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## Flexible Budgets and Standard Costs

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### Identify the benefits of standard costs and learn how to set standards ... Analyze manufacturing overhead in a standard cost system ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Flexible Budgets and Standard Costs

1
Flexible Budgets andStandard Costs
• Chapter 24

2
Objectives
• Prepare a flexible budget for the income
statement
• Use the flexible budget to show why actual
results differ from the static budget
• Identify the benefits of standard costs and learn
how to set standards
• Compute standard cost variances for direct
materials and direct labor
• Analyze manufacturing overhead in a standard cost
system
• Record transactions at standard cost and prepare
a standard cost income statement

3
Static Budgets
Static Budget
(8 Pools)
Expected Output Volume Only
4
Static Budgets
Oasis Pools Comparison of Actual Results with
Static Budget For the Month Ended May 31, 2005
Actual Static Results
Budget Variance Pools
10 8 2
F Revenues 150,000 120,000 30,000
F Expenses 119,000 95,000 24,000
U Income 31,000 25,000 6,000 F
5
Static versus Flexible Budgets
Flexible Budget
(5 Pools)
(8 Pools)
(10 Pools)
Range of Output Volumes
6
Flexible Budgets
Budgeted sales price per pool is
15,000. Budgeted variable expenses per pool are
10,375. Total budgeted fixed cost is 12,000.
What are the flexible budgets for Oasis
Pools when expected volume is 5, 8, and 10 pools?
7
Flexible Budgets
Oasis Pools Flexible Budgets
Units 5 8 10 Sales
revenue Variable expenses Fixed
expenses __________________________ Operating
income
8
Graphing the FlexibleBudget Formula
Total cost line
115,750
95,000
Variable cost 10,375 per pool installed
63,875
Fixed cost 12,000 per month
12,000
9
Graphing the FlexibleBudget Formula
The flexible budget graph shows budgeted expenses
for 10 pools.
Variable expenses 103,750 Fixed expenses
12,000 Total expenses 115,750
May actual expenses were 119,000. They exceeded
the budget by 3,250.
10
Oasis Pools Performance Report
Actual Flexible Static
Results Budget Budget Pools
10 10 8 Revenues 150,
000 150,000 120,000 Variable expenses
105,000 103,750 83,000 Fixed expenses
14,000 12,000 12,000 Total
expenses 119,000 115,750
95,000 Income 31,000 34,250 25,000
11
Oasis Pools Performance Report
Want to know why there are variances.
Flexible Budget 34,250
Actual Results 31,000
Static Budget 25,000
3,250 U
9,250 F
Sales Volume Variance
Flexible Budget Variance
Static Budget Variance (6,000)
12
The Flexible Budgetand Variance Analysis
• The flexible budget variance is the difference
between what the company spent at the actual
level of output and what it should have spent to
obtain the actual level of output.
• It highlights the difference between actual costs
and flexible budget costs.

13
The Flexible Budgetand Variance Analysis
• Oasis Pools actually incurred 105,000 of
variable costs to install the 10 pools.
• This was 1,250 more than the 103,750 budgeted
variable cost for 10 pools.
• Oasis Pools also spent 2,000 more than budgeted
on fixed expenses (14,000 12,000).

14
How do managers develop flexible budgets?
• Standard Costing

15
Benefits of Standard Costs
• They help managers plan by providing the unit
amounts, which are the building blocks of
budgeting.
• They help simplify record keeping.
• Standard costs are carefully predetermined costs.
(price standards)
• Standard quantity often is referred to as the
quantity that should have been used. (quantity
standards)

16
Direct Material Variances
• Price Variance measures how well the business
keeps unit prices of materials and labor within
standards.
• Efficiency Variance measures whether the quantity
of materials or labor used to make the actual
number of outputs is within the budget.

17
Price Variance...
• is the difference between the actual price and
standard price of inputs used multiplied by the
actual quantity of inputs.
• Price variance (Actual quantity Actual price)
(Actual quantity Standard price) or...
• Actual quantity (AP SP)

18
Efficiency Variance...
• is the difference between the actual and
standard quantity of inputs allowed multiplied by
the standard price of input.
• Efficiency variance (Actual quantity Standard
price) (Standard quantity Standard price)
or...
• Standard price (AQ SQ)

19
Example of Standard Costing
Variance analysis begins with a total variance
to be explained in this example, 3,250.
Actual variable expenses 105,000 Flexible
budget 103,750 Difference 1,250
Actual fixed expenses were 2,000 more than
budgeted.
20
Materials Variances
Standards
Direct materials cost was 3.575 per cubic
foot. Materials allowed (gunite) was 1,000 cubic
feet per pool.
Actual Results (10 pools were built)
AP paid per cubic foot 3.00 AQ of materials
used 12,000 cubic feet
21
Materials Variances
Price variance ?
Efficiency variance ?
Flexible budget variance ?
22
Direct Labor Variances
• Price Variance measures how well the business
keeps unit prices of materials and labor within
standards.
• Qty x (AP SP)
• Efficiency Variance measures whether the quantity
of materials or labor used to make the actual
number of outputs is within the budget.
• Standard Price x (AQ SQ)

23
Labor Variances
Standards
Direct labor cost was 6,000 per pool. The rate
was 15 per hour. Standard hours per pool were
400.
Actual Results (10 pools were built)
AP (actual rate) was 16.10 per hour. AQ (actual
hours) was 3,800.
24
Labor Variances
Price (or rate) variance ?
Efficiency variance ?
Flexible budget variance ?
25
Flexible Budget Variancesfor Materials and Labor
Flexible budget variance for materials 250
U Flexible budget variance for labor 1,180
U Total variances 1,430 U
Total flexible budget variance 3,250
U Materials and labor variances 1,430
U Flexible budget overhead variances 1,820 U
26
• The flexible budget variance for manufacturing
overhead shows whether managers are keeping total
overhead costs within the budgeted amount for the
actual production of the period.
• The production volume variance arises when actual
production differs from the level in the static
budget.

