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Principles Of Engineering

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Table of Contents

- POE Proficiencies
- Lesson 1.3 Engineering Careers
- Lesson 2.3 Excel Data Representation
- Lesson 4.1 Mechanisms Simple Machines
- Lesson 4.5 Control Systems - ROBO Pro
- Free Body Diagrams Practice Problems
- Activity 5.1aWorking with X and Y Components of

Vectors - Truss Calculations
- Practice Exam Problems

POE Proficiencies

- Lesson 1.1 Engineers as Problem Solvers
- 1. Students will have an understanding of

engineering and be able to identify engineering

achievements through history. - 2. Students will be able to identify five

historical engineering role models, including

minorities and women. - 3. Students will be able to identify problems for

engineers to solve in the future. - Students will be able to define attributes

associated with being a successful engineer. - Lesson 1.2 Engineering Team
- 5. Understand that an engineering team must work

together to solve problems, with each team member

having individual and collective

responsibilities. - 6. Understand the role of out-sourcing in the

engineering process, and how effective

communication is essential. - 7. Understand how gender-bias, racial-bias and

other forms of stereotyping and discrimination

can adversely affect communications within an

engineering team. - 8. Understand how ethics influences the

engineering process. - Understand how social, environmental and

financial constraints influence the engineering

process. - Lesson 1.3 Careers in Engineering
- 10. Students will have an understanding of the

difference between engineering disciplines and

job functions. - 11. Students will understand the professional and

legal responsibilities associated with being an

engineer. - 12. Students will research and discover the

educational requirements to become an engineer. - 13. Students will become familiar with an area of

engineering by preparing for and conducting an

interview with an engineer in that field of

engineering.

POE Proficiencies

- Lesson 2.4 Oral Presentations
- 21. Students will design and deliver a

presentation utilizing appropriate support

materials about research they have conducted. - Students will create and assemble support

materials to appropriate demonstrate concepts

used in their presentations. - Lesson 3.1 Design Process
- 23. Students will compose and diagram the product

development lifecycle of an invention of their

choice and report findings to the class. - 24. Students will trace the history of an

invention and evaluate its effects on society and

the environment. - 25. Students will examine the evolution of an

invention to observe and report on how the design

process is applied to continuously redesign and

improve the product. - Lesson 4.1 Mechanisms
- 26. Students will identify and explain the

function of the essential components of a

mechanical system on a display they create. - 27. Students will create a display of a

mechanical system from a household item they

disassemble. - 28. Students will mathematically explain the

mechanical advantage gained and explain the

function of the six different types of simple

machines in a presentation on the SMET device. - 29. Students will apply simple machines to create

mechanical systems in the solution of a design

problem. - Lesson 4.2 Thermodynamics
- 30. Students will conduct an energy analysis on a

section of their home and calculate the heat loss

through walls and windows. - 31. Students will research and evaluate systems

undergoing thermodynamic cycles for efficiency

and present findings to the group.

POE Proficiencies

- Lesson 4.5 Control Systems
- Students will design, diagram and implement a

program to control a device they construct to

perform a sorting operation. - Students will select and apply concepts of

mechanical, electrical, and control systems in

solving design problems. - 43. Students will formulate a plan for evaluating

the functioning of their sorting device and to

make appropriate changes in design, circuitry or

programming. - 44. Students will demonstrate and defend their

solution to the design problem in an oral

presentation to the class. - Lesson 5.1 Statics
- 45. Students will mathematically analyze a simple

truss to determine types and magnitude of forces

supported in the truss. - 46. Students will be able to define, describe and

analyze the stresses and forces acting on an

object. - 47. Students will design, construct and test a

model bridge to support the greatest amount of

weight per gram of bridge mass. - 48. Students will prepare and present a

mathematical analysis of a truss design as part

of a 5 minute oral presentation about their

bridge design. - Lesson 5.2 Strength of Materials
- 49. Students explain the use of factors of safety

in the design process. - 50. Students will be able to explain the

difference between the area of a cross section of

an object and the second moment of the area

(Moment of Inertia) and predict the relative

strength of one shape vs. another. - 51. Students will be able to use a computer aided

