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Title: Certified Specialist of Wine Study Guide Review

Certified Specialist of Wine Study Guide Review
United States
A Virtual Wine Tour of the United States

  • Wine was made from native grapes as early as
    1560s in Florida, and in Jamestown in 1600s
  • Vinifera successfully planted in Texas/New Mexico
    in 1620s
  • California planted in vinifera in 1770s by
  • In East and Midwest, climate and diseases made it
    difficult for
  • Vinifera, but native labrusca, rotundifolia and
    Euro-American hybrids flourished---although taste
    profile was different
  • In California, climate was much more welcoming to
    vinifera, but far less demand
  • Most vines were Mission, and grown for
    sacramental wine

  • California Gold Rush of 1849 increased demand for
    locally made wine
  • California Immigrants (Italians, Swiss and
    German) began to build wine culture in coastal
  • California vineyards expanded but falling prices
    from overproduction and infestations of
    phylloxera began to hurt the burgeoning industry.
  • Then came Prohibition…

Prohibition and Afterward
  • January 1920 19th Amendment (Prohibition) went
    into effect most vineyards/wineries wiped out
  • A few subsisted on sacramental wine and grape
  • Vine acreage quality plummeted Industry in
    hibernation for 13 years
  • 1933 Prohibition repealed wine begins
    re-emergence nationwide but depression engulfs
  • Cheap sweet fortified wines and bulk wines
    dominate comeback

Prohibition and Afterward
  • WWII Americans return from Europe and exposure
    to better wines while economy improves
  • Boomers come of age More traveled,
    sophisticated, wine and food oriented
  • 1968 Table wines represent 50 for first time
  • Spirit sales begin to decline wine sales (and
    quality) trend upward

Prohibition and Afterward
  • 1970s/1980s Table wines represent 75 of
    total fortified less than 10.
  • Varietal table wines pass generic jug wines in
  • Vineyard sites, importance of place of origin,
    and emphasis on terroir and sense of place
  • In 1978 a new system for designation place of
    origin was introduced AVA

U. S. Label Law
  • Controlled by Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and
    Federal Alcohol Administration Act of 1935
  • TTB Alcohol Tobacco Tax Trade
    Bureau (formerly known as BATF)
  • Label Requires
  • Brand Name
  • Class or Type of Wine
  • Name/Address of Bottler or Importer
  • Alcohol Content
  • Sulfite Statement (if required)
  • Health Warning Statement
  • Net Content of Bottle
  • Plus country of origin and imported by must
    appear on foreign wines

U. S. Label Law
  • Brand Name
  • Usually most prominent item on label
  • Usually producing winery, but many wineries have
    multiple brands, and maintain many DBA Labels
  • Private customers, even individuals, can order
    wines labeled with their own brand name
  • Wine Class or Type
  • Fruit Wine (fruit other than grapes)
  • Rice wine
  • Honey wine (aka Mead)
  • Sparkling Grape Wine
  • Still Grape Wine (generic, semi-generic or
  • Table Wine
  • Dessert

U. S. Label Law
  • Generic Wines (no varietal specification
  • Sake
  • Vermouth
  • Semi-Generic Wines
  • Can be applied to any class or type of grape wine
  • Examples Chablis, Burgundy, Port, Champagne
  • Must be accompanied by appellation of origin Ex.
    Champagne must declare California Champagne
  • Controversial, long standing international trade
  • Constantly being revised and updated
  • Generic/semi-generic cannot be protected as
  • Non-Generic
  • Wines made in the place their name indicates
  • (French, Rioja, Barbaresco, Oporto)

U. S. Label Law
  • Varietal Wines
  • Wines which bear name of grapes from which the
    wine is made
  • When a single variety is named 75 must come from
    that variety
  • Appellation of origin must appear on label
  • Individual states may impose stricter standards
    than federal law requires
  • If two or more varieties named, 100 must be from
    the listed varieties, and each variety percentage
    must be listed (with tolerance of -2)

