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Beginning of World War II. Lsn 22. Agenda. Europe. Hitler's Rise to Power. Poland. Finland ... Next. World War II. Blitzkrieg in France. The Eastern Front ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Beginning%20of%20World%20War%20II

Beginning of World War II
  • Lsn 22

  • appeasement, Bataan Death March, blitzkrieg,
    Finland, Hitlers rise to power, Japanese
    imperialism, Manchuria, Poland, Russian-Germany
    Non-aggression Pact, Pearl Harbor

  • Europe
  • Hitlers Rise to Power
  • Poland
  • Finland
  • Denmark and Norway
  • Pacific
  • Imperialism
  • Manchuria
  • Pearl Harbor
  • Philippines

Rise of Hitler
  • Treaty of Versailles was very punitive to Germany
  • Unemployment and other issues created conditions
    conducive for Hitler to rise to power

Dec 21, 1931
Rebirth of Germany
  • Hitler reinstituted conscription (after France
    doubled the length of its conscripts service)
    and in March 1936 was strong enough to reoccupy
    the Rhineland
  • In June 1934, Hitler purged many of his
    paramilitary and the SS rose up to replace them

Germanys Increasingly Militaristic Approach
  • In Nov 1937, Italy joined Germany in an alliance
    against the Soviet Union
  • In Mar 1938, Hitler forced Anschluss (union) with
  • On Sept 29-30, the British and French foreign
    ministers attempted to appease Hitler by
    acquiescing to his demand for the Sudentenland
    under the understanding Hitler would make no more
    territorial demands
  • In March 1939 Hitler seized the western part of

Neville Chamberlain
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Continued Aggression
  • Britain and France now knew appeasement would not
    stop Hitler and they pledged to defend Belgium,
    Holland, Switzerland, and Poland against German
  • On Aug 22, 1939, Russia and Germany signed a
    non-aggression pact
  • In the event of a German-Polish war, Russia could
    annex eastern Poland, Latvia, Estonia, and
  • On Sept 1, Hitler invaded Poland

  • The German offensive included heavy air attacks
    against Polish air bases and military targets in
  • Collateral damage and civilian casualties were
  • Britain and France honored their promise to the
    Poles and declared war on Germany
  • Hitler had thought Britain and France would not
    go to war
  • He had said, he had seen his enemies at Munich
    and they were worms

  • Germany bounded Poland on three sides so it was
    easy for the Germans to quickly envelop Poland
  • Furthermore, Poland was one big flat plain with
    its only defensible terrain feature, the Bug
    River, lying too far east to be of any use
  • The Poles choose to use a forward defense which
    allowed the Germans to divide the Polish Army and
    defeat it piecemeal

  • Using blitzkrieg tactics, the Germans broke
    Polish resistance within a week
  • The Poles lost 70,000 killed, 133,000 wounded,
    and 700,000 taken prisoner
  • The Germans lost only 11,000 killed, 30,000
    wounded, and 3,400 missing
  • To make matters worse, the Soviet Union moved
    into eastern Poland on September 17 to protect
    the local population

  • From the very beginning, the Germans began
    implementing Hitlers ideological atrocities
    against the Poles
  • The Polish ruling and intellectual elite was
  • Polish cultural symbols were destroyed
  • The Catholic Church was suppressed
  • Jews were sent to concentration camps such as

  • The Allies were unprepared to launch an offensive
    into Germany at this point in the war
  • Instead of trying to relieve Poland, the British
    and French concentrated on mobilizing and
    preparing to halt the Germans when they turned
    toward the west
  • The failure to exert any real pressure on the
    Germans allowed Germany to continue building its
    industrial might and prepare for its 1940

Russia and Finland
  • In the meantime, the Soviets demanded that the
    Baltic States allow Red Army garrisons on their
  • Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia acceded
  • Then Russia made similar demands of Finland
  • The Finns agreed to cede some territory but
    refused any terms that compromised their

Russia and Finland
  • On November 30, Russia attacked Finland, but
    instead of the expected swift victory the
    Russians met stiff resistance
  • Only after massive artillery bombardments and
    human wave attacks did the Russians finally
    compel the Finns to surrender on March 12, 1940

Finnish infantry passing a destroyed Russian tank
Russia and Finland
  • The Russian Army was plagued by shortages in
    leadership and initiative that resulted from the
    purges of 1937-1939
  • The poor performance made Hitler think the
    Russians would not be much of a challenge if
    Germany invaded