engineering package to analyze a shape. - 52. Students will explain the effects that stress

has on a material and explain how the material

will react. - Lesson 6.1 Categories of Materials

POE Proficiencies

- Lesson 6.2 Properties of Materials
- 59. Students will be able to identify and

document the properties of materials. - 60. Students will be able to design an experiment

to identify an unknown material. - 61. The student will be able to formulate

conclusions through analysis of recorded

laboratory test data for presentations in the

form of charts, graphs, written, verbal, and

multi-media formats. - 62. Students will be able to analyze word

problems about forces acting on materials. - Lesson 6.3 Manufacturing Processes
- 63. Students will be able to define and state

examples of the major categories of Production

Processes. - 64. Students will be able to analyze a component

of a product and describe the processes used in

its creation. - 65. Students will be able to interpret a drawing

and produce a part. - 66. Students will give an oral presentation on

the production processes used to create products

from a category of materials and a demonstration

about one of the processes. - Lesson 6.4 Quality Control
- 67. Students will be able to state the difference

between mass and weight. - 68. Students will be able to utilize a variety of

precision measurement tools to measure

appropriate dimensions, mass, and weight. - 69. Students will be able to understand and

explain why companies have a need for quality

control and will describe what customers and

companies refer to when the term quality is

used. - 70. Students will be able to calculate the mean,

median, mode, and standard deviation for a set of

data and apply that information to an

understanding of quality assurance. - 71. Students will be able to explain the

difference between process and product control.

POE Proficiencies

- Lesson 7.1 Reliability
- 76. Students will be able to diagram a system and

identify the critical components. - 77. Students will be able to mathematically

estimate chance of failure of a system given

information on certain components. - 78. Students will list the causes of failure and

be able to propose solutions. - 79. Students will prepare and defend a position

on an ethical engineering dilemma. - Lesson 7.2 Case Study
- 80. Students will research the engineering,

legal, social, and ethical issues related to a

final design developed in a case study. - 81. Students will analyze an engineering failure

for the purpose of presenting an aural report

which identifies causes, damage done, design

failures, and other areas where the failure has

impacted the environment or society. - 82. Students will prepare a written report

explaining their analysis of an engineering

failure. - Lesson 8.1 Linear Motion
- 83. Students will be able to explain the

difference between distance traveled and

displacement. - 84. Students will design and build a device for

the purpose of conducting experiments of

acceleration, displacement, and velocity.

Engineering Careers

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- Type brief description
- Type Name of Career
- Type brief description
- Type Name of Career

Lesson 2.3 Data Representation and Presentation

Key Terms

- Directions
- Use the Internet to identify the definitions of

the terms below. - Add a link to this slide in your table of

contents named Key Terms Lesson 2.3 Data

Representation and Presentation - (Delete this text box once you get started and

stretch the text box below to fill the slide)

- Bar Chart
- Cell
- Chart
- Data
- Graph
- Histogram
- Line Graph
- Pictograph
- Pie Chart
- Plotting
- Qualitative
- Quantitative
- Spreadsheet
- Statistics
- Table

Lesson 4.1 Mechanisms Simple MachinesKey

Terms

- Directions
- Use the Internet to identify the definitions of

the terms below. - Add a link to this slide in your table of

contents named Lesson 4.1 - Mechanisms - (Delete this text box once you get started and

stretch the text box below to fill the slide)

- Cam
- Crankshaft
- Force
- Friction
- Gear
- Gear Train
- Inclined Plane
- Kinetic Energy
- Lever
- Linkage
- Mass
- Mechanical Energy
- Pitch
- Potential Energy
- Pulley
- Screw
- Simple Machine
- Compound Machine
- Spring

Levers

G U E S S

G U E S S

G U E S S

G U E S S

G U E S S

G U E S S

GUESS Method Wheel and Axle

1. A wheel is used to turn a valve stem on a

water valve. If the wheel radius is 1 foot and

the axle radius is .5 inches, what is the

mechanical advantage of the wheel and axle?

G) U) E) S) S)

Wheel Radius 1

Axle Radius .5

GUESS Method Wheel and Axle

2. How much resistance force can be overcome when

an effort of 80 lbs is applied to the wheel of

the water valve in problem 1?

