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Bonnie Duncan


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Title: Bonnie Duncan

  • by
  • Bonnie Duncan
  • English Dept.
  • Millersville University

  • What is a research paper?
  • A piece of academic writing that requires a
    critical and thoughtful level of inquiry.
  • It requires clear thinking and the time to
    review, understand, and evaluate a subject.
  • Most important aspect is evaluating and
    acknowledging sources.
  • Most dangerous aspect is plagiarism and other
    forms of academic dishonesty.

Steps in writing a research paper
  • Choose a field, select a subject within that
    field, do enough preliminary research to narrow
    your topic a bit.
  • Limit chosen topic, ask a preliminary research
    question about it.
  • Find sources (books, articles, journals,
    websites) that can help answer your research
  • Evaluate your sources.
  • Make a preliminary bibliography.
  • Propose a balanced, fair working thesis answering
    your research question.
  • Narrow 5 to a list of references useful in
    answering your question

Steps in writing a research paper
  • Take notes
  • Paraphrase (directly quote only very briefly and
    rarely. Remember you must cite both paraphrases
    and direct quotations.
  • Summarize your authors positions
  • Create primary research plan as necessary
    (questionnaires, etc.), remembering to maintain
    the privacy of your subjects.
  • Make an outline. Work step by step filling in
    the sections of your report.
  • Prepare referencing (footnotes, endnotes,
    parenthetical citations), glossary, appendix, and
    work cited/bibliography as needed.
  • Do final organization
  • Do final drafting
  • Add abstract, introduction, conclusion, etc. only
    after the body has been constructed.
  • Revise

Structure of a research paper
  • Cover page (if paper is 10 or more pages long and
    delivered in hard copy)
  • Cover Memo or other clear explanation of who you
    are, what this is, what class/assignment its
    for, and any other information you think your
    professor is likely to need.
  • Table of Contents
  • Illustrations
  • Abstract or Executive Summary
  • Introduction (start here with Arabic numerals
    previous material is in lower case Roman
  • Body (set up subsections as needed)
  • Conclusion
  • Work Cited (and possibly a Bibliography)
  • Other materials as needed
  • Glossary
  • Appendix
  • Index

STEP 1 Choosing a Topic
  • What to choose
  • Subjects that
  • Match the subject matter of the course and/or
    unit involved
  • Interesting to you and within your capacity if
    you work at it.
  • Source availability
  • Contemporary (research the field-you dont want
    something dated that current decades ago)
  • Do-able in the time involved.

STEP 1 Choosing a Topic
  • Do not choose subjects which are
  • Very old or very new
  • (a) Very controversial or (b) dull and lifeless
  • Of little interest to you
  • Likely to take too long to research in the time
    you have
  • Beyond your ability to research given your level
    of education

STEP 2 Narrowing and Limiting the Topic
  • Narrowing and Limiting the Topic
  • How much do you know about the topic?
  • How long is your paper to be?
  • How much time do you have before it is due?
  • Process
  • Too General (Likely to be your first topic)
  • Still Broad (O.K., now youve done a bit of
  • Less Broad (And, youve begun to get a sense of
    work done in the field)
  • Narrow Enough (So you take a tiny bite out of
    that which you are likely to be able to handle in
    the time you have available)

STEP 3 Finding and selecting sources
  • Finding and selecting sources where are you
  • Library indices
  • Check the card catalog (particularly for books)
  • Millersville University Library Catalog -- Guided
  • Reach further, checking the PALCI catalog,
    Library of Congress, etc.
  • Check periodicals for timely, focused articles in
    th field
  • Academic Search Complete, Lexis/Nexis, etc.
  • Indices in your field
  • Google Scholar (compare with popular press found
    in Google)
  • Watch the three Jing Tutorials on using Google
  • Google Scholar (articles in the field, book
    chapters, etc.)

