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Transportation Policy

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Title: Transportation Policy


1
Transportation Policy
  • Moving people, goods, and services from one place
    to another in the United States

2
Public Policy
  • Policy is a social construct for effecting
    behavior
  • defines goals, establishes a reasons for
    changes in behavior
  • defines, promotes, and rewards certain types of
    behavior
  • defines, prohibits, and penalizes - implicitly
    or explicitly - other types of behavior
  • Consists of
  • principles articulated in a constitution and
  • programs established to forward those
    principles
  • Some suggest that public policy differs from law
    but both seek to promote actions consistent with
    principles in the constitution and prohibit
    inconsistent actions

3
Public Policy
  • Provides a context in which individuals,
    corporations, and governments decide to act

4
Public Policy
  • Some of these actions have an impact on the land
    surface and thus create landscape
  • some alter the organization of space
  • some give rise to artifacts - structures
  • some give rise to goods and services

5
Air Transport
  • An advanced air transportation network uses 5,000
    paved runways
  • All public airports are usually operated by local
    governments
  • Over 200 domestic commercial air carriers and a
    number of international carriers
  • Private aircraft are also used for medical
    emergencies, government agencies, large
    businesses, and individuals - general aviation
  • Air travel is the mode of choice for the majority
    of trips over 300 miles
  • In 2004 17 of the world's thirty busiest airports
    for passengers were in the U.S.
  • 12 of the world's thirty busiest cargo airports
    were in also the U.S.

6
Rail Lines
  • The intercity rail network is smaller than its
    historical peak, and has shifted emphasis toward
    cargo as faster air transport has come to
    dominate long-distance passenger travel
  • Intercity passenger rail is sparser than in
    other developed countries and has been taken over
    by the quasi-governmental National Railroad
    Passenger Corporation
  • Freight and railroads

7
Water Transportation
  • Largely used for freight
  • Fishing and pleasure boats are numerous, and
    passenger ferry services connects many of the
    nation's islands and remote coastal areas,
    crosses lakes, rivers, and harbors, and provides
    alternative access to Alaska which bypasses
    Canada
  • Major seaports in the United States include New
    York to the east, Houston and New Orleans on the
    gulf coast, Los Angeles to the west
  • Interior waterways of the U.S. have shipping
    channels, via the St. Lawrence Seaway and the
    Mississippi River
  • The first water link between the Great Lakes and
    the Atlantic, the Erie Canal, constructed in
    1825, allowed the rapid expansion of agriculture
    and industry in the Midwest and made New York
    City the economic center of the country

8
Mass Transit
  • Most medium-cities have some sort of local public
    transportation
  • Larger cities tend to have mass-transit systems,
    usually including subways or light rail
  • New York City is the country's largest metropolis
    - operates one of the world's most heavily used
    rapid transit systems
  • The regional rail and bus networks that extend
    into the suburbs are also among the most heavily
    used in the world
  • Metropolitan Council

9
Metro Transit Hiawatha Line
  • Construction funding (in millions )
  • Federal 334.3
  • State of Minnesota 100.0
  • Metropolitan Airports Commission 87.0
  • Hennepin County 84.2
  • Congestion Mitigation/Air Quality grant
    49.8
  • Transit capital grant 39.9
  • Minnesota Dept of Transportation 20.1
  • Total 715.3

10
  • Most cargo transportation in the United States is
    by water, road, rail, and pipelines
  • Planes are commonly used only for perishables and
    premium express shipments
  • Usually cargo, apart from petroleum and other
    bulk commodities, is imported in containers
    through seaports, then distributed by road and
    rail
  • The quasi-governmental United States Postal
    Service has a monopoly on letter delivery (except
    for express services) but several large private
    companies such as FedEx and UPS compete in the
    package and cargo delivery market