Effort 80 lbs.

G) U) E) S) S)

Wheel Radius 1

Axle Radius .5

GUESS Method Wheel and Axle

3. What is the linear distance traveled when a

2.5 diameter wheel makes one revolution?

Linear distance of one revolution is equal to the

circumference of the wheel.

G) U) E) S) S)

Dia. 2.5

GUESS Method Wheel and Axle

4. On an automobile how could you increase the

distance traveled for each revolution of the axle

while keeping bearing friction constant?

GUESS Method Pulley Problems

1. Using a block and tackle pulley system,

determine the number of strands that will be

needed to lift a weight of 1092 lbs. by applying

80 pounds of force.

G) U) E) S) S)

GUESS Method Pulley Problems

2. Using a block and tackle pulley system, with 7

strands and an input force of 45 pounds, what is

the maximum weight that can be lifted?

G) U) E) S) S)

GUESS Method Inclined Plane

1. Using the diagram below find the force and

mechanical advantage. Be sure to show your work

and use the GUESS Method.

Mechanical Advantage G) U) E) S) S)

Force G) U) E) S) S)

GUESS Method Inclined Plane

2. Using the diagram below find the mechanical

advantage and effort needed to move the object up

the inclined plane. Be sure to show your work

and use the GUESS Method.

Mechanical Advantage G) U) E) S) S)

Force G) U) E) S) S)

Activity 4.1d Pulley and Gear Problems

- Unit 4 Engineering Systems

Pulley Problems Use a blank piece of paper to

solve for the unknown quantities in the problems

below. Use the GUESS Method to show the

equations and all work.

Solving Problem 1 - Pulleys

Identify how you are going to solve for each

missing variable using the formulas provided.

- Where do I start?
- Start with a problem that you have 3 of the 4

variables given. - Lets start with the Tout.
- List the variables provided and solve for the

missing one.

Formulas Win/Wout Dout/Din Tin/Tout

Din/Dout SR Win/Wout

G D in 2, D out 8, T in 100 U T out E

Tin/Tout Din/Dout S 100/ Tout 2/8 S Tout

400 ft lb

Solving Problem 1 - Pulleys

400 ft lb

Identify how you are going to solve for each

missing variable using the formulas provided.

Whats next? Now solve for Wout. List the

variables provided and solve for the missing

one.

G D in 2, D out 8, w in 200 U Wout E

Win/Wout Dout/Din S 200/Wout 8/2 S Wout

50 rpm

Formulas Win/Wout Dout/Din Tin/Tout

Din/Dout SR Win/Wout

Solving Problem 1 - Pulleys

400 ft lb

50 rpm

Identify how you are going to solve for each

missing variable using the formulas provided.

Whats next? Solve for SR List the variables

provided and solve for the missing one.

G w in 200, Wout 50 rpm U SR E SR

Win/Wout 200/50 4 S 200/50 4 S Speed

ratio 4

Formulas Win/Wout Dout/Din Tin/Tout

Din/Dout SR Win/Wout

Continue this method to solve for each problem.

Gear Problems Use a blank piece of paper to solve

for the unknown quantities in the problems below.

Use the GUESS Method to show the equations and

all work.

Solving Problem 1 gEARS

There are four unknown variables to solve for.

Here is how it is done

GWin1800, Nin12, Nout28 UWout E WinNin

WoutNout S 180012Wout28 S Wout771

G Nout 28, Nin 12 U GR E GR Nout/Nin S

GR 28/12 2.33 S Gear Ratio 2.33

GTin100, Din6, Dout14 UTout ETin/ToutNin/Nou

t S100/Tout12/28 STout 233 ft lb

G GR 2.33, Din 6 U Dout E Dout GRDin S

Dout 2.336 14in S Dout 14in

Lesson 4.5 Control Systems - ROBO ProKey Terms

- Directions
- Use the Internet to identify the definitions of

the terms below. - Add a link to this slide in your table of

contents named Lesson 4.5 Control Systems -

ROBO Pro - (Delete this text box once you get started and

stretch the text box below to fill the slide)

Series Circuit Parallel Circuit Analog

signal Digital signal Switch Loops Variables Trans

istor Photocell Photoconductive

Fischertechnik Interface

Lesson 4.5 Control Systems - ROBO ProFunction

Blocks

- Directions
- Use the Internet to identify the definitions of

the terms below. - Add a link to this slide in your table of

contents named Lesson 4.5 Control Systems -

ROBO Pro Function Blocks - (Delete this text box once you get started and

stretch the text box below to fill the slide)

What block is this and what does it do?