U. S. Label Law
  • Proprietary Wines
  • Producer or blender may register proprietary name
    as a trademark for exclusive use
  • Should be accompanied by registered () or
    trademark (), or next to a registered trade name
  • Name and Address of Bottler
  • Can be producer, wine merchant or negociant
  • Indicates only where wine was actually bottled
  • Can be trade name or dba name approved by TTB

U. S. Label Law
  • Bottled By… Terminology Codes
  • Produced or made if bottler crushed 75 of
  • Cellared, Blended, Prepared, or
    Vinted if less than 75 crushed and remainder
  • Grown, Produced and Bottled By or Estate
    Bottled bottling winery grew the grapes and
    processed them

Alcohol Content
  • Alcohol given in percent by volume
  • Wines not greater than 14 alcohol allows
    variation of plus or minus 1.5
  • In 46 states designation Table Wine may be used
    in place of percentage for wines of 14 or less
  • Wines greater than 14 alcohol allow variance of
    plus or minus 1

U. S. Wine Laws
  • Sulfite Warning
  • January 9, 1987
  • Wines containing more than 10 ppm sulfur dioxide
    required to carry a label statement Contains
  • Health Warning
  • November 8, 1989
  • Government Warning According to the Surgeon
    General, women should not drink alcoholic
    beverages during pregnancy because of the risk of
    birth defects.
  • Consumption of alcoholic beverages impairs your
    ability to drive a car or operate machinery, and
    may cause health problems.
  • Net Content (Volume)
  • May be on label or stamped in bottle glass

U. S. Wine Laws
  • Terms Not Legally Defined or Controlled
  • Dry
  • Sweet
  • Reserve
  • Special Select or Special Selection
  • Old Vines

American Viticultural Areas
  • An AVA is …a delimited grape growing region
    distinguished by geographical features, the
    boundaries of which have been recognized and
  • Anyone can petition the TTB for an AVA, but
    must show
  • Proposed name is used locally
  • Area relates to geographic features (soil,
    elevation, weather patterns)
  • Boundaries can be found on U.S. Geological Survey

1. The United States (American Wine) 2.
Two/three Contiguous States (Southeastern New
England) 3. A single State (California) 4.
2--3 Counties in same state (North Coast
Counties) 5. A single County (Sonoma
County) 6. A viticultural area (Stags
Leap, Carneros)
AVA Rules
  • State Designation 75 of grapes must be grown in
  • Multiple States All grapes grown in states
  • County 75 of all grapes must be from county
  • Multiple Counties All grapes must be grown in
    counties percentages stated
  • Viticultural Areas 85 of grapes from within
  • Multiple VAs 85 of grapes grown within areas
  • Imported Wines 75 of grapes must be from
    within BATF approved appellations
  • Vineyard Designation NOT CONSIDERED AN AVA!
    If a vineyard/orchard/ farm/ranch named,
    95 must be from that property
  • Vintage Declaration 95 must be from that vintage

NOTE States can require higher standards than
federal law dictates
Multi-State Viticultural Areas?
Only twelve currently designated (and none of
them are in California)
Ozark Mountain (AR, MO, OK) Southeastern New
England (CT, MA, RI) Ohio River Valley (IN, KY,
OH, WV) Mississippi Delta (LA, MS, TN) Cumberland
Valley (MD, PA) Central Delaware Valley (NJ,
PA) Mesilla Valley (NM, TX) Lake Erie (NY, OH,
PA) Kanawha River Valley (OH, WV) Columbia Valley
(OR, WA) Walla Walla Valley (OR, WA) Shenandoah
Valley (VA, WV)
How AVAs Work
John Doe Vineyards is located in the Arroyo Seco
AVA, Salinas Valley, Monterey County,
California. It grows its own grapes as well
as buying grapes from other suppliers
  • As such, it is eligible for the following
  • Rancho Ridge Estate, Arroyo Seco AVA 95 grown
    in named vineyard 85 grown within viticultural
  • Monterey AVA If more than 15 of grapes comes
    from outside the Arroyo Seco AVA but still within
    the Monterey AVA
  • California AVA If more than 15 comes from
    outside the Monterey County AVA, but comes from
    elsewhere in California