STEP 3 Finding and selecting sources (books,
articles, other)
  • Finding and selecting sources
  • Compiling a preliminary bibliography
  • Selecting from the preliminary list
  • Note basis for your first evaluation
  • Age of the book or article
  • Relevance of the piece to your own study
  • Qualifications of the author (Expert in the
    field? Reporter? Unvetted website? A real
  • Focus
  • General (Dictionary/Encyclopedia/Wikipedia). You
    can use this to get started, but dont base a
    college level paper on these.
  • Specific (For the general public? Topic opener
    for the interested college student? Expert in
    the field writing on highly focused, detailed
    experiment or study?)
  • Reputation Look up the author and the
    periodical. What else has the person written?
    What university does she or he teach with? Who
    has cited this authors work?
  • Bias Everyone has some bias, some perspective.
    Its just that some people are overt about
    noting biases, while others seem unaware or
    choose to hide biases or preconceptions.
  • Length Some scientific pieces are very short,
    almost posters, while other articles run to 20-30
    pages. More important How well does the piece
    seem to prove its thesis, and what does it lend
    to your own work?
  • Truth and honor There is nothing wrong with
    failing to prove your thesis. Negative results
    are still useful, if only to leave people
    wondering why it didnt work and/or knowing not
    to try that again. All carefully, honestly done
    studies of interesting questions are useful.

STEP 4a Proposing a Research Question
  • Definition Research Question
  • A Research Question is a statement that
    identifies the phenomenon to be studied.
  • Example What resources are most helpful to new
    and minority drug abuse learners?
  • A strong research question should pass the so
    what? test. Think about the potential impact of
    the research you are proposing.
  • What is the benefit of answering your research
    question? Is it worth your time, as well that of
    your peers and your professor?
  • Do you know enough to understand the literature,
    or should you put it off until you know more?
  • Is it provable or disprovable given the time,
    expertise, and resources you have? Do not, by
    the way, hesitate to say so if, at the end, your
    results are negative or inconclusive. All
    research should be shared honestly.

STEP 4b Proposing a Research Program and a
Working Thesis
  • Definition
  • A research program explains how you are going to
    go about finding the answer to your research
  • A working thesis is statement of opinion about or
    attitude towards the topic which will either be
    proved or disproved by the argument in the
    research paper. (This is what I think I may
    find, the result I expect.)
  • A sentence that expresses the main idea of the
  • A specific statement that decides length of

STEP 4c Proposing a Working Thesis
  • The working thesis
  • not a repetition of the topic.
  • only provisional
  • can be adjusted or even disproved
  • Formulation of the thesis
  • One, complex sentence making a statement about
    the topic, showing personal judgment or

STEP 4 Proposing a Working Thesis and a
  • Topic Rude words
  • General Statement Words perceived as rude or
    forbidden have changed over the generations from
    those having to do with religion to those having
    to do with sexuality, and more currently words
    having to do with inequality of protected
  • Research Question Will three generations
    (grandparents, parents, students) display a
    different discomfort when asked to speak or
    discuss the three classes of words.
  • Thesis Grandparents generation (60) will
    exhibit more discomfort when speaking, or
    speaking about, all these classes of words, but
    will show more discomfort with religious rude
    words than the other generations, presuming equal
    religiosity among each group. Similarly,
    parents age group (40) will be most discomfited
    with sexuality terms, and the student group (18)
    with cursing involving inequality of protected
  • Methodology Questionnaire

STEP 5 Note Taking
  • Literature Review Create an annotated
    bibliography of ideas, data, scholars that help
    you to do a literature review (secondary
    research), create follow through with a research
    plan (primary research), and answer your
    research question pro, con, or inconclusive.
  • Paraphrase
  • Writing skill in which information is written in
    different words without changing its original
  • Steps to paraphrase
  • Read the selection
  • find synonyms
  • Write a brief outline
  • DO NOT change the meaning of the original text,
    and DO NOT use words from the original sentence.
  • DO Put the book away and put the statement in
    your own words.
  • Accurately cite your sources. It does not matter
    whether you paraphrase or directly quote. In
    either case, you MUST cite the source of the
    idea. You must cite them in two places
  • Within the text as parenthetical citation,
    footnote, or endnote
  • Outside the text as a Work Cited section and/or a

