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Principles Of Engineering

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Title: Principles Of Engineering


1
Principles Of Engineering
Your name here
  • Digital Notebook

2
Table of Contents
  • POE Proficiencies
  • Lesson 1.3 Engineering Careers
  • Lesson 2.3 Excel Data Representation
  • Lesson 4.1 Mechanisms Simple Machines
  • Lesson 4.5 Control Systems - ROBO Pro
  • Free Body Diagrams Practice Problems
  • Activity 5.1aWorking with X and Y Components of
    Vectors
  • Truss Calculations
  • Practice Exam Problems

3
POE Proficiencies
  • Lesson 1.1 Engineers as Problem Solvers
  • 1. Students will have an understanding of
    engineering and be able to identify engineering
    achievements through history.
  • 2. Students will be able to identify five
    historical engineering role models, including
    minorities and women.
  • 3. Students will be able to identify problems for
    engineers to solve in the future.
  • Students will be able to define attributes
    associated with being a successful engineer.
  • Lesson 1.2 Engineering Team
  • 5. Understand that an engineering team must work
    together to solve problems, with each team member
    having individual and collective
    responsibilities.
  • 6. Understand the role of out-sourcing in the
    engineering process, and how effective
    communication is essential.
  • 7. Understand how gender-bias, racial-bias and
    other forms of stereotyping and discrimination
    can adversely affect communications within an
    engineering team.
  • 8. Understand how ethics influences the
    engineering process.
  • Understand how social, environmental and
    financial constraints influence the engineering
    process.
  • Lesson 1.3 Careers in Engineering
  • 10. Students will have an understanding of the
    difference between engineering disciplines and
    job functions.
  • 11. Students will understand the professional and
    legal responsibilities associated with being an
    engineer.
  • 12. Students will research and discover the
    educational requirements to become an engineer.
  • 13. Students will become familiar with an area of
    engineering by preparing for and conducting an
    interview with an engineer in that field of
    engineering.

4
POE Proficiencies
  • Lesson 2.4 Oral Presentations
  • 21. Students will design and deliver a
    presentation utilizing appropriate support
    materials about research they have conducted.
  • Students will create and assemble support
    materials to appropriate demonstrate concepts
    used in their presentations.
  • Lesson 3.1 Design Process
  • 23. Students will compose and diagram the product
    development lifecycle of an invention of their
    choice and report findings to the class.
  • 24. Students will trace the history of an
    invention and evaluate its effects on society and
    the environment.
  • 25. Students will examine the evolution of an
    invention to observe and report on how the design
    process is applied to continuously redesign and
    improve the product.
  • Lesson 4.1 Mechanisms
  • 26. Students will identify and explain the
    function of the essential components of a
    mechanical system on a display they create.
  • 27. Students will create a display of a
    mechanical system from a household item they
    disassemble.
  • 28. Students will mathematically explain the
    mechanical advantage gained and explain the
    function of the six different types of simple
    machines in a presentation on the SMET device.
  • 29. Students will apply simple machines to create
    mechanical systems in the solution of a design
    problem.
  • Lesson 4.2 Thermodynamics
  • 30. Students will conduct an energy analysis on a
    section of their home and calculate the heat loss
    through walls and windows.
  • 31. Students will research and evaluate systems
    undergoing thermodynamic cycles for efficiency
    and present findings to the group.

5
POE Proficiencies
  • Lesson 4.5 Control Systems
  • Students will design, diagram and implement a
    program to control a device they construct to
    perform a sorting operation.
  • Students will select and apply concepts of
    mechanical, electrical, and control systems in
    solving design problems.
  • 43. Students will formulate a plan for evaluating
    the functioning of their sorting device and to
    make appropriate changes in design, circuitry or
    programming.
  • 44. Students will demonstrate and defend their
    solution to the design problem in an oral
    presentation to the class.
  • Lesson 5.1 Statics
  • 45. Students will mathematically analyze a simple
    truss to determine types and magnitude of forces
    supported in the truss.
  • 46. Students will be able to define, describe and
    analyze the stresses and forces acting on an
    object.
  • 47. Students will design, construct and test a
    model bridge to support the greatest amount of
    weight per gram of bridge mass.
  • 48. Students will prepare and present a
    mathematical analysis of a truss design as part
    of a 5 minute oral presentation about their
    bridge design.
  • Lesson 5.2 Strength of Materials
  • 49. Students explain the use of factors of safety
    in the design process.
  • 50. Students will be able to explain the
    difference between the area of a cross section of
    an object and the second moment of the area
    (Moment of Inertia) and predict the relative
    strength of one shape vs. another.
  • 51. Students will be able to use a computer aided
    engineering package to analyze a shape.
  • 52. Students will explain the effects that stress
    has on a material and explain how the material
    will react.
  • Lesson 6.1 Categories of Materials