An AVA is NOT a designation or endorsement of
quality!!!! It confirms the provenance of the
grapes only.
AVA True and False
Under AVA rules, a Napa winery could produce a
wine that is 85 Chardonnay and 15 Syrah and
sell it as Napa Valley Chardonnay. It is legal
to blend up to 5 of a white wine that is more
than ten years old to a current vintage white
wine---and claim the current vintage for the
resulting blend. Texas produces and sells wines
to large California wineries, which then blend
with their wines and market the wines as
California wines. California wineries must
disclose the varieties and percentages of blends
on their label, either front or back. AVA Rules
control grape varieties, blends, yields, and
viticultural practices such as irrigation,
trellising, and vine density
FALSE, American
Certified Specialist of Wine Study Guide Review
1 Volume Wine Producing State in the U.S.
88 Appellations (and numerous pending)
37 California Counties have one or more
Maritime to Continental Zones
Cool Coasts to Torrid Deserts
California led--and still leadsthe Wine
Revolution in the U.S., and exerts strong
influence on the entire world.
Valley floors to mountain tops
Internationally renowned for its quality and
diversity of style
California Varietal Percentages
  • Chardonnay 19
  • Cabernet Sauvignon 13
  • French Colombard 12
  • Zinfandel 11
  • Merlot 9

VARIES Very general figures based on recent
tonnage reports.
North Coast
  • Contains Californias
  • most significant wine growing regions
  • North from San Francisco Bay to include Napa,
    Sonoma, Mendocino and Lake Counties
  • Defined by Coastal Ranges, Mediterranean
    (maritime) climate, fog patterns and diversity of
  • Microclimates in area support a wide range of

Sonoma County
Marin County
San Francisco Bay
  • Napa Valley

Napa County
  • 1840s George Yount plants grapevines on grant
  • 1861 first Napa commercial winery, Charles Krug
  • 1889 140 wineries in operation
  • 1890s Expansion and over-production saw prices
    plummet then industry struck by phylloxera,
    followed by Prohibition and Depression. Most
    wineries wiped out
  • 1960 Only 25 wineries
  • 1990 Over 200 wineries in the Valley
  • Today home to more than 240 wineries
  • Encompasses 297,000 acres over 35,000 in grapes

C o a s t a l R a n g e
M a y a c a m a s
Geology Counts! Napa County 30 miles long, six
miles wide 32 different soil types
Mediterranean Climate Only 1 of Earths
surface has this climate
San Pablo Bay Pacific Ocean
Napa County AVAs

1.Diamond Mtn. 2.Spring Mtn. 3.Howell
Mtn. 4.Rutherford 5.Oakville 6.Mt. Veeder 7.Stags
Leap 8.Atlas Peak 9.Carneros 10.Wild Horse
Valley 11. St. Helena 12. Yountville 13. Chiles
Region III
Lake Berryessa
Pope Valley
Coastal Range
St. Helena

Chiles Valley

Region II
Mayacamas Mtns.


Sonoma County
Region 1
SF Bay
Napa Valley
  • Napa Valley is 60 miles (100 km) north of San
    Francisco and stretches 30 miles (50 km) in a
    northwesterly direction.
  • Approximately 45,000 acres (about 16,000
    hectares) are planted to wine grapes.
  • Napa Valley is only 4 of Californias total wine

Valley Shape
30 miles
1 to 4 miles
Napa Valley Soil Diversity
  • Over 100 different soil variations with 33
    soil series
  • Carneros and South Napa
  • Marine clays
  • Mayacamas (West side) Sedimentary / Alluvial
  • Vaca Range (East side) Volcanic loams and clays
  • North Napa Volcanic Ash Tufa

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Napa Volcanics
  • Ash
  • Glass
  • Pyroclastic deposits
  • Mudflows
  • Sedimentary rock of volcanic origin