STEP 5 Note Taking
  • When the Maracana soccer stadium in Rio De
    Janeiro, Brazil was opened to the public on June
    24, 1950, and Brazil lost the World Cup to the
    Uruguayan team, the Brazilians were so
    disheartened one had the impression that the
    country itself had died. And people did die of
    sadness. Mere threats of defeat in a
    championship match can cause heart attacks and
    the despair of the public was so great that many
    beat their heads against the cement posts. Such
    as the Brazilians passion for soccer.
    (SoccerTimes, July 16, 1950)

STEP 5 Note Taking
  • A. Brazil lost the World Cup
  • 1. Entire country was sad
  • 2. Some people died
  • B. Possible defeat causes strong reaction
  • 1. Some experience heart attacks
  • 2. Some beat their heads
  • C. Brazilians are very emotional about soccer

STEP 5 Note Taking
  • In 1950, Brazil lost the World Cup in soccer to
    Uruguay in Rio de Janeiro. The entire country
    was overcome by sadness some people even died
    from it. Brazilians react very strongly to
    potential defeat in championship soccer games.
    Some people have heart attacks, and others beat
    their heads against cement posts. Brazilians are
    very emotional about soccer. (Soccer Times, July
    16, 1950)
  • As you can see, by stepping away from the
    original text, working only from the outline,
    this student created a tighter paragraph that
    more closely meets her needs. Also note that
    because her parenthetical citation of source
    comes outside the final period, it covers the
    full paragraph, and not just that last sentence.

STEP 5 Note Taking
  • Difference between legitimate and unacceptable
  • Source
  • What is unmistakably convincing and makes
    Millers theater writing hold is its authenticity
    in respect to the minutiae of American life. He
    is a first-rate reporter he makes the details of
    his observation palpable.
  • What is truly convincing and makes Arthur
    Millers theatrical writing effective is its
    authenticity. He is an excellent reporter and
    makes his observation palpable.
  • Note Just changing a few words does not a
    paraphrase make. This author is copying all the
    other words, so is still plagiarizing. Also,
    note that no source is cited. Do your own
    thinking, and always cite your sources. Even
    with the source cited here, it also must be fully
    cited in the Work Cited section.
  • The strength of Arthur Millers dramatic art lies
    in its faithfulness to the details of the
    American scene and in its power to bring to life
    the reality of ordinary experience (here the
    author would cite the source of that quote shown
  • Here, the author is making his own assessment of
    the text, deciding what he makes of it . Note
    that the citaiton goes within the period because
    theres just one sentence involved

STEP 5 Note Taking
  • Summarize
  • Similar to paraphrase but usually shorter
  • Steps to Summarize
  • Find the main idea
  • Keep most important supporting ideas and major
  • Rewrite sentences in your own words .
  • Leave out unimportant words and emphasize most
    important ideas.
  • Use transition words
  • Usually about a third as long as the original

STEP 5 Note Taking
  • The Soccer Times notes that the Brazilian people
    become so emotionally involved with their
    national soccer team that in 1950, when their
    team lost the World Cup to Uruguay, the entire
    country was saddened, and some people even died.
    The mere possibility of defeat causes genuine
    physical suffering. (July 16, 1950)

STEP 5 Note Taking
  • Incorporating summary or paraphrase
  • Transitional phrases
  • A.D. Collister in his book / article explains
    that, believes that, shows that
  • It is A.D. Collisters belief/opinion/view/conclus
    ion that..

STEP 5 Note Taking
  • Explain your idea in your own words and mention
    other people who agree with you.
  • Example
  • It appears from the evidence that . . . . . . . .
    (May 1996, Fortan 2004).
  • Using anyones ideas in any form without
    acknowledging them is plagiarism.

