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CD and DVD Technology


... disk-digital audio) was introduced to the market jointly by Phillips and Sony. ... Chemical/Verbatim, Philips, Ricoh, Sony, Yamaha and Thomson Multimedia ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CD and DVD Technology

CD and DVD Technology
Where CDs Started
  • In about 1982, the CD-DA (compact disk-digital
    audio) was introduced to the market jointly by
    Phillips and Sony. It stored a high-quality
    stereo audio signal in a digital form. These
    systems became a huge success.

A CD in General
  • CDs hold up to 650-700 Mb of data
  • Can hold 74-80 minutes of audio and non-digital

One CD 7 Zip Disks 450 Floppy Disks
Costs for single disk (at CompUSA)
Costs for 700 MB of storage (at CompUSA)
A CD in General
  • Records information in grooves 1.6 microns wide
  • 1 micron is one-thousandth of a millimeter
  • A human hair is about 50 microns wide
  • Information is read by the amount of surface

A CD in General
  • A CD has a single spiral track of data, circling
    from the inside of the disc to the outside.

A CD in General
  • The fact that the spiral track starts at the
    center means that the CD can be smaller than 4.8
    inches (12 cm) if desired, and in fact there are
    now plastic baseball cards and business cards
    that you can put in a CD player. CD business
    cards hold about 2 MB of data.

Lands and Pits
  • Mass produced CDs are recorded with lands and
  • lands - small bumps
  • pits - small holes
  • Each reflect light differently so they read

A microscopic view of a CD
Popular CD Formats
  • Today CDs are available in the following formats
  • CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read Only Memory)
  • These disks are typically made by a manufacturer.
    You cannot erase the disk or add to it. You can
    only read the data. The standards for this is
    called yellow book
  • CD-R (Compact Disk Recordable)
  • You can record data to this disk (provided you
    have a CD drive and software that can burn
    CDs). Once you record the data, you are done. You
    cant record any more information.
  • CD-RW (Compact Disk ReWritable)
  • With CD-RW drives and disks, you can treat the CD
    just like a floppy or hard disk, writing data
    onto it multiple times. The orange book has
    standards for CD-R and CD-RW.

CD Drives
  • Most common is just the CD-ROM drives
  • Next step up is the CD-R drives
  • Today there are CD-RW drives
  • So be careful in selecting a computer that you
    get the type of drive you really want

CD Drives
  • Drives are classified or graded by
  • 1) How fast they read data
  • 2) How fast they can write data

CD Drives
  • What do all those numbers mean?

Read Speed
Write Speed
ReWrite Speed
Producing CDs
  • You must have a CD drive on your computer that
    has the capability to make a CD
  • You must have software
  • Windows XP has the software built in
  • You basically copy and paste the files you want
    onto the CD

CD Software
  • For older versions of Windows (or if you want
    more and easier options than Windows XP) you need
    CD Burning Software.
  • The most widely used programs are
  • Nero
  • Roxio Easy CD DVD Creator
  • These programs are easy to use. You just drag
    and drop files to the CD window.

The Roxio Screen
Why use CDs
  • Cheap
  • Can hold lots of data
  • Not erased by magnetic fields
  • Can be read by all formats-IBM and Mac
  • Will not degrade

  • Youve seen people watching Austin Powers on
    their laptops. But there is more to DVDs than
    just watching movies

What is a DVD?
  • Digital Video Disc
  • Digital Versatile Disc
  • A high-capacity compact disc. This disc can
    store enough data for a full length movie. You
    must have a DVD disc drive or player to use DVD

DVD Basics
  • Next generation of optical disc storage
  • Encompass home entertainment, computers and
    business information.
  • Replacing CDs, videotape, laserdisc, CD ROM, and
    Video Game Cartridges.

DVD Basics
  • Discs hold about seven times as much information
    as CD-ROMs.
  • 4.7 GB of storage (up to 17 GB is possible)
  • May require special hardware to run.
  • Development of recordable DVD format stunted by
    standards war.

Physical Formats of DVD-ROMs
  • DVD-5 (single-sided/single-layer DVD with 4.7 GB
  • DVD 9, (single-sided but dual-layer disk with
    8.5 GB storage)
  • DVD-10 (double-sided/dual-layer, 9.4 GB)
  • DVD-18 (double-sided/dual-layer, 17 GB)

DVD Application Formats
  • DVD-R
  • Write-once type DVD-Recordable discs invented by
    Pioneer in 1998. This technology is used for
    master-disks recording.

DVD Application Formats
  • DVD Read Only Memory. DVD-ROM is a version of DVD
    for computers, designed to replace the CD-ROM. It
    has the same capacity as DVD-Video that is far
    greater than normal CD-ROMs.

DVD Application Formats
  • DVD-Random Access Memory. Rewriteable type DVD
    disc with more than 2.6 GB or 4.7 GB (DVD-RAM
    Version 2) storage capacity per side supported by
    Panasonic, Hitachi and Toshiba. The main
    disadvantage of the technology - lack of backward
    compatibility, i.e. DVD-ROM drives and DVD
    players cannot read from DVD-RAM media.

DVD Application Formats
  • DVD-RW
  • DVD-ReWritable. This format was developed by
    Pioneer and is partially compatible with modern
    DVD players and DVD-ROM drives. Can be used only
    for recording audio and video streams.
  • Digital Versatile Disc plus Re-Writeable. This
    format is fully backward compatible with DVD
    players and DVD-ROM drives and can be used both
    for video recording and for data storage.
    Hewlett-Packard, Mitsubishi-Chemical/Verbatim,
    Philips, Ricoh, Sony, Yamaha and Thomson
    Multimedia support it. DVDRW is still in
    development stage.

DVD Data Storage
  • Like CDs data is stored in microscopic grooves
    running around the disc.
  • All DVDs use laser beams to scan these grooves
  • Minuscule reflective bumps (Lands)
  • Nonreflective holes (Pits)

Disadvantages of DVD
  • Conversion to DVD
  • Incompatibility of discs and players
  • Not fully supported by HDTV
  • Copy protection

Recordable DVDs
  • Recordable DVD drives let you store data on disks
    known as blanks.
  • A DVD-R drive runs about 300.
  • Future Predictions indicate that the DVD-RAM will
    replace CD-RW and VCRs.

Blank DVD Costs
  • DVD-R or DVDR - 3.99
  • DVDRW or DVD-RW - 6.49
  • DVD-RAM - 7.99

DVD Regions
  • DVD region codes is a provision in the DVD
    Specification that requires DVD players to be
    hard-coded to accept DVDs that is only meant to
    be played within one of six designated world
    regions. A Code 1 disc cannot be played in a Code
    3 DVD player for example. This technique was
    developed to enable Hollywood companies to
    release movies at different times in different

DVD Regions
Content Scrambling
  • Each DVD has the potential for perfect copying.
  • Paranoid movie studios have forced a deeper copy
    protection into DVD standard.

What if I scratch a disc?
  • Small scratches are no problem (up to 6
    millimeters with no loss of data).
  • Myth scratches on DVDs are worse because of the
    higher amount of data stored.
  • Momentary glitches or I/O errors on computer

Educational Uses
  • Storage of large amounts of data (Ex. Plant I.D.
    for Nursery Landscape Contest).
  • Games (Review Exercises)
  • Movie materials
  • Everything in one format…..eliminating the VCR,
    Tapes, Handouts, etc.

Equipment Needed
  • A DVD drive that can write
  • Special software
  • Roxio
  • Studio 8