals translate into these declines in
  • Past Month Drug Use

Source of 1999 and 2000 data SAMHSA, National
Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 2000.
6
Budget HighlightsFunding by Major Initiatives
7
Stopping Use Before It Starts Education and
Community Action
Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program 644 million
(634.8 million drug-related) National Youth
Media Campaign 180 million Drug-Free
Communities Program 60 million Parents Drug
Corps Program 5 million Drug-Free Workplace
Programs 3 million
8
Healing Americas Drug Users Getting Treatment
Resources Where They Are Needed
  • HHS Drug Abuse Treatment Programs
  • Substance Abuse Mental Health Services
    Administration
  • Targeted Capacity Expansion Program 109
    million
  • Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block
    Grant 60 million
  • HHS Drug Abuse Treatment Research
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse 57.5 million

9
Healing Americas Drug Users Getting Treatment
Resources Where They Are Needed (continued)
  • DOJ Drug Abuse Treatment Programs
  • Promoting Drug Treatment in the Criminal Justice
    System
  • Residential Substance Abuse Treatment 7
    million (77 million total)
  • Drug Courts 2 million (52 million total)

10
Disrupting the Market Attacking the Economic
Basis of the Drug Trade
  • Andean Counterdrug Initiative 731 million
  • Coast Guards Deepwater Project 500 million
  • Border Control and Enforcement 76.3 million
  • (11.4 million drug-related)
  • Southwest Border Prosecutor Initiative 50
    million

11
  • The Federal Drug Control Budget has more than
    quadrupled since ONDCP was established in 1988.

Dollars, in Billions
FY 2003 Presidents Request FY 2002 Enacted
Level All Other Year Actual Expenditures

12
  • Demand Reduction and Domestic Law Enforcement
  • account for the bulk of Federal Drug Control
    Spending

Fiscal Year 1986 -2003
Dollars, in Billions
13
  • Fiscal Year 2003 Presidents Request, by Area
  • Total Resources 19.2 Billion

(Dollars in Millions)
International (6)
Treatment w/Research (20)
Interdiction (12)
Prevention w/Research (13)
Domestic Law Enforcement (49)
14
Restructuring the NationalDrug Control Budget
  • One of the key changes in the new National Drug
    Control Strategy is a restructuring of the Drug
    Control Budget. The budget has partly been based
    on imperfect estimation techniques that gauge the
    portion of a program related to drug control.
    Under the new approach, all drug programs will
    tie directly to actual line items in agency
    budgets establishing clearer lines of authority
    and accountability for results.
  • Principles
  • All funding items displayed in the drug budget
    should be readily identifiable line items in the
    Budget of the President or agency budget
    justifications and
  • The budget presentation should be simplified by
    eliminating several supporting agencies from the
    drug tabulation. Only agencies with a primary
    demand reduction or supply reduction mission
    would be displayed in the drug budget

15
Restructuring the NationalDrug Control Budget
Proposed Agencies Included Under Budget
Restructuring
  • ONDCP
  • Department of State
  • Department of Transportation Coast Guard
  • Department of TreasuryCustoms ServiceOCDETF
  • Department of Veterans Affairs
  • Other Presidential Initiatives
  • Drug-Free Workplace Programs Parents Drug Corps
    Program SWB Prosecutor Initiative
  • Department of Defense
  • Department of Education Safe and Drug-Free
    Schools
  • Health and Human ServicesSAMHSANIDA
  • Department of JusticeDEAOCDETFINSOJP

16
Restructuring the NationalDrug Control Budget
  • Modified Pro Forma Drug Control Budget
  • Federal Drug Control Funding by Function
  • ( in Millions)

(Detail may not add to totals due to rounding)
17
ONDCP
  • The Current Drug Situation
  • Including Prevention
  • and Treatment

18
  • Summary of Current Situation
  • The National Household Survey
  • The main finding in the 2000 National Household
    Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) is that overall drug
    use remains level. The rate of current (past
    month) illicit drug use is unchanged from 1999,
    with 6.3 percent of the population 12 years and
    older reporting past month use of an illicit drug
    in both 1999 and 2000. This represents an
    estimated 14.0 million current users in 2000.
    None of the major drug categories registered any
    significant change in their rates of current use.
  • Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit
    drug--76 percent of current illicit drug users
    used marijuana, and approximately 59 percent
    consumed only marijuana. The remaining 41
    percent of current illicit drug users, those who
    used illicit drugs other than marijuana, total
    about 5.7 million Americans. Of these, 3.8
    million were using psychotherapeutics,
    non-medically. This includes pain relievers (2.8
    million users), tranquilizers (1 million users),
    stimulants (800,000 users), and sedatives
    (200,000 users).
  • This Nation is clearly moving away from
    cocaine. Current use of cocaine in the household
    population is down from its peak of 5.7 million
    users in 1985 to 1.2 million in 2000. The
    estimated number of current crack users in 2000
    was 265,000.
  • Almost 3 million persons (2.8 million) reported
    having tried heroin in their lifetime (1.4
    percent), but only 130,000 (0.1 of the household
    population) reported heroin use in the past
    month.
  • Lifetime use of methamphetamine was reported by
    8.8 million persons (4.0 percent), but only
    387,000 (0.2) reported use in the past month.
  • Lifetime inhalant use was reported by 16.7
    million persons (7.5 percent), with 622,000
    reporting use in the past month (0.3 percent).
    Among youth, 8.9 percent reported having tried
    inhalants, while 1.0 percent reported current
    use. As noted above, a significant decline was
    noted among those aged 12-13.
  • Lifetime use of MDMA in 2000 is estimated at 6.4
    million persons, compared to 5.1 million in 1999.
    The 2000 NHSDA was not designed to report past
    month or past year use of MDMA.

