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Cybercrime and Cyberrelated Crimes

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Mere use/presence of a computer does not make a crime a cybercrime ' ... Patriot Act: Magic Lantern, vendor complicity. Back doors: potential for abuse ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cybercrime and Cyberrelated Crimes


1
Cybercrime and Cyberrelated Crimes
2
Background
  • Cybercrime before networked computers
  • Hacker now a pejorative term
  • Computer fraud vs. computer abuse
  • Fraud for gain
  • Abuse for malice
  • Unreported cybercrime

3
Properties of a cybercriminal
  • Are hackers cybercriminals?
  • Precocity, curiosity, persistence
  • Amateur vs. professional
  • Motivation greed? thrills? notoriety?
  • Crimes of opportunity?

4
Famous cybercriminals
  • Kevin Mitnick
  • Robert Morris
  • Onel de Guzman
  • Mafia Boy
  • Dmitri
  • Curador
  • Cults

5
Hacking vs. cracking
  • Hacker enthusiast
  • Cracker destructive hacker
  • White hat vs. black hat
  • General public unaware of distinction
  • Is all hacking criminal?
  • Many IT leaders were hackers

6
Hacking and the law
  • Invasive activity, trespass, both, neither?
  • Early legislation no distinction between
    malicious vs. non-malicious hacking
  • Physical crime distinction between trespass and
    theft or vandalism
  • Distinction not as clear for cyberspace

7
Cybercrime
  • Mere use/presence of a computer does not make a
    crime a cybercrime
  • A criminal act in which a computer is used as
    the principal tool.
  • Computer as a central component
  • Cybercrime can be committed only with computers

8
Three Categories of Cybercrime
1. Cyberpiracy - using cyber-technology in
unauthorized ways to
a. reproduce copies of proprietary software and
proprietary information, or
b. distribute proprietary information (in
digital form) across a computer network.
2. Cybertrespass - using cyber-technology to
gain or to exceed unauthorized access to
a. an individual's or an organization's
computer system, or
b. a password-protected Web site.
3. Cybervandalism - using cyber-technology to
unleash one or more programs that
a. disrupt the transmission of electronic
information across one or more computer
networks, including the Internet, or
b. destroy data resident in a computer or
damage a computer system's resources, or both.
9
Figure 7-1 Cybercrimes and Cyberrelated Crimes
Cybercrimes
Cyberrelated Crimes
Cyberexacerbated
Cyberassisted
Cyberspecific
Income-tax cheating (with a computer) Physical
assault with a computer Property damage using a
computer hardware device (e.g., throwing a
hardware device through a window)
Cyberpiracy Cybertrespass Cybervandalism
Cyberstalking Internet Pedophilia Internet
Pornography
10
Organized cybercrime
  • Gambling, drug trafficking, racketeering
  • Professionals out for gain, more skilled, less
    likely to get caught
  • Law enforcement
  • keystroke monitoring
  • Echelon
  • Entrapment
  • Patriot Act
  • Homeland Security Act

11
Corporate espionage
  • Intercepted cell phone calls
  • Cybertech facilitates espionage
  • Economic Espionage Act of 1996

12
International efforts
  • Jurisdiction where is crime committed?
  • On-line gambling example
  • Cyberspace a place? a medium?
  • ILOVEYOU launched from Philippines, global
    effect, should Guzman be extradited?
  • Prosecution in multiple jurisdictions?

13
Legislation
  • Patriot Act Magic Lantern, vendor complicity
  • Back doors potential for abuse
  • Technology changes too fast for law to keep up
  • COE Convention on Cybercrime

14
Tools to combat cybercrime
  • Encryption
  • Clipper chip
  • Keys held by government
  • Quality unverifiable
  • Potential for government abuse
  • Market impact
  • Strong encryption
  • Violate Fourth Amendment?
  • Will they try again?

15
Tools (continued)
  • Biometrics
  • Eye retina, iris
  • Hand handprints, fingerprints, handwriting
  • Voice
  • Face
  • Super Bowl XXXV
  • Eurodac
  • Effect of 9/11
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