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Vitamins

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Some may be synthesized by the body using precursors or 'Pro-Vitamins' ... Most vitamins originate from plant sources (except B12) as byproducts of photosynthesis. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Vitamins


1
Vitamins
  • Chapter 6

2
Vitamins
  • Essential organic substances
  • Needed in minute amounts
  • Activate highly specific metabolic functions in
    the body
  • Usually do not become part of the product they
    create

3
Vitamins
  • History
  • Greeks Night Blindness
  • Scurvy Military / Sea travel
  • Beriberi (Nerve Disease) 1911 Cured by Casmir
    Funk isolated thiamine from rice.

4
Vitamins
  • Accessory nutrients
  • Supply no energy
  • Form no structures
  • No substantial mass
  • Deficiencies can be very dangerous however, some
    may become toxic in excess.

5
Vitamins
  • Most vitamins must be consumed (Preformed
    Vitamin)
  • Some may be synthesized by the body using
    precursors or Pro-Vitamins

6
There is no advantage to consuming vitamins in
food vs. supplement form!Unless they are not in
an absorbable form
7
Classification of Vitamins
  • Fat Soluble
  • Stored in liver and adipose
  • Body has no way of removing them until used.
  • Vitamins A,D,E, K

8
Vitamin Toxicity
  • Often takes years
  • Often brought on by consuming mega dose
    supplements
  • Can be very harmful

9
Classification of Vitamins
  • Water Soluble
  • Not stored in tissues
  • Excess voided in urine
  • Vitamin C, B1 (thiamine), B2 (niacin), B6
    (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalt), pantothenic acid,
    folic acid, biotin.

10
Where do Vitamins come from?
  • Ingested
  • Most vitamins originate from plant sources
    (except B12) as byproducts of photosynthesis.
  • Synthesized (via pro-vitamins)
  • Carotene ? Vitamin A
  • Ultraviolet light ? Vitamin D

11
Recommended Intake
  • Body only requires a very small amount of each.
  • ?g / mg annually
  • Usually supplied easily by diet.
  • Body requires only about 12 oz. Of vitamins from
    the 1820 lbs. Of food consumed annually!

12
Vitamin Supplements
  • Over 70 million people
  • Average cost of 65 / year
  • Often taken in mega doses (10X RDA).
  • 1000 people / year Over Dose
  • 4.2 billion dollars

13
What do Vitamins do?
  • Perform diverse functions!
  • Most evident in metabolic reactions tissue
    synthesis
  • Active people do not need more vitamins, however!

14
Vitamins and Exercise
  • A well balanced diet will provide plenty of
    vitamins for active individuals!
  • Active people require NO MORE vitamins than
    sedentary people!

15
What is an Antioxidant
  • Vitamins C E beta carotene
  • Counter effects of free radicals

16
Free Radicals ?
  • Formed by extra O2 molecules from metabolism.
  • 2-5 of O2 forms HIGHLY reactive molecules
    containing at least one unpaired electron in its
    outer valence shell.

17
Free Radicals
  • Free radicals may damage cell membranes, or
    change chemicals in the body into carcinogens.
  • May also increase oxidation of LDL-C ? CAD

18
Sources of Antioxidants
  • Beta Carotene
  • Carrots, dark-green leafy vegetables, Broccoli,
    sweet potatoes, cantaloupe, papaya

19
Sources of Antioxidants
  • Vitamin C
  • Citrus fruit, cabbage, broccoli, turnip greens,
    cantaloupe.
  • Vitamin E
  • Vegetable oils, wheat germ, whole grain bread
    cereals, dried beans, and green leafy vegetables.

20
Phytochemicals
  • Natural detoxifying agents found in most foods
    containing antioxidants (carotenoids).
  • Supplementation of ?-Carotene Vitamin A alone
    did not ? Cancer or CAD incidence.

21
Folic Acid B6
  • ? risk of heart disease
  • ? damage to lining of arteries
  • ? incidence of blood clots
  • ? growth of SM lining arteries
  • Found in DGLV, WGBC, nuts, seeds, beans, OJ.

22
Advantages of Supplementation?
  • Research has shown no increase in exercise
    performance with vitamin intakes above RDA !!!
  • Low dose supplementation MAY provide protection
    against some diseases???

23
Mega-Dose vitamin supplements are NEVER
recommended!
24
Minerals
  • Chapter 7

25
Minerals
  • Compose 4 of bodys mass
  • Mostly metallic elements
  • Found in enzymes, hormones, vitamins, bone,
    intracellular fluids.

26
Minerals
  • Major Minerals
  • 100 mg / day required
  • (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, S, Cl)
  • Trace Minerals
  • (Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, I, Fl, Cr, Mo, Mn)

27
Bioavalability
  • Some minerals are competitively absorbed.
  • Ca ? Fe Mg absorption
  • Zn ? Cu absorption
  • Vitamin Mineral Interaction
  • Vitamin C ? Fe absorption
  • Vitamin D ? Ca absorption

28
Bioavailability
  • Fiber Mineral Interaction
  • Fibrous Compounds
  • Phytate (grains, coffee)
  • Oxalate (spinach, chocolate, tea, and coffee)
  • Ca, Zn, Mg, Fe bind to these compounds and are
    excreted in feces and urine.