19
  • Summary of Current Situation
  • Continued

Estimates of substance abuse incidence, or
initiation (I.e., number of new users during a
given year) provide a valuable measure of the
Nations drug use problem. They can suggest
emerging patterns of use, particularly among
young people. The initiation estimates in the
2000 NHSDA are based on combined 1999 and 2000
data, so direct comparison to older data is
problematic. The key findings on initiation for
2000 follow
  • There were 2 million new marijuana users in 1999
    18 percent fewer than the 2.5 million new users
    in 1998. This continues the gradual decline that
    begun in 1995, when there were 2.6 million new
    users. The average age at first use was 17.0
    years.
  • Youths aged 12 to 17 have constituted about
    two-thirds of the new users of marijuana in
    recent years, with young adults aged 18 to 25
    constituting most of the remaining third. Rates
    of use for both youth and young adults decreased
    between 1998 and 1999.
  • New cocaine users in 1999 numbered about 768,000,
    down 13 percent from 1998 (882,000). However,
    average age at first dropped from 19.9 years in
    1998 to 19.5 years in 1999.
  • Initiates to heroin use were estimated at 104,000
    in 1991, 26 percent less than in 1998 with
    140,000 new users. Average age at first use was
    19.8 years, younger than the 23.5 and 21.9 years
    estimated for 1997 and 1998, respectively.
  • Initiates to hallucinogen use (incl.. LSD and
    PCP) were estimated at 1.2 million, the highest
    estimate since 1965.

20
  • Summary of Current Situation
  • Continued
  • Among youth (ages 12-17), the rate of any illicit
    drug use in the past month is statistically
    unchanged, from 9.8 percent in 1999 to 9.7
    percent in 2000. Heroin use in the past month
    declined significantly from 0.2 percent in 1999
    to 0.1 percent in 2000, while rates of current
    use for other major drugs did not change
    significantly from the previous year.
  • The youngest subset of youth (ages 12-13)
    reported a significantly lower rate of current
    use of any illicit drug, from 3.9 percent in 1999
    to 3.0 percent in 2000. Inhalant use in the past
    month decreased significantly from 1.3 percent in
    1999 to 0.7 percent in 2000. Rates of use for
    other specific drugs did not change significantly
    over the same period.
  • However, for the oldest subset of youth (ages
    16-17), some significant increases in current use
    were noted. There was a significant increase in
    past month nonmedical use of psychotherapeutic
    drugs, from 3.4 percent in 1999 to 4.3 percent in
    2000. Within the psychotherapeutics category,
    past month nonmedical use of pain relievers
    increased significantly from 2.6 percent in 1999
    to 3.3 percent in 2000. Current use of
    stimulants also increased significantly, from 0.8
    percent to 1.2 percent. Methamphetamines, a
    category of stimulants, also showed a significant
    increase in this age subgroup, doubling from 0.3
    percent in 1999 to 0.6 percent in 2000.
  • Youth attitudes are unchanged from last year.
    Perceptions of risk of drug use among youth show
    no statistically significant increases or
    decreases from 1999 to 2000. While perceptions
    of risk of marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and LSD
    use are stable, the percentage of youth reporting
    great risk in smoking one or more packs of
    cigarettes per day increased significantly from
    60.7 percent in 1999 to 64.1 percent in 2000.
    Also showing improvement is the percentage of
    youth reporting great risk in drinking five or
    more drinks once or twice a week, from 42.0
    percent to 43.2 percent.
  • Youth perception of the availability of drugs
    declined for each drug class. Significant
    declines in the percentage of youth reporting
    that marijuana was fairly or very easy to obtain
    declined from 56.5 percent in 1999 to 54.1
    percent in 2000. Significant declines also were
    reported for cocaine (27.5 percent to 25.2
    percent), crack (28.4 percent to 26.8 percent),
    heroin (18.1 to 17.0), and LSD (24.9 to 23.0).

21
  • Summary of Current Situation
  • Continued

Drug use among young adults (age 18-25)
  • Among young adults, the subgroup that has the
    highest rate of drug use, 15.9 percent reported
    current use in 2000 compared to 16.4 in 1999
    (this change is not statistically significant).
    A significant reduction was found for current
    stimulant use, from 1.1 percent in 1999 to 0.8
    percent in 2000. Rates of current use for the
    other major drugs are statistically unchanged
    from 1999.
  • For the subset of young adults aged 18-20, no
    significant changes were noted over the two-year
    period, except for a decrease in past year use of
    cocaine, from 5.7 percent in 1999 to 4.8 percent
    in 2000.
  • For the older young adults (ages 21-25), a
    significant decline in past year use of any
    illicit drug was noted, from 25.8 percent in 1999
    to 24.1 percent in 2000. Cocaine and nonmedical
    use of psychotherapeutics may account for this
    decline. In 1999, 1.6 percent reported past
    month use of cocaine, declining to 1.1 percent in
    2000. Current crack use also declined from 0.2
    percent to 0.1 percent. Stimulant use in the
    past month declined significantly from 0.8 to 0.5
    percent.
  • In the age group 26 to 34, current crack use
    declined significantly, from 0.4 percent in 1999
    to 0.1 percent in 2000. However, nonmedical use
    of psychotherapeutics increased significantly for
    lifetime and past month use (current use
    increasing from 1.5 percent to 2.1 percent).
    Current nonmedical use of pain relievers (a
    subset of psychotherapeutics) rose significantly
    from 0.9 percent to 1.6 percent.
  • The nonmedical use of this category includes
    drugs used when they were not prescribed for you
    or that you took only for the experience or
    feeling they caused and excludes use of
    over-the-counter pain relievers. It does
    include, among others, prescription pain
    relievers such as Codeine, Demerol, Hydrocodone,
    OxyContin, Percocet, Percodan, and Vicodin.
  • No statistically significant changes were noted
    for the age group 35 and older in any drug class.

