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Software: Systems and Application Software


Software consists of computer programs that control the workings of the computer ... Systems software is written for a specific set of hardware, most ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Software: Systems and Application Software

Chapter 4
  • Software Systems and Application Software

Summary Slide
  • What is Software
  • Overview of Software
  • Operating Systems
  • Popular Operating Systems
  • Utility Programs
  • Types of Application Software
  • Proprietary Application Software
  • Off-the-shelf Application Software
  • Standard Off-the-shelf Application Software
  • Software Issues and Trends

What is Software
  • Software consists of computer programs that
    control the workings of the computer hardware
    (statements to the computer) and program
    documentation used to explain the programs to the

Overview of Software
  • There are two basic types of software
  • Systems Software is a set of programs that
    support the computer system by coordinating the
    activities of the hardware and the applications.
    Systems software is written for a specific set of
    hardware, most particularly the CPU.
  • Application Software is a set of programs that
    solve specific user-oriented problems.

Operating Systems
  • An Operating System is a set of computer programs
    that control the computer hardware and act as an
    interface with application programs.
  • Operating System Activities
  • Perform common computer hardware functions like
    storing data on disk
  • Provide the user interface like the Windows XP
    Graphical User Interface
  • Provide hardware independence by serving as the
    interface between the application program and the
  • Manage system memory to control how memory is
    accessed and used
  • Manage processing tasks like enabling the user to
    run more than one application (multitasking)
  • Provide network capability to link users
  • Control access to system resources by providing
    functions like password protection
  • Manage files tracking where each file is stored
    and where is located

Popular Operating Systems
  • Consumer Appliance Operating Systems
  • Windows CE.Net/Windows XP/Handheld PC/Pocket PC
  • Palm OS
  • PC Operating Systems
  • MS Windows 95/98/2000/XP
  • Mac OS X
  • Linux
  • Network (workgroup) Operating Systems
  • Windows 2000 Server
  • Unix
  • Netware
  • Linux
  • Mac OS X Server
  • Enterprise Operating Systems
  • MVS/OS 390
  • Linux

Utility Programs
  • Utility programs are used to perform important
    functions like merging and sorting sets of data,
    keeping track of computer jobs and compressing
    files before they are stored.
  • Examples of Utility programs
  • DriveSpace compresses your hard drive increasing
    its storage capacity (Windows 95/98).
  • Disk Defragmenter speeds up disk access by
    rearranging the files and free space on your
    computer (Windows 95/98)
  • DFSORT sorts and merges data files (MVS)
  • TestDrive allows you to try software before you
    purchase it and deletes the software from your
    hard drive after the trial period.
  • Screen Saver
  • Virus Detection

Types of Application Software
Proprietary Application Software
  • Application Software gives organizations the
    ability to solve problems and perform specific
    activities and tasks.
  • Proprietary application software solves a unique
    or specific problem.
  • Proprietary application software can be In-house
    developed or developed by external vendors in
    which case is called contract software.
  • Advantages of proprietary application software
  • Software usually meets the user requirements
  • Provides flexibility in making modifications
  • Offers more control over the results
  • Disadvantages of proprietary application
  • Can take a long time and significant resources to
    develop (costly)
  • Has more risk concerning the features and

Off-the-shelf Application Software
  • Off-the-shelf application software may be
    purchased, leased, or rented from a software
    company. Off-the-shelf application software can
    be customized to better fit company specific
  • Advantages of Off-the-shelf application software
  • Lower initial cost
  • Lower risk that the software will fail
  • Higher quality usually without bugs and well
  • Disadvantages Off-the-shelf application software
  • May pay for features never used
  • May lack important features
  • May not match current work processes

Application Software
  • Horizontal-Market Applications Software
  • Horizontal-market application software provides
    capabilities common across all organizations and
  • Word processor, graphics programs, spreadsheets,
    and all presentation programs are all
    horizontal-market application software.
  • Vertical-Market Applications Software
  • Vertical-market application software serves the
    needs of a specific industry.
  • Examples of such programs are
  • Those used by dental offices to schedule
    appointments and bill patients
  • Those used by auto mechanics to keep track of
    customer data and customers automobile repairs
  • Those used by parts warehouses to track
    inventory, purchases, and sales

Standard Off-the-shelf Application Software
  • Personal Application Software
  • Word processing
  • Spreadsheet analysis
  • Database applications
  • Graphics programs
  • On-line information services
  • Software suites
  • Workgroup Application Software
  • Lotus Notes
  • Group scheduling
  • Enterprise Application Software

  • Firmware is computer software that is installed
    into devices like printers, print servers, and
    various types of communication devices.
  • The software is coded just like other software,
    but it is installed into special, read-only
    memory of the printer or other device.
  • Users do not need to load firmware into devices
  • Firmware can be changed or upgraded, but this is
    normally a task for IS professionals.

Software Issues and Trends
  • Software bugs and the costs associated with them
  • Open Source Software can save you money but be
    aware of hidden costs
  • Software Licencing
  • Usage-based License
  • Capacity-based License
  • Subscription Licensing
  • Lack of tracking software licenses can cost you
  • Software Publishers Association (SPA) can fine
    your organization 100,000 or more if you are
    caught with illegal software
  • Software upgrades should be carefully evaluated
  • Software support should be carefully evaluated
  • Shareware and Freeware can save you money
  • Shareware is software where you are expected to
    pay the author a modest amount
  • Freeware is free software

  • Guides??