What block is this and what does it do?

What block is this and what does it do?

What block is this and what does it do?

What block is this and what does it do?

What block is this and what does it do?

Lesson 4.5 Control Systems - ROBO ProFunction

Blocks

- Directions
- Use the Internet to identify the definitions of

the terms below. - Add a link to this slide in your table of

contents named Lesson 4.5 Control Systems -

ROBO Pro Function Blocks - (Delete this text box once you get started and

stretch the text box below to fill the slide)

What block is this and what does it do?

What block is this and what does it do?

What block is this and what does it do?

Lesson 4.5 Control Systems - ROBO ProCommand

Buttons

What does this do?

What does this do?

What does this do?

What does this do?

What does this do?

Unit 5 Statics and Strength of Materials-Activity

5.1g Bridge BuildingLearning Activity 1-Build a

Model of a Truss Bridge

- Directions
- Use the Activity sheet provided to identify the

definitions of the terms below. - Add a link to this slide in your table of

contents named Learning Activity 1 Bridge

Building - (Delete this text box once you get started and

stretch the text box below to fill the slide)

Truss Members Tension Compression Structural

Engineer Elevation View Isometric View Top

Chord Bottom Chord Verticals Diagonals Struts Late

ral Bracing Floor Beams

Pinned Connections Gusset Plate

Connections Foundation Abutments Piers Geotechnica

l Engineer Through Truss Pony Truss Deck Truss

Bridge Components

1.

7.

2.

8.

3.

9.

4.

10.

5.

11.

6.

12.

13.

Activity 5.1b Free Body Diagrams

- Student practice problems

Free Body Diagrams Worksheet Problem 1

Draw free body diagrams (force diagrams) for each

of the following

What forces need to be identified to draw the

free body diagram?

What about the normal force of D, G, H on the

spheres?

What about the weight of each object?

B

All of these things need to be taken into

consideration.

H

G

A

C

D

N

N

Free Body Diagrams Worksheet Problem 1

Draw free body diagrams (force diagrams) for

circle A

Isolate circle A

What forces are in the x direction?

What forces are in the y direction?

Dont forget the weight of A!

B is acting on A in both the x an y directions!

B

A

H

G

A

C

D

Free Body Diagrams Worksheet Problem 1

What are the sum of the forces on circle A?

B has forces in both the x and y directions.

FB

Here is how we write the equations

-FBY

?FX0FG-FBX0

FG

A

-FBX

The sum of the forces in the x direction equals

the force of G force of B in the x direction.

?FY0FN-WA-FBY0

FN

WA

The sum of the forces in the y direction equals

the normal force the weight of A, force of B

in the y direction.

Free Body Diagrams Worksheet Problem 1

Draw free body diagrams (force diagrams) for

circle B

Draw each force

Isolate circle B

B

What forces are acting on B from A?

H

G

This includes the weight of B.

A

C

What forces are acting on B from C?

Now calculate the sum of all forces.

D

Free Body Diagrams Worksheet Problem 1

If this object is not accelerating, what are the

sum of the forces on circle B?

What are the sum of the forces in the X direction?

?FX

The sum of the forces in the X direction Force

of FA in the x direction the force of FC in the

x direction.

What are the sum of the forces in the Y direction?

?FY

The sum of the forces in the Y direction Force

of FA in the Y direction the force of FC in the

Y direction the weight of WB.

Free Body Diagrams Worksheet Problem 1

Draw free body diagrams (force diagrams) for

circle C

Isolate circle C

Draw each force

B

What forces are acting on C from B?

H

G

What forces are acting on C from H?

A

C

What forces are acting on C from D?

There is also the weight of C.

Now calculate the sum of all forces.