22
  • For the total population ages 12 or older, there
    were no significant changes in recent years.

Percent Reporting Past Month Use of Any Illicit
Drug
The survey methodology was changed in 1999.
Estimates based on the new survey series are not
comparable to previous years.
Source SAMHSA, National Household Survey on
Drug Abuse.
23
  • This flattening is true for all major classes of
    drugs.

NOTE Changes made to the design and execution
of the NHSDA in 1999 make long term comparisons
of trend data impossible. The second set of data
provided below for 1999 and 2000 are
comparable, but the data labeled 99 is the last
year for long term trend data. The 99 and 1999
data differ slightly, because of the changes in
the survey.
Percentage of Population Reporting Past Month
Use
Data break
Source 2000 National Household Survey on Drug
Abuse
24
  • 14 million were current (past month)
  • users of an illicit drug in 2000.

Past Month Users (in Millions)
(incl. crack)
(any psychotherapeutic)
Source 2000 National Household Survey on Drug
Abuse
25
  • Among youth (ages 12 to 17), current use of any
    illicit drugs is unchanged in the last two years.

Percent Reporting Past Month Use of Any Illicit
Drug
New survey series
The survey methodology was changed in 1999.
Estimates based on the new survey series are not
comparable to previous years.
Source SAMHSA, National Household Survey on
Drug Abuse.
26
  • Among young adults (ages 18 to 25), current use
    of any illicit drugs is unchanged from 1999 to
    2000.

Percent Reporting Past Month Use of Any Illicit
Drug
New survey series
The survey methodology was changed in 1999.
Estimates based on the new survey series are not
comparable to previous years.
Source SAMHSA, National Household Survey on
Drug Abuse.
27
Among Current Drug Users, Marijuana is Still the
Most Abused Illicit Drug.
Percent Reporting Past Month Use of Illicit
Drugs, 2000
Only a drug other than marijuana
Marijuana only
Marijuana and some other drug
Source 2000 National Household Survey on Drug
Abuse
28
  • Among youth (aged 12 to 17), current use of any
    illicit drug in 2000 also is unchanged from 1999,
    except for heroin use, which is significantly
    lower.

Percent Reporting Past Month Use
Source SAMHSA, National Household Survey on
Drug Abuse.
29
  • Young adults have the highest drug use rates.

Percent Reporting Past Month Use
Source 2000 National Household Survey on Drug
Abuse
30
  • Drug use rates among young adults
  • peak at age 18-20.

Percent Reporting Past Month Use
Source 2000 National Household Survey on Drug
Abuse
31
  • Males consistently have higher rates of
  • any illicit drug use.

Percent Using in Past Month
Source 2000 National Household Survey on Drug
Abuse
32
  • Persons of multiple race and American
    Indian/Native Alaskans
  • have the highest rate of current use of any
    illicit drug.

Percent Using in Past Month
Source 2000 National Household Survey on Drug
Abuse
33
  • Current use of any illicit drug is lowest in
    rural areas.

Percent Using in Past Month
Source 2000 National Household Survey on Drug
Abuse
34
  • Marijuana accounts for the largest proportion of
    drug use, both in the general population and
    among youth.

Percent Reporting Use
Youth (12 -17)
Age 12 or Older
Source 2000 National Household Survey on Drug
Abuse
35
  • Current Drug Use Varies Widely, by Age, but the
    Cohort Effect Lasts a Lifetime.

Percent Reporting Past Month Use of an Illicit
Drug
Prime example of an aging cohort of drug users --
this group began use in 1970s.
Source 2000 National Household Survey on Drug
Abuse
36
  • Past Month Drug Use Varies by by Race/Ethnic
    Group those reporting Puerto Rican and American
    Indian as Race/Ethnic Group show highest rates of
    use.

Percent Reporting Past Month Use of Any Drug, Age
12 and Older, 1999
.
Source 2000 National Household Survey on Drug
Abuse
37
  • Adults on parole or supervised release and those
    on probation have substantially higher rates of
    current drug use compared to those not on parole
    or probation.

Percent Reporting Past Month Use of Any Illicit
Drug
Source SAMHSA, National Household Survey on
Drug Abuse.
38
  • Heroin Use is a growing concern.
  • The ONDCP Pulse Check and the Community
    Epidemiology Working Group Report indicate heroin
    use nationwide is low, but on the rise.
  • High purity heroin and lower prices contribute to
    increased use.
  • Increased heroin abuse in the U.S. in the 1990s
    may be attributable in large part to growing
    polydrug use. Many heroin users also use other
    illegal drugs, most often cocaine or
    methamphetamine.
  • Majority of users are in their 30s and injecting
    younger users beginning to inhale or smoke
    heroin.