6
POE Proficiencies
  • Lesson 6.2 Properties of Materials
  • 59. Students will be able to identify and
    document the properties of materials.
  • 60. Students will be able to design an experiment
    to identify an unknown material.
  • 61. The student will be able to formulate
    conclusions through analysis of recorded
    laboratory test data for presentations in the
    form of charts, graphs, written, verbal, and
    multi-media formats.
  • 62. Students will be able to analyze word
    problems about forces acting on materials.
  • Lesson 6.3 Manufacturing Processes
  • 63. Students will be able to define and state
    examples of the major categories of Production
    Processes.
  • 64. Students will be able to analyze a component
    of a product and describe the processes used in
    its creation.
  • 65. Students will be able to interpret a drawing
    and produce a part.
  • 66. Students will give an oral presentation on
    the production processes used to create products
    from a category of materials and a demonstration
    about one of the processes.
  • Lesson 6.4 Quality Control
  • 67. Students will be able to state the difference
    between mass and weight.
  • 68. Students will be able to utilize a variety of
    precision measurement tools to measure
    appropriate dimensions, mass, and weight.
  • 69. Students will be able to understand and
    explain why companies have a need for quality
    control and will describe what customers and
    companies refer to when the term quality is
    used.
  • 70. Students will be able to calculate the mean,
    median, mode, and standard deviation for a set of
    data and apply that information to an
    understanding of quality assurance.
  • 71. Students will be able to explain the
    difference between process and product control.

7
POE Proficiencies
  • Lesson 7.1 Reliability
  • 76. Students will be able to diagram a system and
    identify the critical components.
  • 77. Students will be able to mathematically
    estimate chance of failure of a system given
    information on certain components.
  • 78. Students will list the causes of failure and
    be able to propose solutions.
  • 79. Students will prepare and defend a position
    on an ethical engineering dilemma.
  • Lesson 7.2 Case Study
  • 80. Students will research the engineering,
    legal, social, and ethical issues related to a
    final design developed in a case study.
  • 81. Students will analyze an engineering failure
    for the purpose of presenting an aural report
    which identifies causes, damage done, design
    failures, and other areas where the failure has
    impacted the environment or society.
  • 82. Students will prepare a written report
    explaining their analysis of an engineering
    failure.
  • Lesson 8.1 Linear Motion
  • 83. Students will be able to explain the
    difference between distance traveled and
    displacement.
  • 84. Students will design and build a device for
    the purpose of conducting experiments of
    acceleration, displacement, and velocity.

8
Engineering Careers
  • Type Name of Career
  • Type brief description
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  • Type Name of Career
  • Type brief description
  • Type Name of Career

9
Lesson 2.3 Data Representation and Presentation
Key Terms
  • Directions
  • Use the Internet to identify the definitions of
    the terms below.
  • Add a link to this slide in your table of
    contents named Key Terms Lesson 2.3 Data
    Representation and Presentation
  • (Delete this text box once you get started and
    stretch the text box below to fill the slide)
  • Bar Chart
  • Cell
  • Chart
  • Data
  • Graph
  • Histogram
  • Line Graph
  • Pictograph
  • Pie Chart
  • Plotting
  • Qualitative
  • Quantitative
  • Spreadsheet
  • Statistics
  • Table

10
Lesson 4.1 Mechanisms Simple MachinesKey
Terms
  • Directions
  • Use the Internet to identify the definitions of
    the terms below.
  • Add a link to this slide in your table of
    contents named Lesson 4.1 - Mechanisms
  • (Delete this text box once you get started and
    stretch the text box below to fill the slide)
  • Cam
  • Crankshaft
  • Force
  • Friction
  • Gear
  • Gear Train
  • Inclined Plane
  • Kinetic Energy
  • Lever
  • Linkage
  • Mass
  • Mechanical Energy
  • Pitch
  • Potential Energy
  • Pulley
  • Screw
  • Simple Machine
  • Compound Machine
  • Spring