11
  • Conventionally, each mode has sought to exploit
    its own advantages in terms of cost, service,
    reliability, and safety
  • Competition between the modes has tended to
    produce a transport system that is segmented and
    un-integrated
  • The lack of integration between the modes has
    been accentuated by public policy that has
    frequently barred companies from owning firms in
    other modes
  • Thus, a modal perspective about transportation
    endured even if many transport companies
    perceived transportation in terms of markets
    instead of modes
  • The Geography of Transport Systems (Hofstra
    University)

12
Intermodalism
  • Since the 1960s major efforts have been made to
    integrate separate transport systems through
    intermodalism, which took place is several stages
  • This involves the use of at least two different
    modes in a trip from origin to destination
    through an intermodal transport chain
  • Intermodality enhances the economic performance
    of a transport chain by using modes in the most
    productive manner
  • Thus, the line-haul economies of rail may be
    exploited for long distances, with the
    efficiencies of trucks providing flexible local
    pick up and delivery
  • The key is that the entire trip is seen as a
    whole, rather than as a series of legs, each
    marked by an individual operation with separate
    sets of documentation and rates

13
(No Transcript)
14
Roads Railways
15
Transportation in the United States
  • Passenger transportation is dominated by a
    network of approximately 2 million miles of paved
    roads, the bulk of which is constructed and
    maintained by state and local governments
  • 97 of passenger trips in the U.S. are by
    personal automobile
  • Freight transportation uses a variety of
    transport modes
  • Roughly 40 is transported by rail larger than
    the global average

16
Roads
17
General Resources
  • The United States Highway System (Info Please)
  • Creating the Interstate System (FHWA)
  • The National Highway System (FWHA)
  • History of the U.S. Highway System (Casey Cooper)
  • US Highways From US 1 to (US 830) (Robert V.
    Droz)
  • Minnesota Highways Page (Steve Riner)
  • United States Numbered Highways (Wikipedia)
  • ISTEA, A poisonous brew for American cities (Cato
    Institute)
  • Highway history (FHWA)
  • American Highways Users Alliance

18
The National Highway System - Minnesota
  • Approximately 160,000 miles of roadway important
    to the nation's economy, defense, and mobility
  • Developed by the Department of Transportation
    (DOT) in cooperation with states, local
    governments, and metropolitan planning
    organizations
  • Interstate Highway System accounts for almost 30
    of the system
  • 21 congressionally designated high-priority
    corridors as identified in ISTEA
  • Non-interstate portion of the Strategic Highway
    Corridor Network (STRAHNET) identified by the
    Department of Defense in cooperation with DOT -
    critical strategic links allowing move troops and
    equipment to airports, ports, rail terminals, and
    other bases for rapid deployment is essential to
    our national defense
  • Strategic Highway Corridor Network connectors
    that link major military installations and other
    defense-related facilities to the STRAHNET
    corridors

19
  • Automobiles - an estimated 243,023,485 registered
    passenger vehicles in the United States in 2004
  • 56.13 were classified as cars
  • 37.79 were classified as "Other 2 axle, 4 tire
    vehicles," presumably SUVs and pick-up trucks
  • 2.53 were classified as vehicles with 2 axles
    and 6 tires and
  • 2,010,335 (0.82) were classified as "Truck,
    combination"
  • Approximately 5,780,870 motorcycles 2.37 of all
    registered passenger vehicles
  • Fuel Economy (fueleconomy.gov)
  • Car Safety (safercar.gov)

20
  • United States federal transportation legislation
    (Wikipedia)
  • 23 USC Highways
  • 49 USC Transportation
  • General and Intermodal Programs
  • Motor Vehicle and Driver Programs
  • Tips To Decoding your Cars VIN Number
  • 49 CFR 565 Vehicle Identification Number
    Requirements
  • 23 CFR Highways
  • 49 CFR Transportation

21
U S Department of Transportation
  • Office of the Secretary of Transportation (OST)
  • Office of Inspector General (OIG)

22
49 USC 101. Purpose
  • The national objectives of general welfare,
    economic growth and stability, and security of
    the United States require the development of
    transportation policies and programs that
    contribute to providing fast, safe, efficient,
    and convenient transportation at the lowest cost
    consistent with those and other national
    objectives, including the efficient use and
    conservation of the resources of the United
    States
  • (Pub. L. 97449, Jan. 12 1983, 96 Stat. 2414
    Pub. L. 102240, title VI,  6018, Dec. 18 1991,
    105 Stat. 2183.)