39
While methamphetamine use is low, it continues to
be a major concern due to the potential for
rapid spread.
  • DUF/ADAM data and the 1999 NHSDA State-level data
    both indicate that methamphetamine use is
    primarily a problem in Western and Southwestern
    states, especially in certain key cities.
  • There are valid concerns about the potential
    impact and spread of methamphetamine use,
    especially into the Midwest.
  • Using treatment admission rates as a proxy for
    the spread of methamphetamine use shows a
    dramatic shift over the last five years.
  • The following four slides illustrate clearly the
    pattern of the spread and the full extent of the
    problem.

40
In 1994, five states had serious methamphetamine
problems -- Hawaii and four others, all in the
far west.
Methamphetamine Admission Rates (per 100,000)
MAINE
55
28-54
3-27
No data
SOURCE SAMHSA, OAS, TEDS
41
In 1996, ten states had serious methamphetamine
problems, and the problem had spread into the
midwest.
Methamphetamine Admission Rates (per 100,000)
MAINE
55
28-54
3-27
No data
SOURCE SAMHSA, OAS, TEDS
42
In 1998, 13 states had serious problems,
including four midwestern states -- the problem
was worse all over the midwest.
Methamphetamine Admission Rates (per 100,000)
MAINE
55
28-54
3-27
No data
SOURCE SAMHSA, OAS, TEDS
43
In 1999, the same 13 states still had serious
problems, but two midwestern states showed
improvement.
Methamphetamine Admission Rates (per 100,000)
MAINE
55
28-54
3-27
No data
SOURCE SAMHSA, OAS, TEDS
44
  • CURRENT DRUG USE
  • TRENDS AMONG YOUTH

BASED ON TWO NATIONAL SURVEYS FROM THE U.S.
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
MONITORING THE FUTURE STUDY (MTF) AND
NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG ABUSE (NHSDA)
45
  • Summary of Current Situation
  • The Monitoring the Future Survey

46
  • Summary of Current Situation
  • The Monitoring the Future Survey (continued)

47
  • Summary of Current Situation
  • The Monitoring the Future Survey (continued)

48
  • Summary of Current Situation
  • 2000 National Household Survey
  • Among youth (ages 12-17), the rate of any illicit
    drug use in the past month is statistically
    unchanged, from 9.8 percent in 1999 to 9.7
    percent in 2000. Heroin use in the past month
    declined significantly from 0.2 percent in 1999
    to 0.1 percent in 2000, while rates of current
    use for other major drugs did not change
    significantly from the previous year.
  • The youngest subset of youth (ages 12-13)
    reported a significantly lower rate of current
    use of any illicit drug, from 3.9 percent in 1999
    to 3.0 percent in 2000. Inhalant use in the past
    month decreased significantly from 1.3 percent in
    1999 to 0.7 percent in 2000. Rates of use for
    other specific drugs did not change significantly
    over the same period.
  • However, for the oldest subset of youth (ages
    16-17), some significant increases in current use
    were noted. There was a significant increase in
    past month nonmedical use of psychotherapeutic
    drugs, from 3.4 percent in 1999 to 4.3 percent in
    2000. Within the psychotherapeutics category,
    past month nonmedical use of pain relievers
    increased significantly from 2.6 percent in 1999
    to 3.3 percent in 2000. Current use of
    stimulants also increased significantly, from 0.8
    percent to 1.2 percent. Methamphetamines, a
    category of stimulants, also showed a significant
    increase in this age subgroup, doubling from 0.3
    percent in 1999 to 0.6 percent in 2000.
  • Youth attitudes are unchanged from last year.
    Perceptions of risk of drug use among youth show
    no statistically significant increases or
    decreases from 1999 to 2000. While perceptions
    of risk of marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and LSD
    use are stable, the percentage of youth reporting
    great risk in smoking one or more packs of
    cigarettes per day increased significantly from
    60.7 percent in 1999 to 64.1 percent in 2000.
    Also showing improvement is the percentage of
    youth reporting great risk in drinking five or
    more drinks once or twice a week, from 42.0
    percent to 43.2 percent.
  • Youth perception of the availability of drugs
    declined for each drug class. Significant
    declines in the percentage of youth reporting
    that marijuana was fairly or very easy to obtain
    declined from 56.5 percent in 1999 to 54.1
    percent in 2000. Significant declines also were
    reported for cocaine (27.5 percent to 25.2
    percent), crack (28.4 percent to 26.8 percent),
    heroin (18.1 to 17.0), and LSD (24.9 to 23.0).

49
  • Drug use remains highest among 12th graders.
    More than 50 percent of them have tried an
    illicit drug, and more than one in four are
    current users.

Percent Reporting Use of Any Illicit Drug
Source Monitoring the Future Study
50
  • By the time they are seniors, almost a quarter of
    youth are current marijuana users
  • and more than 1 in 20 use every day.

Marijuana
Percent Reporting Use
Source Monitoring the Future Study
51
  • MDMA/ecstasy use is found in all grades.

MDMA/ecstasy Percent Reporting Use
Source Monitoring the Future Study
52
  • Cocaine use is less prevalent, but almost 9
    percent
  • of seniors have used cocaine during their
    lifetime.

Cocaine Percent Reporting Use
Source Monitoring the Future Study
53
  • Heroin use among students is low, but any use
    among students is a cause for great concern.

Heroin Percent Reporting Use
Source Monitoring the Future Study
54
  • Alcohol is a serious problem among youth --
  • 30 percent of high school seniors and 25 percent
  • of 10th graders are heavy, binge drinkers.

Alcohol Percent Reporting Use
Source Monitoring the Future Study
55
  • More than one in five high school seniors
  • are daily smokers.