Baked zone (red) below thin beds of tuff and
black volcanic glass
  • Mediterranean, but diverse, able to successfully
    grow many different wine grapes.
  • Limited rainfall (primarily November to April)
  • Consistent growing seasons (approx. 1,400
    degree-days, similar to Médoc)
  • Hot days and cool nights --- Slow ripening while
    maintaining acidity

Marine Influence

Valley Effect
  • What is an AVA?
  • An American Viticultural Area is geographically
    defined by unique soils, climate, and geologic
  • There are 14 approved AVAs within Napa Valley.
  • Each produces wines that express the unique
    combination of soils, aspects, topography and

Napa Valley AVAs
Los Carneros
  • Located along North shores of San Pablo/San
    Francisco Bay
  • Straddles the bottom edge of both Napa and Sonoma
  • Carneros Quality Alliance created separate AVA in
  • Carneros AVA has a distinctive style
  • Cool foggy maritime climate (Type I), ideal for
    cool climate grapes(Chardonnay and Pinot Noir)
  • A preferred grape source, commands top dollar

The name Carneros is derived from the Spanish for
Sheep. General Mariano Vallejo, the last
Mexican governor of Alta California and
subsequently successful Californio rancher and
politician grazed his sheep herds on the
sparse hills of this area. The Carneros symbol
is a rams head.
Sonoma County AVAs
  • Sonoma Valley
  • Sonoma Mountain
  • Russian River Valley
  • Chalk Hill
  • Green Valley
  • Alexander Valley
  • Knights Valley
  • Dry Creek Valley
  • Los Carneros (part)
  • Northern Sonoma
  • Sonoma Coast
  • Rockpile
  • Bennet Valley

Mendocino County
  • One of Californias largest most diverse
    growing regions
  • Far enough away from SF, rugged rural enough to
    miss the initial boom that elevated Napa and
  • Farmers and families produced excellent grapes
    that went into other wineries products
  • Mendocino began to gain prominence for quality
    and style
  • Now several appellations and thousands of acres
    of vineyards, 25 of which are organic

AVAs Mendocino County Anderson Valley Yorkville
Hlnds. Mendocino Ridge Cole Ranch Redwood
Valley Potter Valley McDowell Valley
  • Potter Valley no wineries, good for SB for
    larger appellations
  • McDowell Valley one-winery AVA pioneering
    Rhone-style varieties and blends
  • Anderson Valley very diverse climate.
    Riesling, Gewurztraminer, Chardonnay, Zinfandel
    and sparkling wines
  • do well here
  • Mendocino Ridge Islands in the Sky, a
    series of mountaintop vineyards above the fog
    level at 1200 feet, producing stunning zinfandel

Mendocino AVAs
North Coast
Mendocino Ridge
Anderson Valley
Yorkville Highlands
Cole Ranch
Potter Valley
Redwood Valley
McDowell Valley
Sanel Valley
Ukiah Valley (pending)
Mendocino Ridge Islands In The Sky
Lake County
  • Situated at the North end of Napa County, east of
  • Large area but wine culture is relatively recent
  • Still struggling to establish its identity in the
    wine world
  • Sauvignon Blanc is most significant grape at
  • Three AVAs Clear Lake --around Clear Lake in
    the southern end of Lake County. Standout
    for Sauvignon Blanc Guenoc Valley --another
    one-winery AVA, and fairly large in scope.
    Original property of Lillie Langtrys Ranch.
    Crisp SB, Petite Sirah and Zins are great, and
    CabSauv and Chardonnays are fine as
    well Benmore Valley --tiny AVA in South East
    Lake County approximately 1,000 acres

LakeCounty is experimenting with new
varietals, new blends, and new styles a dynamic
South San Francisco Bay To Monterey
San Francisco Bay
  • Amalgamation of all or parts of 7 different
    counties clustered around SF Bay--San Francisco,
    San Mateo, Santa Cruz (but not including the
    Santa Cruz Mountains AVA), San Benito, Santa
    Clara, Alameda, Contra Costa
  • Critics say too diverse and too vague for an AVA
    Proponents say it helps give identity to area
    (and helps sales)
  • Simplifies coastal appellations, with North,
    SF, Central, South
  • Diverse area, variety of climates and
  • Several smaller AVAs, such as San Ysidro Ben
    Lomond Mt.
  • Two most areas Santa Clara Valley Santa Cruz