23
49 USC 101. Purpose
  • A Department of Transportation is necessary in
    the public interest and
  • To ensure the coordinated and effective
    administration of the transportation programs of
    the United States Government
  • To make easier the development and improvement of
    coordinated transportation service to be provided
    by private enterprise to the greatest extent
    feasible
  • To encourage cooperation of Federal, State, and
    local governments, carriers, labor, and other
    interested persons to achieve transportation
    objectives
  • To stimulate technological advances in
    transportation, through research and development
    or otherwise
  • To provide general leadership in identifying and
    solving transportation problems 
  • To develop and recommend to the President and
    Congress transportation policies and programs to
    achieve transportation objectives considering the
    needs of the public, users, carriers, industry,
    labor, and national defense

24
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
25
Research and Innovative Technology Administration
(RITA)
  • Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS)
  • Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)
  • National Transportation Library (NTL)
  • Research, Development and Technology (RDT)
  • Transportation Safety Institute (TSI)
  • University Transportation Centers (UTCs)
  • Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
    (Volpe)

26
National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB)
  • Report to Congress on July 1 of each year
  • Report shall include
  • a statistical and analytical summary of the
    transportation accident investigations conducted
    and reviewed by the Board during the prior
    calendar year
  • a survey and summary of the recommendations made
    by the Board to reduce the likelihood of
    recurrence of those accidents together with the
    observed response to each recommendation
  • a detailed appraisal of the accident
    investigation and accident prevention activities
    of other departments, agencies, and
    instrumentalities of the United States Government
    and State and local governmental authorities
    having responsibility for those activities under
    a law of the United States or a State

27
Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
(FMCSA)
  • Established as a separate administration within
    the U.S. Department of Transportation on January
    1, 2000, under the provisions of the Motor
    Carrier Safety Improvement Act of 1999
  • The Motor Carrier Safety Improvement Act - to
    enhance highway safety by imposing stricter
    penalties on those drivers who operate commercial
    motor vehicles
  • Improves the commercial driver license (CDL)
    sanctioning process by strengthening the CDL
    disqualification process through the expansion of
    violations that result in disqualification.
  • In addition, MCSIA requires states to disqualify
    CDL drivers who have high risk traffic offenses
    in their personal vehicles
  • The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
    (FMCSA) and
  • The National Highway Traffic Safety
    Administration (NHTSA) possess rulemaking powers
    that affects the application process for CDL
    drivers

28
Surface Transportation Board (STB)
29
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
(NHTSA)
30
Mass Transit
  • Bus (American Public Transport Association)
  • Rail (American Public Transport Association)

31
Federal Transit Administration (FTA)
  • One of 10 modal administrations within the U.S.
    Department of Transportation
  • Headed by an Administrator appointed by the
    President
  • FTA administers federal funding to support a
    variety of locally planned, constructed, and
    operated public transportation systems throughout
    the U.S., including buses, subways, light rail,
    commuter rail, streetcars, monorail, passenger
    ferry boats, inclined railways, and people movers

32
  • Approximately 56 of the construction and
    maintenance costs of the Interstates are funded
    through user fees, primarily gasoline taxes
    collected by states and the federal government,
    and tolls collected on toll roads and bridges
  • The rest of the costs are apportioned in the
    federal budget
  • In the eastern United States, large sections of
    some Interstate Highways planned or built prior
    to 1956 are operated as toll roads
  • As American suburbs push ever outward, the costs
    incurred in maintaining freeway infrastructure
    have grown, leaving little in the way of funds
    for new interstate construction.
  • This has led to the proliferation of toll roads
    (turnpikes) as the new method of building
    limited-access highways in suburban areas
  • Some Interstates are being privately maintained
  • Adding toll HOV/HOT lanes in certain cities like
    San Diego, Salt Lake City, Minneapolis, Houston,
    Dallas, Atlanta and Washington, D.C

