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Chapter 13 Terrorism


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Title: Chapter 13 Terrorism

Chapter 13 Terrorism Terrorists
Chapter Summary
  • Chapter Thirteen is an overview of domestic and
    international terrorism.
  • The Chapter begins with a definition of terrorism
    and the extent of terrorism worldwide.
  • Chapter Thirteen then outlines three major
    terrorist groups throughout the world.
  • This is followed with a discussion of terrorist
    groups within the borders of the United States.

Chapter Summary
  • The Chapter concludes with possible causes of
    terrorism and how law enforcement is attempting
    to combat terrorism.
  • After reading this chapter, students should be
    able to
  • Define terrorism
  • Explain the difference between terrorists and
    freedom fighters
  • Discuss the extent of terrorism

Chapter Summary
  • Understand Al-Qaeda, the PLO, and Hizballah
  • Discuss terrorism in the United States
  • Explain the causes of terrorism
  • Discuss law enforcements policy for combating

  • Terrorism has a long history
  • The term terrorism itself is believed to have
    originated with the French Revolution.

Terrorism Defined
  • Terrorism is highly organized and conducted
    primarily for political or religious reasons.
  • The FBI defines terrorism as The unlawful use of
    force or violence against persons or property to
    intimate or coerce a government, the civilian
    population, or any segment thereof, in
    furtherance of political or social goals.

Why Terrorism?
  • Terrorism is a tactic used to influence the
    behavior of others through intimidation.
  • Terrorists typically appeal to a higher moral
  • Terrorists strike at innocents because the very
    essence of terrorism is public intimidation.
  • Terrorism has an ultimate purpose.
  • Every time terrorists gain an objective they have
    sought, the rationality of terrorism in
    demonstrated along with its immorality.

Is there a Difference between Terrorists
Freedom Fighters?
  • Freedom fighters are fighters in wars of national
    liberation against foreign occupiers or against
    oppressive domestic regimes they seek to
  • Freedom fighter activity is typically confined to
    third-world dictatorships or one-party states,
    while terrorists operate mostly against liberal
    Western democracies.

Figure 13.1 International Terrorist Attacks,
Source U.S. Department of State (2004). Patterns
of Global Terrorism, 2003.
The Extent of Terrorism
  • Although terrorism has ancient roots, it became
    far more prevalent, deadly, and destructive from
    the late 1960s onward, because
  • The instability experienced by many countries
    following WWII
  • The high point of conflict between the
  • Modern transportation
  • Modern technology

The Extent of Terrorism
  • Of the 74 terrorist groups listed by the U.S.
    Department of State (2003), only three of the
    groups still active originated before 1960.
  • We are seeing fewer terrorists incidents as
    counter terrorism becomes more sophisticated.
  • Although deaths and injuries caused by terrorists
    are matters of grave concern, the damage to a
    society as a whole is more psychological than

Terrorism Common Crime
  • Terrorist organizations must be financed.
  • Funding may come from
  • Governments sympathetic to the cause.
  • Private sympathizers
  • Common criminal activities
  • Nongovernmental organizations

Table 13.1 International Terrorist Attacks,
Year International Terrorism Deaths Homicides in the United States
2000 409 15,586
2001 3,547 16,037
2002 725 16,204
2003 307 16,503
2004 1,907 16,137
Sources 2000 - 2003 terrorism figures from U.S.
Department of State (2004) the 2004 figure from
the National Counterterrorism Center. Homicide
figures from the 2001 through 2005 UCRs.
  • Al-Qaeda is not a single terrorist group but
    rather the base organization for a number of
    Sunni Muslim terrorist groups.
  • Al-Qaeda got its start under Osama bin Laden in
    the late 1980s.
  • Bin Laden and his organization are virulently
    anti-West in general, and anti-American in

Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
  • The PLO serves as an umbrella organization for
    several groups serving a variety of ideologies
    and agendas united by Palestinian nationalism.
  • The PLO was created at the first Arab Summit
    meeting in Egypt in 1964 with the aim of
    liberating Palestine from the Israelis.