Cigarettes Percent Reporting Use
Source Monitoring the Future Study
56
ONDCP
  • LONG TERM DRUG USE TRENDS AMONG YOUTH
  • AND
  • SPECIAL DATA ABOUT
  • MARIJUANA USE

57
  • While drug use is still unacceptably high, 2001
    is the fifth year
  • without significant changes in the current use of
    "Any Illicit Drug.

Current (past month) Use of Any Illicit Drug
Source Monitoring the Future Study
58
  • Marijuana continues to predominate youth drug use.

Current (past month) Marijuana Use.
Source Monitoring the Future Study
59
  • MDMA/ecstasy use has increased notably among
    students in each grade, but there is some limited
    good news for 2001.

Current (past month) MDMA/ecstasy Use.
Source Monitoring the Future Study
60
  • Trends in 30-day use of alcohol
  • are generally stable.

Current (past month) Alcohol Use
Source Monitoring the Future Study
61
  • Trends in current Cigarette use show declines for
    all grade, with significant declines since 1998
    for all grades.

Current (past month) Cigarette Use.
Source Monitoring the Future Study
62
  • For those age 12 to 17, there is a clear
    relationship between the amount of alcohol
    consumed and current use of an illicit drug other
    than alcohol.

Past Month Illicit Drug Use by Intensity of
Alcohol Use
Source 1998 National Household Survey on Drug
Abuse
63
  • For those age 12 to 17, there is also a clear
    relationship between smoking cigarettes and
  • current illicit drug use.

Past Month Illicit Drug Use by Whether or not
They Smoke Cigarettes
Source 1998 National Household Survey on Drug
Abuse
64
Aggressive Anti-Social Behavior Among Youth is
Clearly Linked to Frequency of Marijuana Use
  • Percentage of those ages 12 to 17 who reported
    aggressive behavior in past 6 months,
  • by number of days marijuana was used in the past
    year

Destroyed Other's Property
Physically Attacked People
Percentage of times activity was engaged in.
Frequency of Marijuana Use
Source NHSDA Household Survey Data, 1994-1996
65
Marijuana use is also related to other
delinquent behaviors
  • Percentage of those ages 12 to 17 who reported
    delinquent behavior in past 6 months,
  • by number of days marijuana was used in the past
    year

Stealing
Cutting Classes
Percentage of times activity was engaged in.
Frequency of Marijuana Use
Source NHSDA Household Survey Data, 1994-1996
66
  • Drug Dependence as an Adult is Clearly Related to
    the Age
  • at which a Person Starts Using Marijuana. The
    Younger the Age
  • at First Use, the Higher the Rate of Adult Drug
    Dependency.

Percent Dependent on or who Abuse Illicit Drugs
Among Adults, by Age Marijuana First Used
(Dependence Based on DSM-4 Diagnostic Criteria)
Source 2000 National Household Survey on Drug
Abuse
67
  • Role and Objectives of Drug Prevention
  • Deter new use and encourage existing users to
    stop using
  • Take steps to deter progression into more serious
    use
  • Break intergenerational cycle
  • Reduce risk factors and increase protective
    factors
  • Improve knowledge and attitudes
  • Reduce drug and alcohol problem behaviors

68
Marijuana and cocaine initiation show a downturn,
but hallucinogen and inhalant initiates are
trending upwards.
Initiates (1000s)
Source SAMHSA, 2000 National Household Survey
on Drug Abuse.
69
Heroin initiation rates are lower than for any
other major drug. Movement over the past few
years illustrates how rapidly the heroin
situation can change.
Heroin Initiates (1000s)
Data not available for 1982
Source 2000 National Household Survey on Drug
Abuse
70
Possible factors thought to have an affect on
Risk Perception
  • What hypotheses seem most promising to account
    for the observed changes in drug use ?
  • Rates of delinquent behaviors and risk taking
  • Use of gateway drugs (cigarettes)
  • Changes in perceived harmfulness of drug use
  • Impacts of mass culture (e.g., media)
  • Changes in informal learning about risks of drug
    use
  • Changes in Executive Leadership (Federal, State,
    local, civic)
  • Changes in illicit drug availability and lower
    price/higher purity (e.g., Marijuana, Heroin)

Source ONDCP Report on the Meeting of the Ann
Arbor Group, June 1994.
71
  • Consequences of Drug Use

Drug Use
Consequences of Drug Use
Community
Family
Crime
Economic
Health
Violence
72
  • Consequences of Drug Use
  • The Social Costs of illicit drug abuse reached
    143 billion in 1998
  • U.S. drug users spend substantially more than 60
    billion annually to purchase drugs
  • Cocaine and heroin problems seriously impact our
    Hospital Emergency Departments cocaine continues
    to be the most frequently mentioned illicit drug,
    followed by heroin and marijuana. For the most
    recent year (2000), heroin visits rose, cocaine
    visits were statistically unchanged, and
    marijuana rose, but the change was not
    statistically significant
  • There are more than 1.5 million drug arrests each
    year -- half of all arrestees test positive for
    illicit drug use
  • There is a high correlation between drug use and
    gang behavior, violence, threats, and
    carrying a gun to school
  • There is a high incidence of property crime
    among drug users
  • Violence is common to drug trafficking

73
  • The money spent on drugs saps our economic power

U.S. Users Spend 63.2 Billion Annually
Billions of Dollars (Projections for 1999)
Source ONDCP Paper, What Americas Users Spend
on Illegal Drugs
74
  • The Economic Costs relating to drug abuse are
    increasing, reaching 143.4 billion in 1998.