33
  • The dominant role of the federal government in
    road finance has enabled it to achieve
    legislative goals that fall outside its power to
    regulate interstate commerce as enumerated in the
    federal Constitution
  • By threatening to withhold highway funds, the
    federal government has been able to stimulate
    state legislatures to pass a variety of laws
  • Though some object on the ground that this
    infringes on states' rights the Supreme Court has
    upheld the practice as a permissible use of the
    Constitution's Commerce Clause
  • introduction of the 55 mph national speed limit
    in 1974 While its purpose was to save fuel in the
    wake of the 1973 energy crisis, federal speed
    controls stayed in effect for 21 years

34
  • Acceptance of the national speed limit emboldened
    various presidents and Congresses to enact
    additional pieces of legislation, some of which
    have little to do with highways or transportation
  • Increasing the legal drinking age to 21
  • Megan's Law legislation, requiring states to
    disclose identities of sex offenders
  • Lowering the legal intoxication level to 0.08
  • Requiring the use of carpool (HOV) lanes
  • States must also meet minimum enforcement
    standards for all federally-mandated legislation
    (for example, minimum penalties for violation of
    these laws and a minimum number of per capita
    underage drinking convictions or a compelling
    explanation regarding why this number is not met)
  • Any state that was to lose federal highway
    funding would quickly face deteriorating
    infrastructure, fiscal impoverishment, or both
  • Of course, a state that lost federal highway
    funding could theoretically threaten to stop
    maintaining its highways, if that were
    politically palatable to its residents

35
Federal Highway Trust Fund
36
Federal Highway Trust Fund
37
23 CFR Highways
  • Highway Finances (FHWA)
  • Highway Trust Fund (FHWA)
  • Highway Financing (GAO)
  • Highway Trust Fund (Northeast Midwest Institute)
  • Highway Funding in Minnesota (Minnesota House of
    Representatives)
  • Gas Tax (Taxfoundation.org)

38
  • Will Increased Highway Funding Help Rural Areas?
  • The Highway Funding Formula Has Been Criticized
  • Financing Federal-aid Highways
  • Highway Funding, the States, and New Air Quality
    Standards
  • National Highway Funding Commission
  • National Surface Transportation Infrastructure
    Financing Commission
  • National Surface Transportation Policy and
    Revenue Study Commission
  • Highway Trust Fund Overview of Highway Trust
    Fund ...

39
  • Petroleum (Energy Information Administration)
  • Energy Outlook 2005
  • Ethanol
  • American Coalition for Ethanol
  • Governors' Ethanol Coalition
  • National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition
  • Ethanol Producers and Consumers
  • Ethanol Co-Products (National Corngrowers 
    Association)
  • Clean Fuels (Fresh Energy)

40
Railroads
41
  • Rail Transport (Wikipedia)
  • U.S. Railroads (Wikipedia)
  • History of Railroads and Maps (Library of
    Congress)
  • Railroad History (Pacific Southwest Railway
    Museum Association, Inc.)
  • Association of American Railroads members include
    the major freight railroads in the United States,
    Canada and Mexico, as well as Amtrak
  • Rail in Minnesota (Minnesota Department of
    Transportation)

42
  • Transcontinental Railroad (PBS American
    Experience)
  • Transcontinental Railroad Maps (Central Pacific
    Railroad)

43
  • Federal Railroad Administration
  • U.S. Railroad Retirement Board administers a
    Federal retirement benefit program covering the
    nation's railroad workers
  • National Transportation Safety Board Railroad

44
  • 45 US Code Railroads
  • Staggers Act of 1980 (Wikipedia)
  • The Impact of the Staggers Rail Act of 1980
    (Association of American Railroads)
  • 49 CFR Transportation
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