STEP 5 Note Taking
  • Introduce generally accepted ideas by impersonal
  • Examples
  • It is generally believed / held / argued /
    acknowledged that . . . . ..
  • A commonly held opinion is that . . . . . .
  • Doctors/ teachers / scientists have said that . .
    . . . . .
  • N.B. Every summary or paraphrase must have a
    source note (citation)

STEP 5 Note Taking
  • Quote
  • Repetition in speech or writing of someone elses
  • Purpose To prove or support a statement or
    opinion to emphasize an idea.
  • Selection Use quotations when
  • writer has used a particular apt expression
  • explained something in a very clear, clever,
    original or illuminating way

STEP 5 Note Taking
  • In case of lack of originality, do not quote,
    but summarize or paraphrase.
  • Note
  • Acknowledge source.
  • Do not use too many quotations.
  • Synthesize, comment on and analyze the
  • Do not quote just for its own sake.

STEP 5 Note Taking
  • Incorporating quotations
  • Punctuation
  • Example
  • A.D. Collister wrote, There is no evidence to
    suggest that the earth is anything but flat.
  • Transitional Phrases
  • Example
  • As X says,
  • According to Y, .

STEP 5 Note Taking
  • Longer Quotations
  • leaving a line empty
  • indenting the extract on both left hand and right
    hand margins
  • using single spacing.
  • Ellipses mean that you are leaving material out.
    Three dots mean you are leaving out some words
    from a sentence. Four dots means that you are
    leaving out material from more than one sentence,
    or that, with the eliminated material, its at
    the end of a sentence.
  • Example.
  • It was found that. In 1972 .. at Manchester
    University foreign students spent as average
    of 23 / 7 hours per week listening to English and
    only 6 hours speaking to English people ..
    (Nash, 1990, p. 45)

STEP 5 Note Taking
  • Differences between quoting, paraphrasing, and
  • Quotations identical to the original
  • Paraphrasing putting a passage from source
    material into your own words
  • Summarizing putting the main idea(s) into your
    own words, including only the main point(s)

STEP 5 Note Taking
  • Rationale for using quotations, paraphrases and
  • Provide support or add credibility to the writing
  • Refer to work that leads up to work in progress
  • Give examples of several points of view on a
  • Agree or disagree with the thesis
  • Highlight a particularly striking phrase,
    sentence, or passage by quoting the original
  • Expand the breadth or depth of your writing
  • Nobody can know it all. Citing sources proves
    that youve done your homework and know the
    literature. It strengthens your paper.

STEP 5 Note Taking
  • Frequently intertwine summaries, paraphrases, and
    quotations to make the writing smooth. Here, the
    author italicizes not only the book Freud wrote,
    but also the directly quoted material. Because
    the author notes the name of the book and author
    within the text, only the pages involved need to
    be cited in parenthesis at the end.
  • Example
  • In his famous and influential work On the
    Interpretation of Dreams, Sigmund Freud argues
    that dreams are the royal road to the unconscious
    (page), expressing in coded imagery the dreamers
    unfulfilled wishes through a process known as the
    dream work (page). According to Freud, actual but
    unacceptable desires are censored internally and
    subjected to coding through layers of
    condensation and displacement before emerging in
    a kind of rebus puzzle in the dream itself

STEP 5 Note Taking
  • Definition of Plagiarism
  • Polite term for copying.
  • The unacknowledged use of someone elses words or
  • Cost of Plagiarism
  • A lowered grade/being made to rewrite your paper
  • An F on your paper
  • A permanent mark on your university record
  • Dismissal from university
  • Possible litigation by the author/publisher
  • A ruined reputation
  • See Academic Integrity