Dollars, in Billions
Source Office of National Drug Control Policy,
2001.
75
  • The bulk of the economic costs relate to lost
    earning potential.

(Billions of dollars)
Source Office of National Drug Control Policy,
2001.
76
All components of the costs of drug abuse to
society are increasing at about the same rate.
Estimated cost (in millions)
Source Office of National Drug Control Policy,
2001.
77
The costs of crime that can be attributed to drug
abuse are substantial.

Total is 143 billion
Non-Crime-Related 54.5B
Crime-Related 88.9B
Source Office of National Drug Control Policy,
2001.
78
Breakdown of crime-related costs, 1998
Total 89 billion
(Millions of dollars)
Source Office of National Drug Control Policy,
2001.
79
Productivity Cost Components
  • Lost productivity from
  • Premature death due to drug abuse
  • Drug abuse related illness
  • Institutionalization/hospitalization
  • Victims of crime
  • Incarceration
  • Crime careers

80
Health Care Cost Components
  • Community-based specialty treatment
  • Federally provided specialty treatment
  • Support for drug abuse related services
  • Medical consequences of drug abuse
  • hospital and ambulatory care
  • special disease costs
  • crime victim health care costs
  • health administration costs

81
Other Cost Components
  • Goods and services lost to crime
  • Criminal justice system and other public costs
  • police protection
  • legal adjudication
  • state and federal corrections
  • local corrections
  • federal spending to reduce drug supply
  • Private costs
  • private legal defense
  • property damage for victims of crime
  • Social welfare

82
The economic costs of drug abuse increased at an
average annual rate of 5.9 percent from 1992 to
1998.
Estimated cost (in millions)
2000 dollars
current dollars
1999 and 2000 are projections.
Source Office of National Drug Control Policy,
2001.
83
  • Drug-related murders have declined substantially
    over the past 10 years.

Murders Related to Narcotic Drug Laws
Number of Deaths
Source FBI, Uniform Crime Reports
84
  • In 2000, more than 600,000 drug-related ED
    episodes were reported in DAWN -- cocaine is the
    most often mentioned drug.

Number of Drug Emergency Episodes
Source SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network, 1999.
85
  • Since 1990 marijuana ED mentions have been
    rising. In 2000 they were at about the same
    level as Heroin.

Hospital Emergency Room Mentions, Heroin and
Marijuana
Source HHS Drug Abuse Warning Network
86
  • Since 1990, ED mentions of marijuana/hashish
  • have increased by more than 500 percent.

Number of Marijuana/Hashish Mentions
Source SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network.
87
  • Among youth, ED mentions of marijuana/
  • hashish have shown a seven-fold increase since
    1990.

Number of Marijuana/Hashish Mentions (Ages 12-17)
Source SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network.
88
  • Rates for ED mentions of marijuana are highest
    for
  • young adults and are increasing.

Mentions per 100,000 population for Marijuana
Source SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network.
89
  • Drug-related criminal activity
  • is still a serious problem
  • NIDA study of drug users not in treatment
    found-- 46 percent report legal-only sources
    of income-- 10 percent report illegal-only
    sources of income-- 42 percent report both
    legal and illegal sources-- 2 percent report no
    income-- 30 percent of illegal income was
    generated from property crimes 42 percent was
    from commercial sex

Source NIDA, Drug Procurement Study.
90
  • Drug-related arrests continue at high levels

Arrests for Drug Abuse Violations (in millions)
Source Uniform Crime Reports, FBI.
91
  • Reason For Drug Arrest

Source Uniform Crime Reports, FBI.
92
  • Less than 7 percent of drug trafficking
    convictions in State Courts are for marijuana


Breakdown of Drug Trafficking Convictions, by Drug
60.2
39.7
63
27.4
6.9
93
  • The total number of people in State or Federal
    prisons or
  • local jails reached more than two million in
    2000. However the rate of annual increase was
    the lowest since 1972.

Federal Prisons 145,416
Local Jails 621,149
Number of Inmates, in Millions
State Prisons 1,236,476
Source Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2001
94
  • The number of Prisoners Serving Time for Drug
    Offenses is Climbing- Up More Than 1000 Percent
    Since 1980

68,360 Drug Offenders in Federal Prison in 1999
251,200 Drug Offenders in State Prisons in 1999
Source Bureau of Justice Statistics
95
ONDCP
  • Drug Treatment

96
  • More than 1 million persons
  • are in treatment, every day

Clients in Specialty Treatment for Drugs and
Alcohol
(one-day census of active clients)
Source Uniform Facility Data Set, DHHS/SAMHSA,
1995-98
97
  • On average, the benefits of drug treatment
    outweigh the costs by a margin of 3 to 1.

Source CSAT, National Evaluation Data Services
Report
98
  • More than half those in treatment are being
    treated in outpatient settings

Percentage of Clients in Treatment, by Facility
Setting
Source Uniform Facility Data Set, DHHS/SAMHSA,
Dec 97
99
  • Presenting problems can include both alcohol and
    other drugs, but illicit drug use is present for
    72 percent of those in treatment

Source Treatment Episode Data Set, DHHS/SAMHSA,
Sept 2000
100
Primary Substance of Abuse for Treatment
Admissions
SOURCE TEDS, 1998
101
Referral source for treatment admissions, by
primary substance
SOURCE TEDS, 1998
102
  • A total of 15.3 million persons were drug or
    alcohol dependent or abusers in the past year.

