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Where everything is bad, it must be good to know the worst.


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Title: Where everything is bad, it must be good to know the worst.

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Where everything is bad, it must be good to know
the worst. F.H. Bradley
click the image to pause and/or resume the film
Excuses Perhaps it should first be said that
this is a difficult project to write in the
context of this assignment. Cruise missiles are
not a natural resource, and the production of
them is not transparent enough to adequately
track the entire product life cycle from cradle
to grave without further investment of time and
research. Another point to be made is that
while the use of natural resources for producing
these weapons is significant, its quite small in
comparison to industries like the automotive or
commercial aerospace industries. Accordingly, I
place less emphasis on the exploitation of these
materials and the communities affected by
production and extraction, and instead focus on
variables more relevant to the topic and the
approach to this study
This presentation is divided into five sections
Product The Tomahawk Cruise
Missile Industry Corporate profile of
Raytheon Institutions The US Armed Forces and
missile testing Resistance The struggles
against the Defense Industry and US Military
weapon testing, storage, and use End of the
Line What happens after the explosions
Explanation In the study of the guided missile
industry in the US, I found that there was little
information about contaminants in the production
facilities and the areas that surround them.
While I do not wish to completely dismiss the
exceptions (there were many), upon closer
inspection, I found that the actions of these
corporations and their 1 customers (the
Pentagon) outside of the US were far more
appalling (see Vieques, Puerto Rico).
Consequently, I devote more attention to the
problems of missile testing and disposal using
Maehyang-ri as a case study. This provides an
excellent example some of the non-conflict
related repurcussions of missiles and other
incendiary devices.
TechnologyThis section attempts to explain the
workings of cruise missiles using the Tomahawk
cruise missile as an example/case study
The Tomahawk cruise missile 1. Ingredients 2.
Specifications3. Function
Bill of Materials While the materials that make
up cruise missiles are classified, it can be
safely assumed that there is a good deal of
aluminum, plastic, and steel alloys involved in
the production of the frame. Additionally, there
are lightweight and heat resistant ceramic
compounds, as well as structural plastic (some
corrugated, and some structural foam). The
engine is largely composed of aluminum and steel
alloys, as well as the fuel tank. In the tomahawk
missile, the fuel supply is a solid fuel
compound, which undoubtedly contains nitrogen,
some powdered metal, crystalline oxidizer, and a
polymer (plastic) binding agent. The launch tube
is made of a special resin (plastic) that is
monofilament wound for stability and endurance
(but not re-use!) In this section, I go into
details of the missiles materials and their
Aluminum makes up most of the outer hull, and
much of the structure for the frame. Aluminum is
the third most commonly used metal in industry,
after iron and steel. It is used here (and
typically for aeronautical purposes) because its
lightweight, and in some cases stronger than
steel. Aluminum occurs naturally, but for
industrial purposes, it is extracted from bauxite
ore. There are numerous bauxite deposits
worldwide, mainly in the tropical and subtropical
regions, but also in Europe and the southeastern
United States. Bauxite is generally extracted by
open cast mining from strata, typically some 4-6
yards thick under a shallow covering of topsoil
and vegetation. Aluminum is extracted from
bauxite ore in a process that requires incredible
amounts of electricity, which is the key reason
for its higher cost relative to steel. Recent
examples of indigenous peoples being
upset/displaced by bauxite mining operations can
be seen in the cases of Alcoa Mining company in
Indonesia (under Suharto) and in the acts of
civil disobedience in response to Hydro
Aluminums operations in India.
Steel is used in reinforcement, the fuel tank
and in smaller hardware (In the Tomahawk, some of
these may be substituted for titanium). Its
advantages are low cost, a wide range of
attainable mechanical properties, and a high
modulus of elasticity (ductility). Steel is
primarily iron and carbon, and is processed and
alloyed with other metals to achieve different
properties. Iron ore is mined worldwide, and the
US, not surprisingly, is the biggest importer. To
become steel, iron is melted in a blast furnace
to remove impurities, then goes through a series
of cooling, reheating and/or cold working
processes to achieve the desired properties.