Hizballah Party of God
  • Hizballah is the best contemporary example of a
    state-sponsored terrorist organization.

  • It was organized by the Shiite religious leader
    Ayatollah Khomeini to fight the secular rule of
    the Shah of Iran.
  • The more radical among modern Shiites view the
    existence of a Jewish state in an area they also
    consider holy to be an affront to Islam.

Table 13.2 Some Major Terrorist Groups
Group Description Activities Ideology Strength Funding
Abu Sayyaf Philippine radical Islamic group motivated to gain an independent Islamic state in southern Philippines. Engages in kidnapping, bombing, and other criminal activities. Has strong links with al-Qaeda. Nationalist/ Islamic 200 to 500 Self-financed via criminal activity other Islamic groups.
Asbat al-Ansar Lebanon-based Sunni Islamic group that has assassinated Lebanese Shiite religious leaders and bombed symbols of Western decadence such as nightclubs and U.S. franchise restaurants. Islamic About 300 International Sunni networks and al-Qaeda
Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) Founded in 1959 with the aim of creating an independent Basque homeland in northwest Spain and southwest France. Its activities have been aimed primarily at Spanish government officials and security forces, but French interests have also been attacked. Nationalist and weakly Marxist Unknown, but has many supporters in Basque regions Primarily via criminal activity has received training in Libya and Lebanon
Source Department of State (2004). Patterns of
Global Terrorism.
Table 13.2 Some Major Terrorist Groups
Communist Party of Philippines/New Peoples Army Military wing of the Philippine Communist Party. Carries out assassinations and kidnappings of political figures and U.S. military personnel stationed in the Philippines. Maoist 1,000 Criminal activity, contributions, and revolutionary taxes extorted from businesses
Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM) Pakistani group operating primarily against Indian troops and civilians in Kashmir, territory claimed by both India and Pakistan. Has carried out airline hijackings and kidnapping of Westerners. HUM is aligned with al-Qaeda and signed bin Ladens 1998 fatwa calling for war on the United States. Islamic Several thousand Donations from Saudi Arabia and other Islamic states also donations from individuals
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Coalition of a number of central Asian groups opposed to secular rule in Uzbekistan. Responsible for numerous bombing incidents and kidnapping of Westerners. Fought with the Taliban against U.S.-led invasion of Afghanistan. Islamic About 1,000 Support from other Islamic groups and patrons in the Middle East
Source Department of State (2004). Patterns of
Global Terrorism.
Table 13.2 Some Major Terrorist Groups
Jemaah Islamiya (JI) A Southeast Asian network with links to al-Qaeda that has the goal of creating a huge Islamic state composed of Indonesia, Singapore, the southern Philippines, and southern Thailand. JI was responsible for the Bali bombing in 2002 that killed 200 and wounded 300 others. Islamic About 5,000 Middle Eastern and Asian supporters and al-Qaeda
Kurdistan Workers Party Composed of Turkish Kurds seeking an independent Kurdish state in Turkey. Has attacked Turkish diplomats in many countries and attempted to disrupt tourism in Turkey by bombing hotels, historical sites, and kidnapping tourists. Marxist 4,000 to 5,000 Syria, Iraq, Iran
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) Composed of ethnic Tamils seeking an independent Tamil state in Sri Lanka, primarily through the use of bombings and assassinations. The LTTE has refrained from targeting Western tourists for fear of drying up funds from overseas Tamils. Nationalism 10,000 Funds from Tamil communities overseas and some drug smuggling
Source Department of State (2004). Patterns of
Global Terrorism.
Mujahedin-e Khalq Formed in the 1960s to counter the Westernization of Iran under the Shah. It supported the overthrow of the Shah but is presently fighting against Irans Islamic fundamentalist regime. Carries out attacks on Iranian diplomats and Iranian property. A mixture of Marxism and Islam Several thousand Contributions from Iranian expatriates
National Liberation Army Columbian Marxist group formed by urban intellectuals inspired by Fidel Castro and legendary terrorist Che Guevara. Engages in kidnapping, bombing, and extortion. Attacks foreigners and Columbian infrastructure. Marxist 3,000 to 5,000 Criminal activity (drug trafficking and extortion) and some aid from Cuba
Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) Formed in late 1960s to destroy existing Peruvian institutions and replace them with a peasant revolutionary regime. Almost all Peruvian institutions have been brutally targeted in Peru and abroad. Marxist/ Maoist 2,000 Mostly drug trafficking and other forms of crime
Turkish Hizballah Kurdish Sunni Islamic group that arose in opposition to the Marxist Kurdish Workers Partys (KWPs) actions against Muslims. Fights against KWP and Turkish armed forces. Bombs any establishment considered anti-Islamic. Kidnapped, tortured, and murdered at least 70 businessmen and journalists in the 1990s. Islamic A few hundred several thousand supporters Unknown
Terrorism in the United States
  • Left-wing terrorism in the United States became
    active during the turmoil of the 1960s.
  • Some left-wing terrorist groups in the United
  • Weather Underground
  • May 19 Communist Organization
  • Revolutionary Armed Task Force
  • Black Liberation Army

