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United States Court System

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Courts where a federal case begins. There are 94 District Courts ... Writ of Habeas Corpus 'You have the body', or 'show the body' ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: United States Court System


1
United States Court System
U.S Supreme Court (9 Justices)
U.S. Court of Appeals
U.S. District Court
Federal Crime is Committed
2
Federal Courts
  • District Courts
  • Courts where a federal case begins.
  • There are 94 District Courts
  • Each state has at least one district, many states
    have more.
  • District Courts have original jurisdiction, they
    hear cases for the first time.

3
Federal Courts
  • Court of Appeals
  • Also known as Federal Appeals courts, circuit
    courts (of appeals), or appellate courts.
  • Review decisions made by lower (District) courts.
  • Have appellate jurisdiction, or may hear and
    possibly change a District Courts decision.

4
Federal Courts
  • Supreme Court
  • Hears both original cases as well as appeals
  • Original jurisdiction includes cases with other
    countries and with states
  • Hears appeals cases from appellate courts
  • Last line of appeals for a case

5
Jurisdiction
  • Exclusive Jurisdiction
  • Cases that involve the Constitution automatically
    go to the Supreme Court.
  • Trials are operated based on guidelines set up in
    the Constitution, specifically the Bill of
    Rights.

6
Jurisdiction
  • Original Jurisdiction
  • The authority to hear a case for the first time
  • If you go to court, you will be assigned to a
    court with original jurisdiction.

7
Jurisdiction
  • Appellate Jurisdiction
  • The authority to hear a case after there has been
    a decision already made by a lower court.
  • Appellate courts can uphold, reverse, or remand a
    decision.

8
Jurisdiction
  • Limited Original Jurisdiction
  • Applies to the Supreme Court
  • Original jurisdiction, but only for cases that
    involve other countries, cases against or between
    the states, or direct interpretation of the
    Constitution.

9
Judicial Appointment
  • The Constitution states that the President will
    appoint federal judges.
  • The nominees must be approved by a Senate
    hearing, or a trial held by a small group of
    Senators.
  • Once approved by the Senate, federal judges hold
    their jobs for life, unless impeached.

10
Jury/No Jury
  • District Courts
  • Jury, The first time a case is heard (outside of
    the Supreme Court) it is ruled on by a jury of
    your peers.
  • Appellate Courts and Supreme Court
  • These courts are ruled on by a judge or a panel
    of judges/justices.

11
  • Types of Cases

12
Cases
  • All defendants are assumed innocent until proven
    guilty.
  • Writ of Habeas Corpus
  • You have the body, or show the body
  • Means to request to go personally to the courts
    to determine if a prisoner is being held legally.
    (Link)

13
Cases
  • Civil Suit
  • Non-criminal case that usually involves personal
    property
  • Ruling usually deals with returning property
    and/or money settlements

14
Cases
  • Criminal Case
  • Lawsuit that involves someone committing is being
    charged with a crime
  • Usually brought to court by a prosecutor
  • Ruling can involve jail, fines, restrictions,
    probations, or other various punishments

15
State v. Federal Courts
  • Any case that is not designated a Federal offense
    is heard in a state court. Most cases fall into
    this category.
  • If a case can be heard in either court, the
    courts have Concurrent Jurisdiction.
  • - Example If two people from different states
    are in a money dispute that totals more the
    50,000.

16
State v. Federal Courts
  • Federal Cases
  • Constitution
  • State v. State or occupants of
  • Foreign/International matters
  • Involving Federal Govt

17
How are Decisions Made?
  • 1. Law
  • - Courts interpret federal laws/Constitution to
    determine legality.
  • - Laws are written very generally so judges must
    determine what the law means, what the writers
    intent was, and how it should be interpreted in
    todays society.

18
How are Decisions Made?
  • 2. Precedent/Star? Decisis
  • - Let the decision stand
  • - Judges may use the decision from past similar
    cases to make a decision on the current case.

19
How are Decisions Made?
  • Opinions (Link to Case Opinion)
  • - an opinion (opine) is a professional detailed
    explanation of the decision of the case.
  • - Types of opinions Majority, Concurring,
    Dissenting.

20
Test Study Guide
  • Know levels of courts and types of jurisdiction
  • Understand the appointments process
  • Be able to identify courts with jury or judge
  • Be able to explain civil suits and criminal cases
  • Understand state and federal crimes/jurisdiction
  • Know what tools judges use for ruling on cases
    and how the courts publish those rulings
  • Use the info from these notes for WYMC

21
  • The End
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