Steel is typically alloyed with Nickel and/or
Chromium, though it is often processed with other
metals as well. Industrial iron mining practices
strip the land, leak toxins into the earth/water
supply, and displace people. Steel mills release
ash and other emissions in the air, as well as
decreasing the quality of life of those who work
and live in and around them.
PlasticsPolymers, or plastics, are (largely) a
product of the petrochemical industry. There are
two basic types of plastic thermoset, and
thermoplastic. Thermosets are formed by
cross-linking of molecules, and cannot be reused.
Thermoplastics are held together by Van der Walls
forces, resulting in a molecular structure can be
reformed with heat. Both of them, in most cases,
are derived from oiland both are present the
Tomahawk missile. Oil is drilled in regions
around the world, though the primary sources are
currently in the Middle East. Once again, the US
is the largest importer of this resource. The
impacts of the extraction/usage of this resource
have been stated elsewhere, but it is enough to
say that the terms that govern its access and
usage are troublesome, to say the least. Oddly
enough, the Tomahawk plays a substantive role in
the maintenance of this access, but more on this
later. The use and extraction of oil has led to
war, climate change, ecological upheaval, and
political corruption. The affects it has had on
indigenous (and non-indigenous) populations is
incalculable. Additionally, the impact of plastic
on landfills, and the toxicity of plastic
production in terms of emissions is substantial.
Ceramic Compounds The ceramic compounds used in
the Tomahawk can be classified as advanced or
engineered ceramics. Typical advanced ceramic
compounds are alumina (in this form a suspected
neurotoxicant), zirconia and silicon carbide.
Ceramics in general have been in use since the
Neolithic Age (about 10,000 years ago), and can
generally be defined as hard, brittle compounds
that have a high melting temperature and are
chemically inert. They are typically formed from
silica, alumina, and magnesia. The ceramic
compounds in the Tomahawk are likely in use in
the electronics (as semiconductor and resistor
material, as well as insulation) and in engine
components (as an insulator to control heat from
the solid fuel combustion). The minerals that
make up these compounds are generally available
without mining, and are some of the more abundant
in the world, nevertheless, they are still
problematic in that they often include toxic
compounding agents
Solid Propellant The fuel source of the
Tomahawk is a solid propellant. Without going
into excessive detail, a solid fuel propellant
intended for use in a turbofan engine is made up
of nitrogen, some powdered metal, crystalline
oxidizer, and a polymer binding agent. The
specific formula for the Tomahawk is classified,
but it should contain at least the ingredients
listed above. Chances are, there is also an
explosive to increase thrust.and then theres
the payload (the bomb), the possible inclusion of
depleted uranium (DU), and the guidance system
(both on the missile itself and on the ground). I
will cover the first two in the section on usage.
The guidance system will be discussed briefly in
explaining how the device works.
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The preceding slides show cutaway views of the
Tomahawk to illustrate the sophisticated
technology at work in the makeup of this device.
The Tomahawk is difficult to detect because of
its small profile on radar, low-altitude flight
and turbofan engine, which gives off little heat
that can be picked up by infrared detectors.
Additional features that set the Tomahawk apart
from other missiles in its class are the
guidance system, the propulsion system, and the
distance it is able to travel. Military officials
say that the next generation missile can be
retargeted during flight and will even be able to
circle above a battlefield waiting for orders to
(top) This image illustrates a launch by sea from
a battleship. Note that the wings have not yet
extruded from the sides. This missile will be
able to travel up to 1000 miles to its
(below) Another Tomahawk being launched from a
How it worksThe cruise missile has been
described as a revolutionary new weapon, but in
concept and use, the idea has been around for a
while. The first cruise missile was the German
V-1, or the buzz bomb, used in World War II.