Central Coast
  • Central Coast AVA
  • Huge Appellation covering 1.5 million acres
  • Commonly referred to as North Central South
  • North Central
  • Santa Clara Valley AVA, San Benito AVA, Monterey
  • Constellation region Almaden, Paul Masson
  • South Central
  • San Luis Obispo AVA
  • Santa Barbara AVA

Central Coast
  • AVAs
  • Livermore Valley
  • Santa Cruz Mountains
  • Santa Clara Valley
  • San Ysidro
  • Mount Harlan
  • Carmel Valley
  • Santa Lucia Highlands
  • Chalone
  • Arroyo Seco
  • San Lucas
  • Paso Robles
  • York Mountain
  • Edna Valley
  • Arroyo Grande
  • Santa Maria Valley
  • Santa Ynez Valley

Central Coast Monterey
AVAs Monterey Arroyo Seco Santa Lucia
Highlands Chalone Carmel Valley San Lucas Hames
  • Began developing in 60s
  • Visionaries chose it as a perfect example of
    terroir and microclimate
  • On Monterey Bay, one of the coldest upwellings
    on the West Coast
  • Desert air heats up every morning and draws in
    cold air every afternoon
  • Longest, slowest and coldest region --gives more
    fruit hang time and better fruit acids

Carmel Valley
Santa Lucia Highlands?
Arroyo Seco
San Lucas
Hames Valley
Monterey Chardonnay is a decided style intensely
tropical, well-balanced, intense acids, with
elements of pineapple, banana and citrus
Monterey County and AVAs
North Central Coast
South Central Coast
Central Coast San Luis Obispo
  • York Mountain one 30 acre mountaintop winery
    near summit
  • Paso Robles Numerous wineries in the hot, high
    altitude Pass of the Oaks. Excellent warm
    climate varietals (Zinfandel, Syrah). This is
    watershed for Salinas Valley/Monterey
  • Edna Valley Small AVA primarily
  • Arroyo Grande Similar climate to Edna Valley
    and Santa Maria Valley. Chardonnay and Pinot
    Noir the major grapes

Paso Robles
York Mtn.
Edna Valley
Arroyo Grande
Paso Robles Santa Barbara
Central Coast Santa Barbara County
  • Two sub-AVAs Santa Maria Valley and Santa Ynez
  • Two valleys are bordered by San Rafael Mts. to
    the east, Santa Ynez Mts. to the south, and the
    Solomon Hills to the west
  • Santa Maria Valley is cooler and lends itself to
    cool-climate grapes (Pinot Noir, Chardonnay)
  • Santa Ynez is warmer and concentrates on warm
    climate varietals

San Rafael Mtns.
Solomon Hills
Santa Ynez Mtns.
Sierra Foothills
  • East of Sacramento, in Gold Rush Country
  • Gold replaced by agriculture grapes are cash
  • Four AVAs El Dorado --covers most of Amador
    County. Zinfandel is the staple grape, but
    CabSauv, Riesling, Merlot and Rhone varietals
    as well. Fair Play -- sub-AVA of El Dorado
  • Fiddletown --in rolling meadows leading
    to Sierra Nevada Mountains. Much of
    states old vine Zinfandel, Petite Sirah,
    and Rhone-style varietals are grown
    here. Shenandoah Valley, California
    --straddles Amador County and El Dorado AVA.
    Renowned for producing exceptional Zins and
    Rhone-style wines.