D

Free Body Diagrams Worksheet Problem 1

If this object is not accelerating, what are the

sum of the forces on circle C?

What are the sum of the forces in the X direction?

?FX

What are the sum of the forces in the Y direction?

?FY

Free Body Diagrams Worksheet Problem 2

Draw a free body diagram for member AB.

What about pivot A?

What is affecting the weight of AB?

Lets start with Cord CB.

The cord is pulling on point B

Vector FD has forces in both the X and Y

directions.

Cord

C

B

D

A

Free Body Diagrams Worksheet Problem 2

Draw a free body diagram for pivot A.

The weight of D causes the following forces on

pivot A.

Cord

C

B

D

A

Free Body Diagrams Worksheet Problem 2

Draw a free body diagram for the forces on

cylinder D.

Cord

C

B

D

What are the forces in the x direction?

What are the forces in the y direction?

What about the force of AB?

A

Free Body Diagrams Worksheet Problem 3

Draw a free body diagram for member AB which is

pin connected at A and supported by member BC.

C

B

Force

A

Truss Calculations

- Practice Problem
- Spring 2006

Practice Problem Test C-Spring 2006 1

- To receive full credit on any problem that

requires calculations, you must - identify the formula you are using
- show substitutions
- state the answer with the correct units.

Practice Problem Test C-Spring 2006 1

1. Study the truss in Figure 1 and its free body

diagram in Figure 2, and answer the following

questions. a. Draw a point free body diagram for

joint C and label all of the given information

for that node (assume all member forces are

tension). 2 points b. Calculate the length

of truss member BC. (answer precision 0.000)

3 points c. Using joint C, determine the

magnitude and type of force (tension or

compression) that is being carried by truss

member BC. (answer precision 0.0) 4 points

Practice Problem Test C-Spring 2006 1-A

FBCX

- Isolate Point C
- What forces are acting on C in the X direction?
- What forces are acting on C in the Y direction?

C

FAC

30

FBCY

F1 100 lbs

FBC

Practice Problem Test C-Spring 2006 1-A

1. Study the truss in Figure 1 and its free body

diagram in Figure 2, and answer the following

questions. a. Draw a point free body diagram for

joint C and label all of the given information

for that node (assume all member forces are

tension). 2 points

Practice Problem Test C-Spring 2006 1-B

1. Study the truss in Figure 1 and its free body

diagram in Figure 2, and answer the following

questions. b. Calculate the length of truss

member BC. (answer precision 0.000) 3 points

Sketch the triangle and label everything you know

about it from the illustration and FBD.

4 ft

Use the GUESS Method! G C 30 , AC 4 ft, B

90 U BC E BC cosine ?ACB x AC S BC

cosine 30 x 4 ft S BC 3.464 ft

A

C

30

B

Activity 5.1aWorking with X and Y Components of

Vectors

Next

Concepts

- To analyze a truss, we must be able to

mathematically relate the angles of a triangle to

the lengths of its sides. - Vectors are described with a direction and force
- Fx force in the x (horizontal) direction
- FY force in the y (vertical) direction
- N metric unit for force (pounds)

Next

- Find the x and y components of vector V.

To find VX, notice there is a right triangle.

The value of the hypotenuse is 5 and the opposite

angle is 30. (SOHCAHTOA) Use sine

VX needs to be broken into its X and Y

components, lets solve for X first

Y-axis

G

Angle 30, V5N

X-axis

U

VX

30?

E

V5N

S

VX 2.5N

VX 5 sin 30 2.5

S

Solution Hint Think of the vector as pointing

southeast. You will need to split it up into its

y component (pointing south, and its x component

(pointing east).

Next

- Find the x and y components of vector y.

To find VY, notice there is a right triangle.

The value of the hypotenuse is 5, the adjacent

angle is 30 and we know the opposite side is 2.5.

(SOHCAHTOA) Use cosine

Y-axis

G

? 30, VX2.5, V5N, 90

VY

U

X-axis

VY

E

30?

V5N

S

VY 5 cos 30 4.3

S

VX 2.5N

Why is this a negative value?