STEP 5 Note Taking
  • Actions that might be seen as plagiarism

Buying, stealing, or borrowing a paper
Copying or using the source too closely when
Building on someone's ideas without citation
Hiring someone to write your paper
Copying from another source without citing on
purpose or by accident(Note how hard it is to
prove which is which)
Deliberate plagiarism Accidental
STEP 5 Note Taking
  • Need to Document
  • Using or referring to somebody elses words or
    ideas from a magazine, book, newspaper, song, TV
    program, movie, Web page, computer program,
    letter, advertisement, or any other medium.
  • Using information gained through interviewing
    Phone interview, Mr. John Smith, September 11,
  • Copying the exact words or a unique phrase As
    Dr. Duncan suggests, most bird song is a matter
    of males singing, My treemy treemy tree! or
    Mate with memate with memate with me NOW!
  • Reprinting diagrams, illustrations, charts, and
    pictures. Figure 2. Title. Information.
  • No Need to Document
  • Writing your own experiences, observations,
    insights, thoughts, and conclusions.
  • Using common knowledge folklore, common sense
    observations or shared information.This can get
    tricky, though. Whats common knowledge? What
    the person on the street might know. The sun
    sets in the west. The Atlantic Ocean is east of
  • Compiling generally accepted facts (also tricky,
    when in doubt, cite source Lecture in ENGL110,
    professor X, spring semester, 2007)
  • Writing up your own experimental results (but add
    an appendix, methodology section, etc.).

  • Outline a detailed plan or skeleton of paper
  • Form of outline
  • Title
  • I. First main idea
  • A. Supporting idea
  • 1. Detail
  • 2. Detail
  • 3. Detail
  • i. Minor detail
  • ii. Minor detail
  • B. Supporting idea
  • II. Second main idea
  • Balance Outlines.
  • If you add an A, then you also need a B, etc. In
    the example left, you can see that each level of
    argument is balanced in that way, including 1, 2,
    3. You can have as many as you want, so long as
    you have at least two.

  • Use only main ideas for main headings.
  • Relate subheadings to main headings.
  • Put all headings in a series of same type.
  • Have at least two subheadings.
  • Map outline to text.
  • Indent items correctly.
  • Put a period after each letter or number.
  • Be consistent in format.

Topic Outline and Sentence Outline
  • Example of a Topic Outline
  • Choices in College and After
  • Thesis The decisions I have to make in choosing
    college courses depend on larger questions I am
    beginning to ask myself about my lifes
  • Outline
  •   I. Two decisions described
  • A. Art history or chemistry
  • 1. Professional considerations
  • 2. Personal considerations
  • B. A third year of French?
  • 1. Practical advantages of knowing
    a  foreign  language
  • 2. Intellectual advantages
  • 3. The issue of necessity
  •   II. Definition of the problem
  • A. Decisions about occupation
  • B. Decisions about a kind of life to lead
  •  III. Temporary resolution of the problem
  • A. To hold open a professional possibility
  • B. To take advantage of cultural gains already
    made French

Section 6 Sentence outline
  • Choices in College and After
  • Thesis The decisions I have to make in choosing
    college courses, depend on larger questions I am
    beginning to ask myself about my lifes
  • Outline
  • I. I have two decisions to make with respect to
    choosing college courses in the immediate future.
  • A. One is whether to elect a course in art
    history or in chemistry.
  • 1. One time in my life, I planned to be
    a chemical engineer professionally.
  • 2. On the other hand, I enjoy art and
    plan to travel and see more of it.
  • B. The second decision is whether to
    continue a third year of French beyond the basic
    college requirement.
  • 1. French might be useful both in
    engineering and travel.
  • 2. Furthermore, I am eager to read good
    books which are written in French.
  • 3. How necessary are these
    considerations in the light of other courses I
    might take instead?
  • II. My problem can be put in the form of a
    dilemma involving larger questions about my whole
  • A. On the one hand I want to hold a
    highly-trained position in a lucrative
  • B. On the other hand I want to lead a
    certain kind of life, with capacities for values
    not connected with the making of money.
  • III. I will have to make a decision balancing the
    conflicting needs I have described.
  • A. I will hold open the professional
    possibilities by electing chemistry.
  • B. I will improve and solidify what cultural
    proficiency in another language I have already
    gained, by electing French.
  • Examples Courtesy of Marion Cushman, Los Angeles
    City College Library 01/22/01

Step 7 Referencing
  • What is Referencing?
  • An important part of academic writing.
  • A way of referring to the work of others to
    provide evidence and support.
  • Avoid plagiarism
  • All sources used must be cited within the text.
  • A full list of sources cited must be included in
    the reference list, sometimes called References,
    Work Cited, or Bibliography.
  • Use the style of referencing appropriate to the
    subject matter and your professors preference.
    In my classes that can be MLA, APA, or Chicago
    Manual of Style formats.
  • Take care to insure accuracy and consistency.
    Its easy to fail in this if you copy/paste
    citations from other resources, as they may be
    using another form.
  • If you are citing a resource that in turn cites
    someone else, dont drill down, cite the one you
    actually read.