After the war, the U.S. and Soviet Union began
steady proliferation of guided missiles, though
none approached any real measure of accuracy
until the mid-1970s. It was during this period
that work first began on the SLCM (Sea Launch
Cruise Missile) Tomahawk Program.  Cruise
missiles are named for the small turbofan
enginessimilar to those found on commercial
airlinerswhich they use to cruise to their
targets. During launch, a solid propellant rocket
fires the Tomahawk to sufficient altitude. The
turbofan engine then takes over for the cruise
portion of flight. Cruise missiles are very
effective because they are difficult to detect.
They have a small cross-section, and fly at very
low altitudes. Infrared detection is difficult
because turbofan engines emit little heat. The
sea-launched missiles are 18.25 feet long. It
weighs 2,650 lbs and has a range of 690 miles.
 The Tomahawk missile, like all cruise
missiles, is essentially a dronea remote
controlled airplane that explodes on contact.
Like a military fighter, it uses a jet engine,
and comes complete with wings and a tail. Cruise
missiles form the spearhead of the US arsenal.
There are currently two types of cruise missile
in service the air-launched AGM-86 and the
Tomahawk BGM-109 ship or submarine-launched
version. They can both be fitted with
conventional payloads or with nuclear warheads.
A guided missile makes contact with a target at a
testing range in Nevada.
The Shock and Awe, it was calledmultiple
explosions in Baghdad earlier today. Some of it
coming from the sea and into the air. Three
hundred sea launch cruise missiles, some subs and
destroyers, part of the strike package. They
rained down from the skies over Iraq, striking
numerous government buildings and installations.
Also taking part, the B-52s. They made that long
trip from Fairfield, England. Somewhere along the
way, they dropped their air launch cruise
missiles making their way to the targets March
21, 2003, MSNBC
Tomahawk Block
III specs Manufacturer Raytheon Systems
Engine Turbofan and solid rocket
booster Length 20 feet, 6 inches Diameter
20.4 inches Wingspan 8 feet, 9 inches Weight
3,000 pounds with booster Cost per unit
600,000 Range 1,000 miles Speed 550 mph
Unit cost is relative to the features, the
payload, and the guidance capability. Range is
between 600,000 and 1 million USD (Washington
Post, ABC News, FAS)
We do not entertain requests for academic
research assistance. Response from the Raytheon
Corporation to an email inquiry about academic
research assistance
Raytheon is an international, high technology
company which operates in four businesses
commercial and defense electronics, engineering
and construction, aviation, and major appliances.
Founded in Cambridge, Mass., in 1922 as the
American Appliance Company, the company adopted
the Raytheon name in 1925. Early expertise was in
the field of radio tubes. During World War II,
Raytheon was the leading producer of radar tubes
and complete radar systems. Following the war,
Raytheon became a pioneer in the field of missile
guidance. Raytheon also innovated guidance
missile systems to intercept aircraft and
ballistic missiles. In 1964, Raytheon embarked on
a major diversification program to broaden its
business base by adding commercial operations.
Top Ten Defense Contractors Fiscal Year
2002 Lockheed Martin Corp. 17.0 billion
Boeing Co. 16.6 billion Northrop Grumman Corp.
8.7 billion Raytheon Co. 7.0 billion General
Dynamics Corp. 7.0 billion United Technologies
Corp. 3.6 billion Science Applications
International Corp. 2.1 billion TRW Inc. 2.0
billion Health Net, Inc. 1.7 billion L-3
Communications Holdings, Inc. 1.7 billion
Taken from the Pentagons annual report of
defense contractors http//www.fas.org/asmp/profil
  • Raytheon Pentagon contracts and rank
  • among other top defense contracts from
  • 2001-1997 (in billions)
  • year award rank
  • 2001 5.6 (4th)
  • 2000 6.3 (4th)
  • 1999 6.4 (3rd)
  • 1998 5.7 (3rd)
  • 2.9 (5th)
  • Taken from the Pentagons annual report of
    defense contractors
  • http//www.fas.org/asmp/profiles/top10fy02.html

The Raytheon Company has a full time lobbying
staff of nineteen people and has employed at
least five outside lobbying firms, budgeting at
least 1.6 million annually for lobbying. It also
belongs to several aerospace industry lobby
groups that put heavily emphasize missile
defense. There are several members of the board
with direct links to the US government, and to
NATO (a major client of the US arms industry).