Next

- Find the x and y components of vector W. Can you

predict the solution based on Problem 1? - Use the GUESS Method to show all work

Y-axis

X-axis

30?

W5N

Solution Hint Think of the vector as pointing

southwest. You will need to split it up into its

y component (pointing south, and its x component

(pointing west).

Next Problem

Previous

- Find the x and y components of vector W. Can you

predict the solution based on Problem 1? Use the

GUESS Method to show all work

Nail

30?

30?

30?

V5N

30?

W5N

F resultant force

Next Problem

Previous

- Find the x and y components of vector A. Use the

GUESS Method to show all work

Y-axis

A 50 N

20?

X-axis

Solution Hint Think of the vector as pointing

northeast. You need to split it up into the y

component (pointing north, and the x component

pointing east).

Next Problem

Previous

- Find the x and y components of vector B. Use the

GUESS Method to show all work

Y-axis

B 100 N

15?

X-axis

Solution Hint Think of the vector as pointing

northeast. You need to split it up into the y

component (pointing north, and the x component

pointing east).

Next Problem

Previous

- Two ropes are attached to the screw eye hook in

this picture. Robe B is being pulled with a

force of 100N at an angle of 15 degrees to the

y-axis. Rope A is being pulled with a force of

50 N at an angle of 20 degrees to the x-axis. Use

your solutions from Problems 4 and 5 to find x

and y components of the resultant force, F

Next Problem

Previous

- Two ropes are attached to the screw eye hook in

this shipping crate. Rope B is being pulled with

a force of 5200N at an angle of 30 degrees to the

x-axis. Rope A is being pulled with a force of

3000N at an angle of 45 degrees to the x-axis.

Find the x and y components of the resultant

force, F

A 3000 N

B 5200 N

45?

30?

Next Problem

Previous

- This plane is suspended from the wires shown.

Calculate the resultant forces with the

information provided.

1800 lbs.

1484 lbs.

60?

45?

385 lbs.

90?

2300 lbs.

Previous

Important Key Terms

1.3 Careers in Engineering Engineering

Profession 4.2 Thermodynamics Convection Condu

ction Radiation R-value 4.3 Fluid

Systems Pneumatic Hydraulic Pascals

Law Bernoullis Law 4.4 Electrical

Systems Series Circuit Parallel

Circuit Voltage Current

Important Key Terms

5.1 Statics Torque (Formula/ definition) 5.2

Strength of Materials Moment of

inertia Cross-sectional area 6.1 Categories of

Materials Ferrous Non-ferrous Polymer Organic

6.3 Production Processes Injection

Molder Milling Machine Forging Annealing 6.5

Material Testing Plastic deformation Brittle

material

Important Key Terms

6.4 Statics Torque (Formula/ definition) 7.2

Reliability Product Failure Ethics 7.2 Case

Studies Case Study Design Brief 8.1 Linear

Motion Velocity Acceleration Displacement

Practice Problems

- Simple Machines

2005 B 1

Below are two simple machines. In each case the

weight of the load is 120 lbs. For each one,

identify the type of simple machine (1 pt), the

Mechanical Advantage of the device (1 pt), the

Effort Force, F, needed to support the weight. (1

pt) Show all Work (1 pt each).

- (a) Identify the following
- Simple Machine
- MA
- E
- (b) Identify the following
- Simple Machine
- MA
- E

2005 C 4

The jack pictured below has a ¾-10 screw thread

and a 9-inch effort arm. It can lift an object

that weighs up to 600 lbs. Calculate the

mechanical advantage of this device. 4 points

Picture this as a lever and solve.

Study the technical drawing below, and use

auto-shapes to fill in the missing center lines

and hidden lines in the orthographic views.

Assume the circle represents a thru hole.

2006 B 6

2006 B 7

7a. What class of lever is shown in Figure 5?

Justify your answer.

7b. How much effort force is needed to balance

the 100 lb load? (show work)

Study this technical drawing below, and use

auto-shapes to fill in the missing center lines

and hidden lines in the orthographic views.

2007 B 7

2007 B 8

8a. What class of lever is shown in Figure 5?

Justify your answer.

8b. How much effort force is needed to balance

20.8 pounds of resistance? (answer precision

0.0)