Ideological Right-Wing
  • Most right-wing American groups characterized as
    terrorist are extremist rather than terrorist
    groups in that they hold views that are to the
    extreme right of mainstream.
  • Some right-wing terrorist groups in the United
    States Aryan Nations

Special-Issue Domestic Terrorism
  • There are a number of groups in the United States
    that employ terrorist tactics that have no grand
    sociopolitical agenda but rather seek to resolve
    special issues
  • Animal Liberation Front
  • Earth Liberation Front
  • Anti-Abortion Groups

Theories about the Causes of Terrorism
  • Terrorism cannot be understood without
    understanding the specific historical, social,
    political, and economic conditions behind the
    emergence of each terrorist group.
  • The groups originated in response to some
    perceived injustice.

Theories about the Causes of Terrorism
  • Many Islamic terrorists are recruited from
    religious schools known as madrasas.

Is there a Terrorist Personality?
  • No study of terrorist psychology has ever
    produced a psychological profile leading the
    majority of terrorist experts to suspect that
    there is any such thing as a terrorist
  • Terrorist groups live on the fringes of the host
    society espouse a violently radical vision of
  • We should look at what terrorist groups have to
    offer if we want to understand why individuals
    join them.

Is there a Terrorist Personality?
  • The terrorist group is made up of three types of
  • The charismatic leader is socially alienated,
    narcissistic, arrogant, and intelligent.
  • Antisocial individuals have opportunities in
    terrorist groups to use force and violence to
    further their own personal goals.
  • The majority of terrorists are simple followers
    who see the world purely in black and white and
    have deep needs for acceptance.

Becoming a Terrorist
  • The bulk of terrorists are probably better
    characterized as crusaders convinced of the moral
    rightness of their cause.
  • The willingness to perform terrorist acts may
    reflect a process of moral disengagement more
    than a manifestation of pathological and/or
    criminal traits the individual brings to the
    terrorist group.

Law Enforcement Response Government Policy
  • There are a number of ways a democracy can
    respond to terrorism, ranging from making
    concessions to military intervention.
  • Concessions are only likely when there is moral
    substance to the terrorist cause, or when such
    concessions are reasonable.
  • Military intervention may be used when the
    terrorist threat is too big for civilian
    authorities to handle.

Law Enforcement Response Government Policy
  • The principle of international law obliges
    countries to either extradite terrorists to the
    country where their crimes were committed or to
    punish them themselves.
  • The mission of the Department of Homeland
    Security is to detect, prevent, prepare for, and
    recover from terrorist attacks within the United

Law Enforcement Response Government Policy
  • The US Patriot Act grants federal agencies
    greater authority to track intercept private
    communications, greater powers to the treasury
    Department to combat corruption prevent money
    laundering, creates new crimes, penalties, and
    procedures for use against domestic foreign
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