Raytheon also hires former politicians to advance
their causes. For example they hired former house
appropriations committee chair Bob Livingston to
make the case for the National Missile Defense
System in Washington D.C.
Daniel P. Burnham, Chairman and CEO of Raytheon,
also serves as chair of the Presidents National
Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee
(NSTAC), and happens to be a member of the
Defense Policy Advisory Committee on Trade
(DPACT).Prior to Robin L. Beard becoming
Executive Vice President Business Development,
Chief Executive Officer, Raytheon International,
Inc., he served two terms (1984-1987, 1992-1995)
as Assistant Secretary General of the North
Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). He chaired a
number of high-level bodies, most notably the
Conference of National Armaments Directors, which
is the supreme NATO body responsible for all
defense equipment matters. For his NATO efforts
he received the U.S. Department of Defense's
highest award for distinguished service from the
defense secretary William Perry. He also serves
on the US Egypt Presidents Council as one of its
15 U.S. members who provide the US and Egypt with
business community views, concerns and council in
ways to expand bilateral trade and investment
ties. Other directors include former CIA
director John M. Deutch, former NATO supreme
commander John R. Galvin, and former New
Hampshire Senator Warren B. Rudman. Sources
Corporate Watch date viewed 05/02/03, Raytheon
Website date viewed 05/02/03
Discrimination against employees In 1987
Californias fair employment and housing
commission found Raytheons Goleta, CA plant
guilty of illegal discrimination for firing an
employee who had AIDS. Although a doctor told
Raytheon the employee could return to work
without posing a risk to other employees,
corporation managers feared that co-workers would
catch the AIDS virus. The commission ordered
the corporation to rehire the employee and pay
him 6,000 in back wages. The commissions ruling
came too late, however, since by this time the
employee was dead. Source Corporate Watch
date viewed 05/02/03
Incineration Despite evidence that incineration
is the worst option for destroying the U.S.'s
obsolete chemical weapons stockpile at the
Umatilla Army Depot, the Oregon Environmental
Quality Commission (EQC) gave 1.3 to the army
and Raytheon to construct five chemical weapons
incinerators. Despite strong protests, on
February 7, 1997, the EQC made its final decision
to accept the United States Army's application to
build a chemical weapons incineration facility
near Hermiston, Oregon. Some examples of the
chemicals to be incinerated include nerve gas and
mustard agent bioaccumulative organochlorines
such as dioxins, furans, chloromethane, vinyl
chloride, and PCBs metals such as lead, mercury,
copper and nickel and toxins such as arsenic.
These represent only a fraction of the thousands
of chemicals and metals that will potentially be
emitted throughout the Columbia River
watershed. source Raytheon Watch, date viewed
Breaking The Law In May 1999 Reuters reported
that Raytheon would pay 3 million to AGES group
and purchase 13 million worth of AGES aircraft
parts to settle allegations that a security firm
hired by Raytheon eavesdropped on and stole
documents from AGES. To discourage the
proliferation of nuclear weapons the US imposed
economic sanctions against Pakistan for its 1998
nuclear testing. Raytheon attempted to complete a
prohibited sale of satellite communications
equipment by channeling the sale through its
Canadian subsidiary. In Oct 1994 Raytheon co.
paid the US government 4 million to settle a
claim that the company inflated a defense
contract for anti-missile radar.61 In Oct 1993
Raytheon paid 3.7 million to settle allegations
that it misled the defense department by
overstating the labor costs involved in
manufacturing Patriot missiles. In March 1990
Raytheon pleaded guilty in a US district court in
Virginia to one felony count of illegally
obtaining secret Air Force budget and planning
documents. They were fined 10,000 for
conveyance without authority and 900,000 in
civil penalties and damages. In Oct 1987 the
justice department signed onto a 36 million
suit, which alleged that Raytheon submitted false
claims for work done on missiles. The government
eventually closed the case citing lack of
evidence.Source Raytheon Watch, date viewed
Every weekday for the past 50 years, from eight
oclock in the morning to eleven oclock at
night, U.S. fighter planes in Korea have dropped
400 to 700 bombs on the Koon-ni range less than
one mile from local villages. The targets for the
bombs are islands in the beautiful Aia bay where
the people derive their livelihoods by fishing.