Sierra Foothills is one of the earliest areas to
become known for wine, thanks to the 49ers--not
the football team, the original 49ers.
Sierra Foothills AVA
  • Produces less than 1 of California Wines
  • Sierra Foothills AVA
  • Amador County
  • CA Shenandoah Valley AVA
  • Fiddletown AVA
  • El Dorado County
  • Fair Play AVA
  • El Dorado AVA
  • Yuba County
  • North Yuba AVA

Sierra Foothills AVA Varietal Snapshot
  • White grapes 194 acres Red Grapes 2,535
  • Chardonnay 54 acres Zinfandel 1708 acres
  • Sauvignon Blanc 47 acres Syrah 201 acres
  • Viognier 31 acres Sangiovese 160 acres  
  • White Muscat 17 acres Barbera 159 acres
  • Orange Muscat 17 acres Cabernet Sauvignon 83
  • Other 18 acres Cabernet Franc 38 acres
  •   Primitivo 30 acres
  • Merlot 26 acres Petite
    Sirah 17 acres
  • Tempranillo 12 acres
  • Mission 10 acres
  • Other 93 acres

Central Valley
  • 55 total grape acreage
  • Juice, raisins and bulk wine
  • Areas to look for premium wines
  • Lodi (Sacramento Delta Area)
  • Clarksburg
  • Merritt Island
  • River Junction

Central Valley
  • The bulk wine producer of California
  • Hot climate for high-volume production
  • 200,000 acres planted to vines
  • Huge wineries dominate
  • Not considered a high-quality production area
  • Allows bag-in-the-box, jug and volume brands to
    get varieties at considerably lower price than
    areas like the North Coast
  • Lodi AVA
  • San Joaquin Valley

The concepts of low-yield farming, organic
farming, stress-grown grapes, density and such
that most grape growers/winemakers care about
seem to be moot here the grapes thrive on the
irrigated desert conditions and produce
incredibly abundant fruit, but few ever expect
the Central Valley to become a significant
quality producing region.
Southern California
  • Temecula AVA
  • Cucamonga Valley AVA
  • Malibu-Newton Canyon AVA
  • San Pasqual Valley AVA

  • Southeast of Los Angeles
  • Extremely warm, but with moderating maritime
  • Rainbow Gap in Santa Rosa/Santa Margherita
    Mountains allows cool ocean breezes twenty miles
  • Fast draining granitic sand soils washed down
    from mountains
  • Small area, approximately a dozen wineries
  • Production is overwhelmingly white

Certified Specialist of Wine Study Guide Review
Washington Oregon New York
Washington and Oregon
Washington AVAs
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Washington AVAs
  • Columbia Valley AVA
  • this is one of the largest AVAs in the country,
    covering a third of Washington and spilling into
  • Yakima Valley AVA
  • south central Washington
  • Red Mountain AVA
  • SE of Yakima Valley
  • Horse Heaven Hills AVA
  • South Central
  • Walla Walla Valley AVA
  • SE part of the state

Washington AVAs
  • Colombia Gorge AVA
  • South, along Oregon Border
  • Puget Sound AVA
  • Only WA AVA west of the Cascades
  • covers both sides of the Puget Sound from the
    Canadian border to south of Olympia.
  • Wahluke Slope AVA
  • January 1, 2006
  • Native American for Watering Place.
  • 20 of Washingtons production mostly red
    Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah.
  • Lies entirely within the Colombia Valley AVA.
  • The driest and warmest AVA in WA.

Wine Laws
  • In 1999 , Washington Wine Quality Alliance (WWQA)
    was formed to develop standards in winemaking and
  • Wineries do not have to participate in the WWQA
    it is strictly voluntary.
  • WWQA wines must either be produced from 100
    Washington grapes or identify the percentage of
    wine from each source on the label.
  • WWQA defined the word reserve for Washington
  • Must not represent more than 3,000 cases or 10
    of a wineries production
  • indicates the winemakers designation of this
    wine as being of a higher quality of other wines
    from that winery.

Grape Varieties
  • Reds
  • Cabernet 6k acres
  • Merlot 5.9k acres
  • Syrah 2.1k acres
  • Cabernet Franc 750 acres
  • Others Lemberger, Malbec, Sangiovese, Pinot Noir
    and Zinfandel

Grape Varieties
  • Whites
  • Chardonnay 6.6k acres
  • Riesling 2.2k acres
  • Sauvignon Blanc 710 acres
  • Gewurztraminer 670 acres
  • Semillon 550 acres
  • Others Aligote, Madeleine Angevine, Muscat
    Canelli, Muller-Thurgau, Pinot Gris, Viognier and

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Wine Laws
  • Oregon state law requires Pinot Noir, Pinot Gris,
    Chardonnay and Riesling to have a minimum of 90
    to use the variety on the label.
  • Exception Cabernet Sauvignon requires only 75
    for varietal labeling.