27
• Oasis Pools allocates manufacturing overhead to
production based on standard direct labor hours
for the actual number of outputs.
• The static budget, which is based on expected
output of 8 pools, is known at the beginning of
the period.

28
Standards
Variable overhead cost was 800 per
pool. Standard hours per pool were 400. Fixed
Actual Results (10 pools were built)
Actual variable overhead was 7,820. Actual hours
were 3,800, fixed overhead was 14,000, and total
29
• In a standard cost system, manufacturing overhead
is allocated to production based on a
• Most companies base their predetermined overhead
rates on amounts from the static (master) budget
which is known at the beginning of the year.

30
Oasis Pools Budget Data for the Month Ended May
30, 2005
Budget type Static
Flexible Pools 8
10 Standard direct labor hours 3,200
8,000 Fixed 12,000
12,000 Total 18,400 20,000
31
Standard variable overhead rate per hour
Standard fixed overhead rate per hour
32
• is the amount of underallocated or overallocated
• This is the difference between actual

33
How much standard overhead is allocated to
production?
Variable Fixed Total
34
• The total manufacturing overhead variance is
split into the manufacturing overhead flexible
budget variance and the production volume
variance.
• Overhead flexible budget variance is the
difference between actual overhead and the
• Production volume variance is the difference
between flexible budget overhead for actual
output and standard overhead allocated for actual
output

35
Oasis Pools a comparison of actual results
with the flexible budget overhead for actual
production
Actual Results Flexible Budget
cost Variable 7,820 8,000 180
F Fixed 14,000 12,000 2,000
U Total 21,820 20,000 1,820 U
Overhead flexible variance is 1,820 unfavorable.
36
Production Volume Variance...
• is the difference between the overhead cost in
the flexible budget for actual production and the
• 4,000 3.75 15,000 standard allocated for
• How much is the volume variance?

37
Flexible budget variance 1,820 U Volume
variance 3,000 F Total 1,180 F
38
Flexible Budget Variance
Flexible budget variance 3,250 U
Materials 250 U Labor 1,180
U Flexible budget for overhead 1,820
U Total 3,250 U
39
Total Variances
• Why was actual income 3,250 less than the
flexible budget for 10 pools?
• Variable costs exceeded the flexible budget by
1,250 and actual fixed costs exceeded the static
budget by 2,000.

40
Standard Costs in the Accounts
What is the entry to record the purchase of
12,000 cubic feet of materials (actual price paid
was 3.00 per cubic foot and the standard being
3.575/cubic foot)?
Materials Inventory 42,900 Direct
Materials Price Variance 6,900
Accounts Payable 36,000 To record
purchases of direct materials
41
Standard Costs in the Accounts
What is the entry to record the transfer
of 12,000 actual cubic feet of materials to work
in process inventory?
Work in Process Inventory 35,750 Direct
Materials Efficiency Variance 7,150
Materials Inventory 42,900 To record use
of materials 10,000 standard cubic feet 3.575
standard price
42
Standard Costs in the Accounts
• Notice that in these entries, the direct
materials price variance is recorded at the time
of purchase.
• An unfavorable variance has a debit balance which
increases the expense.
• A favorable variance has a credit balance in the
accounts and is a reduction in expenses.

43
Standard Costs in the Accounts
• Accounts Payable,
• Accumulated Depreciation,
• and Other accounts 21,820
• To record actual overhead costs incurred

44
Standard Costs in the Accounts
What is the entry to record allocated manufacturin
Work in Process Inventory 23,000 Manufacturing
45
Other Entries
Finished Goods Inventory 118,750 Work in
Process Inventory 118,750 To record completion
of 10 pools
Cost of Goods Sold 118,750 Finished Goods
Inventory 118,750 To record sale of 10 pools
46
Closing Variances
Unfavorable Variances
Materials efficiency 7,150 Labor rate
4,180 Flexible budget 1,820 Total 13,
150
Favorable Variances
Materials price 6,900 Labor efficiency
3,000 Production volume
3,000 Total 12,900
47
Closing Variances
13,150 unfavorable 12,900 favorable 250
unfavorable
Income Summary 250 Net Variance 250 To
close various variances
This entry increases the cost of goods sold.
48
Standard Cost Income Statement for Management
Standard Costing Revenues 150,000 Cost
of goods sold 118,750 Unadjusted income
31,250
Actual Costing Revenues 150,000 Cost
of goods sold 119,000 Adjusted income
31,000
49
Standard Cost Income Statement for Management
• Closing the 250 net unfavorable variance to
income summary increases the cost of goods sold
to 119,000.
• This produces the 31,000 income figure.

50
Review
• Flexible Budgets
• Standard Costing
• Direct Material Variances
• Direct Labor Variances