11
Levers
G U E S S
G U E S S
G U E S S
G U E S S
G U E S S
G U E S S
12
GUESS Method Wheel and Axle
1. A wheel is used to turn a valve stem on a
water valve. If the wheel radius is 1 foot and
the axle radius is .5 inches, what is the
mechanical advantage of the wheel and axle?
G) U) E) S) S)
Wheel Radius 1
Axle Radius .5
13
GUESS Method Wheel and Axle
2. How much resistance force can be overcome when
an effort of 80 lbs is applied to the wheel of
the water valve in problem 1?
Effort 80 lbs.
G) U) E) S) S)
Wheel Radius 1
Axle Radius .5
14
GUESS Method Wheel and Axle
3. What is the linear distance traveled when a
2.5 diameter wheel makes one revolution?
Linear distance of one revolution is equal to the
circumference of the wheel.
G) U) E) S) S)
Dia. 2.5
15
GUESS Method Wheel and Axle
4. On an automobile how could you increase the
distance traveled for each revolution of the axle
while keeping bearing friction constant?
16
GUESS Method Pulley Problems
1. Using a block and tackle pulley system,
determine the number of strands that will be
needed to lift a weight of 1092 lbs. by applying
80 pounds of force.
G) U) E) S) S)
17
GUESS Method Pulley Problems
2. Using a block and tackle pulley system, with 7
strands and an input force of 45 pounds, what is
the maximum weight that can be lifted?
G) U) E) S) S)
18
GUESS Method Inclined Plane
1. Using the diagram below find the force and
mechanical advantage. Be sure to show your work
and use the GUESS Method.
Mechanical Advantage G) U) E) S) S)
Force G) U) E) S) S)
19
GUESS Method Inclined Plane
2. Using the diagram below find the mechanical
advantage and effort needed to move the object up
the inclined plane. Be sure to show your work
and use the GUESS Method.
Mechanical Advantage G) U) E) S) S)
Force G) U) E) S) S)
20
Activity 4.1d Pulley and Gear Problems
  • Unit 4 Engineering Systems

21
Pulley Problems Use a blank piece of paper to
solve for the unknown quantities in the problems
below. Use the GUESS Method to show the
equations and all work.
22
Solving Problem 1 - Pulleys
Identify how you are going to solve for each
missing variable using the formulas provided.
  • Where do I start?
  • Start with a problem that you have 3 of the 4
    variables given.
  • Lets start with the Tout.
  • List the variables provided and solve for the
    missing one.

Formulas Win/Wout Dout/Din Tin/Tout
Din/Dout SR Win/Wout
G D in 2, D out 8, T in 100 U T out E
Tin/Tout Din/Dout S 100/ Tout 2/8 S Tout
400 ft lb
23
Solving Problem 1 - Pulleys
400 ft lb
Identify how you are going to solve for each
missing variable using the formulas provided.
Whats next? Now solve for Wout. List the
variables provided and solve for the missing
one.
G D in 2, D out 8, w in 200 U Wout E
Win/Wout Dout/Din S 200/Wout 8/2 S Wout
50 rpm
Formulas Win/Wout Dout/Din Tin/Tout
Din/Dout SR Win/Wout
24
Solving Problem 1 - Pulleys
400 ft lb
50 rpm
Identify how you are going to solve for each
missing variable using the formulas provided.
Whats next? Solve for SR List the variables
provided and solve for the missing one.
G w in 200, Wout 50 rpm U SR E SR
Win/Wout 200/50 4 S 200/50 4 S Speed
ratio 4
Formulas Win/Wout Dout/Din Tin/Tout
Din/Dout SR Win/Wout
Continue this method to solve for each problem.
25
Gear Problems Use a blank piece of paper to solve
for the unknown quantities in the problems below.
Use the GUESS Method to show the equations and
all work.
26
Solving Problem 1 gEARS
There are four unknown variables to solve for.
Here is how it is done
GWin1800, Nin12, Nout28 UWout E WinNin
WoutNout S 180012Wout28 S Wout771
G Nout 28, Nin 12 U GR E GR Nout/Nin S
GR 28/12 2.33 S Gear Ratio 2.33
GTin100, Din6, Dout14 UTout ETin/ToutNin/Nou
t S100/Tout12/28 STout 233 ft lb
G GR 2.33, Din 6 U Dout E Dout GRDin S
Dout 2.336 14in S Dout 14in
27
Lesson 4.5 Control Systems - ROBO ProKey Terms
  • Directions
  • Use the Internet to identify the definitions of
    the terms below.
  • Add a link to this slide in your table of
    contents named Lesson 4.5 Control Systems -
    ROBO Pro
  • (Delete this text box once you get started and
    stretch the text box below to fill the slide)