Denmark and Norway
  • Germany quickly moved into Denmark, but had a
    more difficult time capturing Norway
  • In April, British destroyers inflicted severe
    losses on the German Navy at Narvik, including
    sinking half of Germanys destroyers
  • These losses would make it impossible for the
    German Navy to adequately support any upcoming
    invasion of the British Isles

  • Europe
  • Hitlers Rise to Power
  • Poland
  • Finland
  • Denmark and Norway
  • Pacific
  • Imperialism
  • Manchuria
  • Pearl Harbor
  • Philippines

Imperial Japan(Review from Lsn 18)
  • Japan had been becoming increasingly
    imperialistic and increasing powerful
  • In 1894 it won the Sino-Japanese War over control
    of Korea
  • Its victory in the Russo-Japanese War (1904)
    gained Japan recognition as a major imperial
  • In 1936 Japan withdrew from the Five-Power Naval
    Limitation Treaty and began pursuing naval parity
    with the US and Britain

Imperial Japan
  • This aggression against China came to a head in
    the 1930s when for the most part civilians lost
    control of the government and the military in
  • In 1937 Japan engaged in a full-scale yet
    undeclared war in northern China
  • After the capital city of Nanking fell on
    December 13, the Japanese Army embarked on six
    weeks of unspeakable atrocities that came to be
    known collectively as the Rape of Nanking

A Chinese baby cries amid the rubble of the
Japanese bombing of Shanghai
Invasion of Manchuria
  • The Rape of Nanking remains a contentious topic
    but many sources estimate 300,000 Chinese were
    killed and some 20,000 women raped
  • One American who was in Nanking at the time
    wrote, There probably is no crime that has not
    been committed in this city today

Chinese man being beheaded
Imperial Japan
  • Japan continued to see the US and others as a
    threat to its influence in Asia
  • In May 1940, the main part of the US fleet was
    transferred to Pearl Harbor from the west coast
  • The Japanese began developing plans to destroy
    the US Navy in Hawaii

Pearl Harbor
Japanese Navy
  • The Japanese Navy became one of the best
    peacetime navies in history
  • It had detailed plans and training exercises for
    a war against the US in the Pacific
  • On the other hand, the US had recognized as early
    as January 1941 that in the event of a war
    against Germany, Italy, and Japan, the main
    effort would be in the Atlantic and against
    Germany and Italy, rather than in the Pacific
    against Japan

Pearl Harbor
  • On Dec 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked Pearl
  • a date which will live in infamy
  • Americans were taken completely by surprise
  • The first attack wave targeted airfields and
  • The second wave targeted other ships and shipyard

Tactical Damage
  • Eight battleships were damaged, with five sunk
  • Three light cruisers, three destroyers, three
    smaller vessels, and 188 aircraft were destroyed
  • 2,335 servicemen and 68 civilians were killed
  • 1,178 were wounded
  • 1,104 men aboard the Battleship USS Arizona were
    killed after a 1,760-pound air bomb penetrated
    into the forward magazine causing catastrophic

Broader Results
  • In spite of the tactical success, the attack on
    Pearl Harbor was an operational and strategic
    failure for the Japanese
  • The attack failed to destroy the American
    aircraft carriers, fleet repair facilities, or
    fuel reserves
  • The sneak attack galvanized American support
    for entry into the war

Fall of the Philippines
  • Shortly after Pearl Harbor the Japanese made
    initial landings on Luzon, then made their main
    landings on December 22
  • On December 24, MacArthur ordered his forces to
    withdraw to the Bataan Peninsula
  • By April Bataan surrendered
  • By early May Corregidor surrendered

Douglas MacArthur in his headquarters tunnel at
Corregidorin March 1942
Bataan Death March
  • President Roosevelt ordered MacArthur to
    relinquish command to Lieutenant General Jonathan
    Wainwright and MacArthur escaped to Australia
  • 25,000 Americans and Filipinos died on the Bataan
    Death March to captivity

Centrifugal Advance
  • The Japanese attacked Malaya, the Philippines,
    the Dutch East Indies, Wake, Guam.
  • Instead of halting, establishing a defense, and
    pressuring the US to sue for peace (the prewar
    plan), the Japanese decided to extend their
    control over the Pacific, planning operations in
    New Guinea near Port Moresby and against Midway
    (1,300 miles northwest of Honolulu)
  • US achieved a moral victory with Doolittles Raid
    on the Japanese home islands on April 18, 1942
  • Caused minimal damage but humiliated the Japanese
    high command and led them to advance the date for
    their attack on Midway

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  • World War II
  • Blitzkrieg in France
  • The Eastern Front