  • The Coast Range in Oregon provides a barrier to
    rain and cold off the Pacific, allowing vineyards
    to grow west of the Cascades. The Columbia River
    waterway provides an east-west corridor for
    grapevines along the WA-OR border.

15 AVAs of Oregon
  • Chehalem Mountains
  • Dundee Hills
  • Yamhill-Carlton District
  • McMinnville
  • Ribbon Ridge
  • Eola-Amity Hills
  • Southern Oregon
  • Columbia
  • Walla Walla
  • Columbia Gorge
  • Willamette Valley
  • Umpqua Valley
  • Rogue Valley
  • Applegate is a sub-AVA within the Rogue Valley
  • Illinois Valley is a sub-region of the Rogue

Willamette Valley
  • Largest and coolest of the grape growing areas of
  • This AVA grows
  • Pinot Noir
  • Chardonnay
  • Riesling
  • Pinot Gris
  • Pinot Blanc
  • Gewurztraminer

Umpqua and Rogue Valley
  • Warmer and drier than Willamette AVA, these two
    smaller AVAs grow approximately 1,800 acres of
  • Umpqua focuses on Chardonnay, Pinot Noir,
    Riesling, Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon Blanc and
  • Rogue Valley is even warmer than Umpqua focuses
    on Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Chardonnay, Pinot
    Noir, Cabernet Franc and Sauvignon Blanc

New York and Other U.S. Winegrowing Areas
Eastern U.S. Areas
  • Eastern U.S. has more difficult growing
    conditions than those out West
  • Harsh winters
  • High summer humidity
  • Additional mold, disease and pest problems
  • Native American and French-American
    Hybrids remain prevalent due to resilience in
    difficult climate
  • Vinifera increasing and expanding
  • Southeastern Pennsylvania, Virginia, Finger Lakes
    and Long Island regions are notable for vinifera

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New York
  • Only state east of Pacific Coast regions that
    produces a significant volume of wine
  • In 2000, produced 40.8 million gallons
  • As of 2004, 203 registered wineries (including HQ
    of worlds largest wine company)
  • Because of cold, NY vineyards tend to be located
    near moderating bodies of water


Major Wine Regions
  • New Yorks four major wine regions are
  • Long Island
  • Hudson River Valley
  • Finger Lakes
  • Lake Erie (the region actually spans three
    states, NY, Ohio, PA)

New York
  • Hudson River Valley Region
  • Oldest and smallest appellation in New York
  • Vines were originally planted in 1677 by French
  • Both hybrid and vinifera varieties are grown in
    this area
  • The Finger Lakes
  • Cayuga Lake sub-AVA
  • Seneca Lake sub-AVA
  • A variety of grapes are grown here including
    Chardonnay and Riesling
  • Renowned late harvest and ice wines, generally
    from French-American Hybrids

New York
  • Lake Erie
  • The largest of New Yorks grape growing regions
    but produces the least wine
  • Most grapes are the Concord variety and used
    primarily for grape juice.
  • Long Island
  • Long Island, North Fork of Long Island, The
    Hamptons sub-AVAs
  • The newest New York region
  • heavily planted to Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon.
    Cabernet Franc and Chardonnay.

Seneca Wine Trail, New York
Pennsylvania/Lake Erie Wine Country
Other Areas
  • Missouri
  • Pennsylvania
  • Ohio
  • Arkansas
  • Texas (7 AVAs)
  • New Mexico (3 AVAs)
  • Colorado (2 AVAs)
  • Arizona
  • Bonded wineries are in all 50 states
  • Only 2.3 of total wine is produced outside
    Pacific states and New York
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