Series Circuit Parallel Circuit Analog
signal Digital signal Switch Loops Variables Trans
istor Photocell Photoconductive

28
Fischertechnik Interface

29
Lesson 4.5 Control Systems - ROBO ProFunction
Blocks
  • Directions
  • Use the Internet to identify the definitions of
    the terms below.
  • Add a link to this slide in your table of
    contents named Lesson 4.5 Control Systems -
    ROBO Pro Function Blocks
  • (Delete this text box once you get started and
    stretch the text box below to fill the slide)

What block is this and what does it do?
What block is this and what does it do?
What block is this and what does it do?
What block is this and what does it do?
What block is this and what does it do?
What block is this and what does it do?
30
Lesson 4.5 Control Systems - ROBO ProFunction
Blocks
  • Directions
  • Use the Internet to identify the definitions of
    the terms below.
  • Add a link to this slide in your table of
    contents named Lesson 4.5 Control Systems -
    ROBO Pro Function Blocks
  • (Delete this text box once you get started and
    stretch the text box below to fill the slide)

What block is this and what does it do?
What block is this and what does it do?
What block is this and what does it do?
31
Lesson 4.5 Control Systems - ROBO ProCommand
Buttons
What does this do?
What does this do?
What does this do?
What does this do?
What does this do?
32
Unit 5 Statics and Strength of Materials-Activity
5.1g Bridge BuildingLearning Activity 1-Build a
Model of a Truss Bridge
  • Directions
  • Use the Activity sheet provided to identify the
    definitions of the terms below.
  • Add a link to this slide in your table of
    contents named Learning Activity 1 Bridge
    Building
  • (Delete this text box once you get started and
    stretch the text box below to fill the slide)

Truss Members Tension Compression Structural
Engineer Elevation View Isometric View Top
Chord Bottom Chord Verticals Diagonals Struts Late
ral Bracing Floor Beams
Pinned Connections Gusset Plate
Connections Foundation Abutments Piers Geotechnica
l Engineer Through Truss Pony Truss Deck Truss

33
Bridge Components
1.
7.
2.
8.
3.
9.
4.
10.
5.
11.
6.
12.
13.
34
Activity 5.1b Free Body Diagrams
  • Student practice problems

35
Free Body Diagrams Worksheet Problem 1
Draw free body diagrams (force diagrams) for each
of the following
What forces need to be identified to draw the
free body diagram?
What about the normal force of D, G, H on the
spheres?
What about the weight of each object?
B
All of these things need to be taken into
consideration.
H
G
A
C
D
N
N
36
Free Body Diagrams Worksheet Problem 1
Draw free body diagrams (force diagrams) for
circle A
Isolate circle A
What forces are in the x direction?
What forces are in the y direction?
Dont forget the weight of A!
B is acting on A in both the x an y directions!
B
A
H
G
A
C
D
37
Free Body Diagrams Worksheet Problem 1
What are the sum of the forces on circle A?
B has forces in both the x and y directions.
FB
Here is how we write the equations
-FBY
?FX0FG-FBX0
FG
A
-FBX
The sum of the forces in the x direction equals
the force of G force of B in the x direction.
?FY0FN-WA-FBY0
FN
WA
The sum of the forces in the y direction equals
the normal force the weight of A, force of B
in the y direction.
38
Free Body Diagrams Worksheet Problem 1
Draw free body diagrams (force diagrams) for
circle B
Draw each force
Isolate circle B
B
What forces are acting on B from A?
H
G
This includes the weight of B.
A
C
What forces are acting on B from C?
Now calculate the sum of all forces.
D
39
Free Body Diagrams Worksheet Problem 1
If this object is not accelerating, what are the
sum of the forces on circle B?
What are the sum of the forces in the X direction?
?FX
The sum of the forces in the X direction Force
of FA in the x direction the force of FC in the
x direction.
What are the sum of the forces in the Y direction?
?FY
The sum of the forces in the Y direction Force
of FA in the Y direction the force of FC in the
Y direction the weight of WB.
40
Free Body Diagrams Worksheet Problem 1
Draw free body diagrams (force diagrams) for
circle C
Isolate circle C
Draw each force
B
What forces are acting on C from B?
H
G
What forces are acting on C from H?
A
C
What forces are acting on C from D?
There is also the weight of C.
Now calculate the sum of all forces.
D
41
Free Body Diagrams Worksheet Problem 1
If this object is not accelerating, what are the
sum of the forces on circle C?
What are the sum of the forces in the X direction?
?FX
What are the sum of the forces in the Y direction?
?FY
42
Free Body Diagrams Worksheet Problem 2
Draw a free body diagram for member AB.
What about pivot A?
What is affecting the weight of AB?
Lets start with Cord CB.
The cord is pulling on point B
Vector FD has forces in both the X and Y
directions.
Cord
C
B
D
A
43
Free Body Diagrams Worksheet Problem 2
Draw a free body diagram for pivot A.
The weight of D causes the following forces on
pivot A.
Cord
C
B
D
A
44
Free Body Diagrams Worksheet Problem 2
Draw a free body diagram for the forces on
cylinder D.
Cord
C
B
D
What are the forces in the x direction?
What are the forces in the y direction?
What about the force of AB?
A
45
Free Body Diagrams Worksheet Problem 3
Draw a free body diagram for member AB which is
pin connected at A and supported by member BC.
C
B
Force
A
46
Truss Calculations
  • Practice Problem
  • Spring 2006