Number of Dependents or Abusers (in 1000s)
103
  • 4.5 million Americans reported substance
    dependence or abuse in 2000.

Abusers or Drug Dependents (in 1000s)
(nonmedical use)
Dependence or abuse is based on the definition
found in the 4th Edition of the Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV)
104
Only half of those in the household population 12
and older that were drug dependent actually
received drug treatment in the 12 months prior to
the interview.
Percent of Population 12 or Older
.
105
THE EFFECTS OF DRUG TREATMENT LAST
One year after treatment Illicit drug use
decreased 50 percent Illegal activity decreased
60 percent Drug selling fell by nearly 80
percent Arrests by down more than 60 percent
Trading sex for money or drugs down by nearly
60 percent Homelessness dropped by 43 percent
and receipt of welfare by 11 percent
Employment increased 20 percent Source
Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS)
National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study
(NTIES)
106
THE EFFECTS OF DRUG TREATMENT LAST (continued)
FIVE YEARS AFTER TREATMENT Users of any
illicit drugs reduced by 21 percent Cocaine
users by 45 percent Marijuana users by 28
percent Crack users by 17 percent Heroin
users by 14 percent Numbers engaging in
illegal activity significantly reduced 56
percent fewer stealing cars 38 percent fewer
breaking and entering 30 percent fewer selling
drugs 23 percent fewer victimizing others 38
percent fewer injecting drugs 34 percent fewer
homeless
Source Services Research Outcome Study (SROS)
107
  • In summary

Drug dependent people who participate in drug
treatment decrease their drug use decrease
their criminal activity increase their
employment improve their social and intrapersonal
functioning improve their physical healthDrug
use and criminal activity decrease for virtually
all who enter treatment, with increasingly
better results the longer they stay in treatment.
108
ONDCP
  • Supply Reduction

109
  • Interdiction must be included as a key element
    in a comprehensive approach
  • Interdiction alone cannot greatly impact the drug
    flow. It must be supported by other programs
    and approaches, if it is to have the desired
    impact.
  • Without production control at the source, with
    every interdiction the producers can simply
    increase production. We must focus attention on
    destroying the source of drugs in the prime
    source countries.
  • Targeted interdiction based on solid intelligence
    data will have the greatest longterm impact.

110
  • The Source Country Focus
  • Provides for better intelligence, so interdiction
    assets can be strategically placed and
    efficiently used
  • Focuses attention close to where drugs are
    produced, increasing the leverage from each
    action
  • Limits production to maximize the impact from
    interdiction and eradication
  • Interdiction is most effective when it occurs
    closest to the source because alternative
    supplies of coca leaf and base are limited
  • Thus, stopping the flow before the drugs can be
    moved into the broader expanse of the transit
    zone is the most effective strategy

111
  • Breaking Up the Delivery System
  • Our strategy also focuses on breaking up the
    delivery system, at all levels
  • The air bridge between Peru and Colombia has
    historically been seen as the weakest link, and,
    over the years, there has been some success
    there
  • Peru and Colombia end game participation is key
    to success
  • Successfully attacking the air bridge and other
    key supply routes can cause backups all the way
    back to the sources of coca leaf, depress the
    price, and impact profits

112
Global Drug Threat
An estimated 80 of the MDMA (Ecstasy) in the
U.S. is thought to come from the Netherlands
and Belgium
About 278 MT
About 200 MT
90 of all cocaine consumed in U.S. comes from
Colombia
MEXICO
GOLDEN CRESCENT
GOLDEN TRIANGLE
COLOMBIA
75 of the heroin seized in the U.S. comes
from Colombia or Mexico
PERU
About 150 MT
BOLIVIA
  • Cocaine fuels organized crime/violence
    corruption and addiction
  • Threatens regional stability
  • Social costs to U.S. more than 140B/year
  • 52,000 drug related deaths/yr in U.S.

Opium Production
Coca Production
MDMA Production
113
Global Drug Production and Trafficking
MDMA
Amphetamine Type Stimulants
Cocaine
Heroin
Potential Cocaine Production (mt)
114
The Worldwide Cocaine Threat A Hemispheric
Perspective
Worldwide Consumption Increasing 1990 500 MT
2000 600 MT
U.S. Portion of Worldwide Consumption Declining
1990 400 MT 2000 300 MT
All coca grown in the Andean Region
115
Andean Region Coca Poppy Cultivation 1995-2000
Success and Displacement
  • COLOMBIA
  • Coca cultivation increased 166 to 136K
    hectares
  • Cocaine yield per hectare increased 250
  • Opium poppy cultivation reached 2500 hectares
  • Displaced cultivation from Peru and Bolivia
  • Violence increasing as peace process falters
  • and economy lags
  • PERU
  • Coca cultivation decreased 70 to 34K hectares
  • Air-bridge denial and abandonment
  • Alternative development and forced eradication
  • Democratic transition, economy slow
  • BOLIVIA
  • Coca cultivation decreased 70 to 15K hectares
  • Alternative development and forced eradication
  • Sound economic policies but slow growth

ONDCP/FEB02
116
Nature of the Problemand the Interdiction
Response
ARRIVAL ZONE
3 direct
TRANSIT ZONE
21
10
16
50
SOURCE ZONE
ONDCP/FEB02
SOURCE Annual Interagency Assessment of Cocaine
Movement, April 2001
117
ANDEAN POTENTIAL COCAINE PRODUCTION 1995 - 2000
METRIC TONS HCl
930
950
875
825
765
768
TOTALS
1,000
800
435
460
325
240
145
175
600
435
520
580
350
300
400
230
200
215
240
200
150
70
43
0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
118
1999 Estimate of Cocaine Flow from South America

54 percent Mexico/Central American Corridor
119
  • Estimated Cocaine Flow to the United States
  • Calendar Year 1999

75 METRIC TONS DETECTED DEPARTING FOR NON-US
MARKETS
Arrival Zone Seizures
Transit Zone Seizures

MEXICO / CENTRAL AMERICAN CORRIDOR
-60 MT
-37 MT
54 277 MT
512 Metric Tons Depart South America for U.S.
382 MT Potentially Arrives in the U.S.