As the A10 and F-16 U.S. fighter aircrafts swoop
over the countryside, they drop depleted uranium
(DU) shells. The DU shells add radioactive
contamination to the other toxic wastes and oil
that have been accumulating near these villages
for the last half century.
Lockheed-Martin now owns the Koon-ni range. This
kind of privatization of the military comes as no
surprise because 50 years of dropping bombs and
spraying bullets has been very lucrative for arms
Source Karen Talbot U.S. Bombing Range in South
Korea "Hell On Earth!. New York Times, 6/18/00
On May 8, 2000, a U.S. Air Force A-10 warthog
bomber dropped six 500 pound bombs on the village
of Maehyang-ri in South Korea. Villagers there
claim that seven people were injured and some 170
houses damaged by the bombs. Military officials
say the A-10 was experiencing engine trouble and
dropped the bombs as an emergency measure to
reduce its weight. The village where this
bombing took place is near the Koon-ni Range
where the U.S. has performed military exercises
since 1955. And it is not the first time this has
happened. Villagers say the 5,000-acre range is
the cause of numerous deaths and injuries. They
say at least nine people have died in accidents
linked to the range, including a pregnant woman
killed when a practice bomb hit her in 1967 and
four children killed the following year when they
tinkered with an unexploded bomb. In 1994, they
say, roofs caved in and walls cracked in 100
houses when range workers accidentally detonated
bombs. Additionally, they say they suffer from
constant exhaust fumes, tremors and extreme noise
caused by strafing and bombing exercises since
the 1950s.
source http//www.webactive.com/pacifica/demnow/
Halfway across the world in a coastal South
Korean farming village named Maehyang-ri, about
50 miles south of Seoul, similar practices have
been happening for the past 50 years. U.S.
fighter planes drop 400 to 700 bombs each day at
targets less than a mile out to sea. At the
Koon-ri range, now owned by private defense
company Lockheed-Martin, bombs are dropped from
morning until 1100 at night. Just like Vieques,
the people of Maehyang-ri complain of high rates
of infant mortality and other illnesses. Yoomi
Jeong, deputy secretary of the Korea Truth
Commission (KTC), an international organization
working on U.S. militarization issues in Korea,
said that residents of this village have a much
higher suicide rate than the rest of Korea,
because of the dismal situation. Villagers claim
that over 10 people have died in accidents linked
to the range. Last May, a plane dropped six
500-pound bombs to lighten its load after losing
an engine near the range, causing damage to some
500 homes and injuries to several people. The
Koon-ri range has been excluded from plans to
close and consolidate bases in South Korea
starting from next year, stirring up a great deal
of protest.
A large-scale protest was organized outside of
the United States Embassy last week, during
Secretary of State Colin Powells two-day visit
to Seoul. This followed a rally at
Lockheed-Martins headquarters, where some 30
protestors scuffled with police, shouting,
Yankee Go Home!
Source August 3 - August 9, 2001 Asianweek,
Neela Banerjee
For the good part of 50 years most Koreans knew
nothing about Maehyang-ri, but protests have been
growing. Hundreds of thousands of students,
farmers and workers have joined together to stand
up for the villagers. Currently, the range is
still open for US testing, but in 2001 the range
was banned for everything but light bombs. While
is far from a complete victory, the sounds of
constant shell fire from aircrafts and heavy
artillery have lessened somewhat, and activists
and villagers have won an important struggle.
The recent victory of activists in Vieques,
Puerto Rico (the US military abandoned the
bombing range earlier this month) is another
encouraging sign, however it raises the question
of what happens after the bombing is over. The
land is now littered with the remains of Depleted
Uranium rounds, chemical residue from explosives
and propellants, and a large amount of oil and
other chemicals soaked into the earth.
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