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Chapter One

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Forensic science is the application of science to those ... Polygraph Unit ... in the techniques of criminal investigation, polygraph, and interrogation. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter One


1
Chapter One
  • Introduction

2
Objective One
  • Define forensic science or criminalistics.

3
Definition of Forensic Science
  • Forensic science is the application of science to
    those criminal and civil laws that are enforced
    by police agencies in a criminal justice system.

4
Definition of Criminalistics
  • For many, the term criminalistics seems more
    descriptive for describing the services of a
    crime laboratory.

5
Objective Two
  • Recall the major contributors to the development
    of forensic science.

6
Mathieu Orfila (1787-1853)
  • Father of Forensic Toxicology
  • In 1814 published first scientific treatise on
    the detection of poisons and their effects on
    animals.

7
Alphonse Bertillon (1853-1914)
  • Developed the science of anthropometry, a
    systematic procedure of taking a series of body
    measurements as a means of distinguishing one
    individual from another.

8
Francis Galton (1822-1911)
  • The first definitive study of fingerprints and
    developed a methodology of classifying them for
    filing.
  • In 1892 published a book entitled Finger Prints.

9
Leone Lattes (1887-1954)
  • In 1915, he devised a relatively simple procedure
    for determining the blood group of a dried
    bloodstain, a technique that he immediately
    applied to criminal investigation.
  • Still used today.

10
Calvin Goddard (1891-1955)
  • U.S. Army colonel, who refined the techniques of
    using the comparison microscope to determine
    whether or not a particular gun has fired a
    bullet with one that has been test-fired from the
    suspects gun.

11
Albert S. Osborn (1858-1946)
  • Developed the fundamental principles of document
    examination that was responsible for the
    acceptance of documents as scientific evidence by
    the courts.

12
Hans Gross (1847-1915)
  • In 1893 published the first treatise describing
    the application of scientific disciplines to the
    field of criminal investigation.

13
Edmond Locard (1877-1966)
  • Persuaded the police department in Lyons France
    to give him two attic rooms and two assistants to
    start a police laboratory.

14
Objectives Three
  • Give examples of typical crime labs as they exist
    on the national, state and local levels of
    governments in the U.S.

15
Examples
  • Largest National FBI Crime Lab
  • Oldest Los Angeles Police Dept.
  • Michigan State Police Crime Lab in Lansing

16
Objective Four
  • Describe the services of a typical comprehensive
    crime laboratory in the criminal justice system

17
Physical Sciences Unit
  • Applies principles and techniques of chemistry,
    physics and geology to identification and
    comparison of crime-scene evidence.

18
Physical Science Unit cont.
  • Analyze drugs, glass, paint, explosives, soil,
    and a variety of trace evidence.

19
Biology Unit
  • Staffed with biologists and biochemists.
  • Identification and DNA profiling of dried
    bloodstains and other body fluids, the comparison
    of hairs and fibers, and identification and
    comparison of botanical materials such as wood
    and plants.

20
Firearms Unit
  • Examination of firearms, discharged bullets,
    cartridge cases, shotgun shells, and ammunition
    of all types.
  • Garments are examined for firearm residues and
    distance from a target a weapon was fired.

21
Document Examination Unit
  • The handwriting and typewriting on questioned
    documents are studied to ascertain authenticity
    and/or source.
  • Analysis of paper, ink, and impression on paper
    are studied.

22
Photography Unit
  • Exams and records physical evidence using digital
    imaging, infrared, ultraviolet, and X-ray
    photography to make invisible information visible
    to the naked eye.

23
Optional Services Provided by Full-Service Crime
Laboratories
24
Toxicology Unit
  • Body fluids and organs are examined to determine
    the presence or absence of drugs and poisons.

25
Latent Fingerprint Unit
  • Responsible for processing and examining
    fingerprints.

26
Polygraph Unit
  • Functions are handled by people trained in the
    techniques of criminal investigation, polygraph,
    and interrogation.

27
Voiceprint Analysis Unit
  • Uses sound spectrographs to transform speech into
    a visual graphic display called a voiceprint.

28
Evidence Collection Unit
  • This unit dispatches specially trained personnel
    (civilian and/or police) to the crime scene to
    collect and preserve physical evidence that will
    later be processed at the crime lab.

29
Objective Five
  • Explain the different approaches espoused by the
    Frye and Daubert decisions to the admissibility
    of scientific evidence in courtroom.

30
The Fyre v. United States
  • See page 12
  • To meet the Frye standard, the court must decide
    if the questioned procedure, technique, and
    principles are generally accepted by a
    meaningful segment of the relevant scientific
    community.

31
Daubert v. Merrill Dow Pharmaceutical, Inc.
  • The Supreme Court advocates in Daubert is that
    trial judges must assume the ultimate
    responsibility for acting as a gatekeeper in
    judging the admissibility and reliability of
    scientific evidence presented in their courts.

32
Court Guidelines Related Daubert
  • 1. Whether the scientific technique or theory can
    be (and has been) tested.
  • 2. Whether the technique or theory has been
    subject to peer review and publication.

33
More Guidelines
  • 3. The techniques potential rate of error.
  • 4. Existence and maintenance of standards
    controlling the techniques operation.
  • 5. Whether the scientific theory or method has
    attracted widespread acceptance within a relevant
    scientific community.

34
Objective Six
  • Explain the role and responsibilities of the
    expert witness.

35
Expert Witness
  • The expert witness is called upon to evaluate
    evidence that the court lacks the expertise to
    do.
  • This expert will then express an opinion as to
    the significance of the findings.

36
Objective Seven
  • Review the proper collection and packaging of
    common types of physical evidence as described in
    Appendix I

37
This Will Be A Lab Experience
38
Objective Eight
  • Introduce the student to other areas of forensic
    science that require expertise in a specialized
    area.

39
Other Area of Forensic Science
  • Forensic Pathologists
  • Forensic Anthropology
  • Forensic Entomology
  • Forensic Psychiatry
  • Forensic Odontology
  • Forensic Engineering

40
Special Readings/Assignment
  • Detection of Curare in the Jacalevich Murder
    Trial. Pages 25-32
  • Review Questions Pages 22-24 1-30.
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