43 220 MT
-14 MT
-7 MT
CARIBBEAN CORRIDOR
3 15 MT
DIRECT TO CONTINENTAL U.S.
-12 MT
120
1999 COCAINE FLOW DIRECT TO NON-U.S. MARKETS --
75 MT TOTAL
CANADA 7
  • EUROPE 92

ASIA
AFRICA
121
Colombia - Crisis in 1999
  • DRUGS
  • Colombia producing 74 of world coca leaf --
    and 90 of all cocaine HCl shipped to U.S.
  • Cultivation exploding and concentrating in
    isolated, guerrilla-dominated areas east of Andes
  • GUERRILLAS
  • Especially FARC, moving heavily
  • into Colombias expanding
  • drug production
  • Becoming stronger and more
  • capable of attacking government
  • PEACE PROCESS
  • Began in 1998
  • DMZ established
  • Process moving slowly
  • FARC unwilling to make
  • concessions
  • PARAMILITARIES
  • Maintaining some links with COMIL, at
  • least at local level
  • Challenging FARC in the south, and
  • vying for access to drug revenue
  • ECONOMY
  • Going into deep recession, first in 50 years
  • Foreign investment drying up
  • Domestic capital fleeing
  • World bank seeking austerity budget

122
GOC Response - Plan Colombia (July 1999)
Comprehensive Strategy - Peace,
Counternarcotics, Economy - Justice Reform
and Human Rights Goals - 30 reduction in
coca by end of 2002 - 50 reduction in coca
by end of 2006 - Reduce insurgent drug
profits - Increase pressure for real peace
negotiations - Spur economic
growth Estimated Total Cost - 7.5B with GOC
paying 4.0B - First nationwide
counternarcotics effort
123
USG Response - FY 2000 Emergency
Supplemental (July 2000)
  • Amount (1.319B) is in addition to regular
    appropriations
  • Augments existing 300M appropriated for annual
    regional programs (all sources)
  • Expands existing military and alternative
    development programs

TWO MAJOR COMPONENTS
124
Widespread Effects of Narcotrafficking
  • Adversely impacts democracy and social
    development
  • Destabilizes governments
  • Undermines rule of law
  • Exacerbates corruption
  • Distorts legitimate economies
  • Inhibits investment and economic growth

125
Implications for Andean Region
  • Colombias drug-fueled violence, exploding drug
    production,
  • economic distortion and efforts to combat them
    have
  • regional implications and require a regional
    approach

126
SUMMARY
Proposed Andean Regional Initiative supports
seven countries and supports overarching United
States goals in the Andes
  • Promote and support democracy and
  • democratic institutions
  • Foster sustainable economic development
  • and trade liberalization
  • Significantly reduce the supply of illegal
  • drugs to the U.S. at the source, while
  • simultaneously reducing U.S. demand

ONDCP/FEB02
127
  • Overview of Successes Over Time

128
  • Meeting New Challenges
  • Concentration of cocaine industry in Colombia.
  • Adapting programs in Peru and Bolivia.
  • Increasing regional coordination.
  • Countering globalization of drug industries, with
    internationalization of money laundering.
  • Responding to increases/improvements in
    trafficker technology.
  • Continue to improve interdiction performance.
  • Arrival Zone planning and coordination (AZIC).
  • More accurate flow modeling for cocaine, heroin,
    marijuana, and methamphetamine.

129
  • Positive News on Worldwide Opium/Heroin Production
  • For the U.S. heroin market, the predominate
    supplier is Colombia.
  • Mexico also supplies the U.S. market with black
    tar and brown heroin, but there are indications
    that higher purity Mexican heroin is entering the
    market, in competition with high purity Colombian
    heroin.
  • In recent years the UNDCP has reported that the
    worlds largest producer of opium/heroin was
    Afghanistan. Actions in the past year have
    radically reduced production.
  • This success shows what can be done when
    political will and alternative development are in
    place and working together. The lesson learned
    should not be lost, even given the current world
    situation and the impact of terrorism in
    Afghanistan.
  • The following slides illustrate the current
    heroin situation, both in Southwest Asia and
    worldwide.

130
Southwest Asia Opium Poppy Cultivation,
1992-2001A Success for Eradication and
Alternative Development
Hectares
ONDCP/FEB02
131
Afghanistan Potential Opium Production
has dropped to near zero.

Hectares
ONDCP/FEB02
132
Afghanistan vs. the World Opium
Production 1992-2001
Metric Tons
ONDCP/FEB02
133
World Potential Opium Production1991-2001
Metric Tons

5,106
5,082
5,000
4,452
4,263
4,068
3,671
3,441
3,389
3,302
1,264
ONDCP/FEB02
Values for Latin America are projected
134
Source DEA's Federal Drug Seizure System
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