29
Minerals
  • Where do they come from?
  • Earth?Plants?Animals
  • More concentrated in animals sources

30
Minerals
  • Often become incorporated into structures and
    working chemicals of the body .

31
Functions
  • Provide structure to formation of bone teeth
  • Functional role in maintaining
  • Normal heart rhythm
  • Muscle contractility
  • Nerve conduction
  • Acid-Base balance of body fluid

32
Functions
  • Play regulatory role in cellular metabolism are
    important parts of enzymes and hormones.

33
Recommended Intake
  • Usually sufficient in diet
  • Exceptions
  • Iodine in some parts of world (Easily corrected
    by Iodized salt)
  • Iron and Calcium (especially in females)

34
Calcium
  • Most abundant mineral _at_ 1400 g / 1.5 2 of BW
  • Bone Structure (Hydroxyapatite)
  • Muscle contraction
  • Nerve conduction
  • Enzymes, clotting, fluid balance

35
Osteoporosis
  • Brittle bones result of inadequate calcium
    intake.
  • 75 of all adults (especially females) do not get
    sufficient Ca in diet.
  • Caused by body drawing Ca from bones to sustain
    cellular function.

36
Osteoporosis
  • 25 women 65 will suffer a spontaneous
    fracture.
  • Bone loss ? by lack of estrogen.
  • After menopause women lose 1-3 of BMD per year
    !!!

37
Osteoporosis
  • Preventable disease (Dont forget genetics?)
  • Increased Ca intake
  • Estrogen replacement therapy (Risks?)
  • Weight bearing exercise

38
Iron
  • 80 contained in Heme molecules (hemoglobin
    myoglobin).
  • 5 in cytochromes catalyze energy transfer in
    mitochondria (transfer H).
  • 15-20 stored in liver and spleen, and bone
    marrow.

39
Iron
  • 30 50 of American women of child bearing age
    are iron deficient.
  • Leads to Iron Deficiency Anemia (? Hemoglobin)
  • Easily correctable with supplements or diet
    changes.

40
Iron Bioavailability
  • Plant 2-20 absorbed
  • Animal 10-35 absorbed
  • Absorption increased (2-3X) with concomitant
    Vitamin C intake

41
Magnesium
  • Important to ? intake with ? Ca intake
    (supplements).
  • ? Ca inhibits absorption of Mg
  • Found in whole grain products, popcorn, sunflower
    seeds, legumes, vegetables.

42
Sodium
  • Modulates fluid exchange establishes electrical
    gradients across cell membranes.
  • ? intake may induce hypertension in some
    individuals
  • ? arterial tone ? peripheral resistance
  • ? fluid volume
  • Treated with ?Na diet and diuretics

43
Minerals Exercise
  • Mineral loss exasperated by heat.
  • Heat Cramps imbalance of fluid electrolytes
  • Heat Exhaustion Loss of blood volume
    ineffective circulatory adjustments
  • Heat Stroke failure of heat regulating
    mechanisms excessive ? body temp. Circulatory
    collapse.

44
Minerals Exercise
  • May loose up to 5kg of water and 8 g of minerals
  • Easily replaced with proper diet.
  • Sports Drinks are unnecessary.
  • One glass of Orange or tomato juice replaces ALL
    minerals lost during exercise!

45
Water
  • Chapter 8

46
Water
  • Involved in every process of the body
  • Represents large portion of bodys mass
  • Men 57-65
  • Women 46-53
  • Due to differences in Body Composition. Muscle
    has higher hydration level than fat tissue.

47
Water
  • Two main Water Compartments
  • Intracellular fluid (ICF)
  • Extracellular fluid (ECF)
  • Plasma / interstitial fluid
  • Lymph / CSF / Urine / etc

48
Functions of Body Water
  • Serves as Bodys transport medium
  • Gas diffusion / nutrient transport / waste
    disposal
  • Heat dissipation
  • Joint lubrication
  • Provides turgor for cell structure

49
Water Balance
  • Normally about 2.5 L of fluid intake required
  • Water obtained from three sources Liquid, food,
    metabolism.

50
Water Intake
  • Normal 1200 ml/day
  • (? 6X w/ exercise)
  • Food 1000 ml /day
  • Metabolism 350 ml / day
  • Up to 25 of water requirement
  • Combination of H- and O2 as end result of
    metabolism.

51
Water Output
  • Urine (95 H2O) 1500 ml/day
  • ? w/ high protein diets
  • Skin Evaporative cooling 700 ml / day (?
    drastically w/ ex.)
  • Water Vapor Exhaled air 350 ml/day (Varies w/
    climate ex.)
  • Feces 200 ml/day (may ? significantly w/ illness)

52
Water and Exercise
  • Humidity greatly ? H2O loss
  • Ingest 600 ml before exercise
  • Drink OFTEN during exercise!

53
Gastric Emptying
  • Temperature Cold fluids empty faster
  • Volume ? volume faster
  • Osmolarity Emptying is slowed when liquid is
    concentrated with simple sugars.
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