47
Practice Problem Test C-Spring 2006 1
  • To receive full credit on any problem that
    requires calculations, you must
  • identify the formula you are using
  • show substitutions
  • state the answer with the correct units.

48
Practice Problem Test C-Spring 2006 1
1. Study the truss in Figure 1 and its free body
diagram in Figure 2, and answer the following
questions. a. Draw a point free body diagram for
joint C and label all of the given information
for that node (assume all member forces are
tension). 2 points b. Calculate the length
of truss member BC. (answer precision 0.000)
3 points c. Using joint C, determine the
magnitude and type of force (tension or
compression) that is being carried by truss
member BC. (answer precision 0.0) 4 points
49
Practice Problem Test C-Spring 2006 1-A
FBCX
  • Isolate Point C
  • What forces are acting on C in the X direction?
  • What forces are acting on C in the Y direction?

C
FAC
30
FBCY
F1 100 lbs
FBC
50
Practice Problem Test C-Spring 2006 1-A
1. Study the truss in Figure 1 and its free body
diagram in Figure 2, and answer the following
questions. a. Draw a point free body diagram for
joint C and label all of the given information
for that node (assume all member forces are
tension). 2 points
51
Practice Problem Test C-Spring 2006 1-B
1. Study the truss in Figure 1 and its free body
diagram in Figure 2, and answer the following
questions. b. Calculate the length of truss
member BC. (answer precision 0.000) 3 points
Sketch the triangle and label everything you know
about it from the illustration and FBD.
4 ft
Use the GUESS Method! G C 30 , AC 4 ft, B
90 U BC E BC cosine ?ACB x AC S BC
cosine 30 x 4 ft S BC 3.464 ft
A
C
30
B
52
Activity 5.1aWorking with X and Y Components of
Vectors
Next
53
Concepts
  • To analyze a truss, we must be able to
    mathematically relate the angles of a triangle to
    the lengths of its sides.
  • Vectors are described with a direction and force
  • Fx force in the x (horizontal) direction
  • FY force in the y (vertical) direction
  • N metric unit for force (pounds)

Next
54
  • Find the x and y components of vector V.

To find VX, notice there is a right triangle.
The value of the hypotenuse is 5 and the opposite
angle is 30. (SOHCAHTOA) Use sine
VX needs to be broken into its X and Y
components, lets solve for X first
Y-axis
G
Angle 30, V5N
X-axis
U
VX
30?
E
V5N
S
VX 2.5N
VX 5 sin 30 2.5
S
Solution Hint Think of the vector as pointing
southeast. You will need to split it up into its
y component (pointing south, and its x component
(pointing east).
Next
55
  • Find the x and y components of vector y.

To find VY, notice there is a right triangle.
The value of the hypotenuse is 5, the adjacent
angle is 30 and we know the opposite side is 2.5.
(SOHCAHTOA) Use cosine
Y-axis
G
? 30, VX2.5, V5N, 90
VY
U
X-axis
VY
E
30?
V5N
S
VY 5 cos 30 4.3
S
VX 2.5N
Why is this a negative value?
Next
56
  • Find the x and y components of vector W. Can you
    predict the solution based on Problem 1?
  • Use the GUESS Method to show all work

Y-axis
X-axis
30?
W5N
Solution Hint Think of the vector as pointing
southwest. You will need to split it up into its
y component (pointing south, and its x component
(pointing west).
Next Problem
Previous
57
  • Find the x and y components of vector W. Can you
    predict the solution based on Problem 1? Use the
    GUESS Method to show all work

Nail
30?
30?
30?
V5N
30?
W5N
F resultant force
Next Problem
Previous
58
  • Find the x and y components of vector A. Use the
    GUESS Method to show all work

Y-axis
A 50 N
20?
X-axis
Solution Hint Think of the vector as pointing
northeast. You need to split it up into the y
component (pointing north, and the x component
pointing east).
Next Problem
Previous
59
  • Find the x and y components of vector B. Use the
    GUESS Method to show all work

Y-axis
B 100 N
15?
X-axis
Solution Hint Think of the vector as pointing
northeast. You need to split it up into the y
component (pointing north, and the x component
pointing east).
Next Problem
Previous
60
  • Two ropes are attached to the screw eye hook in
    this picture. Robe B is being pulled with a
    force of 100N at an angle of 15 degrees to the
    y-axis. Rope A is being pulled with a force of
    50 N at an angle of 20 degrees to the x-axis. Use
    your solutions from Problems 4 and 5 to find x
    and y components of the resultant force, F

Next Problem
Previous
61
  • Two ropes are attached to the screw eye hook in
    this shipping crate. Rope B is being pulled with
    a force of 5200N at an angle of 30 degrees to the
    x-axis. Rope A is being pulled with a force of
    3000N at an angle of 45 degrees to the x-axis.
    Find the x and y components of the resultant
    force, F

A 3000 N
B 5200 N
45?
30?
Next Problem
Previous
62
  • This plane is suspended from the wires shown.
    Calculate the resultant forces with the
    information provided.

1800 lbs.
1484 lbs.
60?
45?
385 lbs.
90?
2300 lbs.
Previous
63
Important Key Terms
1.3 Careers in Engineering Engineering
Profession 4.2 Thermodynamics Convection Condu
ction Radiation R-value 4.3 Fluid
Systems Pneumatic Hydraulic Pascals
Law Bernoullis Law 4.4 Electrical
Systems Series Circuit Parallel
Circuit Voltage Current
64
Important Key Terms
5.1 Statics Torque (Formula/ definition) 5.2
Strength of Materials Moment of
inertia Cross-sectional area 6.1 Categories of
Materials Ferrous Non-ferrous Polymer Organic
6.3 Production Processes Injection
Molder Milling Machine Forging Annealing 6.5
Material Testing Plastic deformation Brittle
material
65
Important Key Terms
6.4 Statics Torque (Formula/ definition) 7.2
Reliability Product Failure Ethics 7.2 Case
Studies Case Study Design Brief 8.1 Linear
Motion Velocity Acceleration Displacement
66
Practice Problems
  • Simple Machines

67
2005 B 1
Below are two simple machines. In each case the
weight of the load is 120 lbs. For each one,
identify the type of simple machine (1 pt), the
Mechanical Advantage of the device (1 pt), the
Effort Force, F, needed to support the weight. (1
pt) Show all Work (1 pt each).
  • (a) Identify the following
  • Simple Machine
  • MA
  • E
  • (b) Identify the following
  • Simple Machine
  • MA
  • E

68
2005 C 4
The jack pictured below has a ¾-10 screw thread
and a 9-inch effort arm. It can lift an object
that weighs up to 600 lbs. Calculate the
mechanical advantage of this device. 4 points
Picture this as a lever and solve.
69
Study the technical drawing below, and use
auto-shapes to fill in the missing center lines
and hidden lines in the orthographic views.
Assume the circle represents a thru hole.
2006 B 6
70
2006 B 7
7a. What class of lever is shown in Figure 5?
Justify your answer.
7b. How much effort force is needed to balance
the 100 lb load? (show work)
71
Study this technical drawing below, and use
auto-shapes to fill in the missing center lines
and hidden lines in the orthographic views.
2007 B 7
72
2007 B 8
8a. What class of lever is shown in Figure 5?
Justify your answer.
8b. How much effort force is needed to balance
20.8 pounds of resistance? (answer precision
0.0)
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