Citing sources within the text (1)
  • You can use one of three formats
  • In text (parenthetical) citation.Example
    There are not enough examples in this essay,
    (Brown, 19984).
  • Footnotes. Footnote citations must be added at
    the foot or bottom of the SAME page where you
    have cited the sources. All first Footnote
    references must be cited in full. Subsequent
    references of the same work may be shortened to
    include only the author's last name and page
    number. If the source cited has no author stated,
    use whatever minimal information is needed to
    identify the same work previously cited, e.g.
    short title and page number. Formerly, the Latin
    terms ibid. and op. cit. were used but they are
    no longer preferred.Example In reference to
    Freak Shows at circuses, Rothenberg makes the
    observation that people who possess uncommon
    features and who willingly go out in public to
    display such oddities to onlookers are acting as
    "modern-day taboo breakers" by crossing the
    "final boundary between societal acceptance and
  • 5 Kelly Rothenberg, "Tattooed People as Taboo
    Figures in Modern Society," 1996,  BME/Psyber
    City, 18 Jan. 2005

Citing sources within the text (2)
  • Endnotes.
  • List your endnotes numerically and consecutively,
    both in your essay and in your endnote citation.
    Endnote numbers must be superscripted. In your
    text, add a superscripted number immediately
    after the quote or reference cited with no space.
  • Endnotes must be added on a separate Endnotes or
    Notes page at the end of your essay just before
    the Works Cited or Bibliography page. All first
    Endnote references must be cited in full.
    Subsequent references of the same work may be
    shortened to include only the author's last name
    and page number. If the source cited has no
    author stated, use whatever minimal information
    is needed to identify the same work previously
    cited, e.g. short title and page number.
    Formerly, the Latin terms ibid. and op. cit. were
    used but they are no longer preferred.
  • You may prefer to use endnotes in place of
    footnotes, as you eliminate the need to allow
    sufficient space to accommodate all the required
    footnote entries at the bottom of the same page
    where your citations occur.
  • I dont care which you use, presuming you are
    consistent, so you may prefer the much simpler
    parenthetical documentation in place of either
    footnotes or endnotes.
  • Example
  • In traditional British East Africa, between the
    time of puberty and marriage, a young Akamba girl
    must maintain an avoidance relationship with her
    own father.6 Looking at taboo in a modern
    society, Marvin Harris gives an interesting
    example of the application of cultural
    materialism to the Hindu taboo against eating
  • Note I italicized the example to differentiate
    it from the rest of the page. (Endnotes page
    example See next page)

Endnotes page example
  • Endnotes
  • 1Alan Dundes, "Taboo," World Book Encyclopedia.
    2000 ed.
  • 2 "Taboo," Occultopedia Encyclopedia of Occult
    Sciences and Knowledge,Site created and designed
    by Marcus V. Gay, 18 Jan. 2005 t/taboo.htm.
  • 3 Mary Douglas, "Taboo," Man, Myth Magic, ed.
    Richard Cavendish, new ed., 21 vols. (New York
    Cavendish, 1994) 2546.
  • 4 Douglas 2549.
  • 5 Kelly Rothenberg, "Tattooed People as Taboo
    Figures in Modern Society,"
  • 1996, BME / Psyber City, 18 Jan. 2005
  • 6 Sigmund Freud, Totem and Taboo (New York
    Random, 1918) 17.
  • 7 Marvin Harris, "The Cultural Ecology of Indias
    Sacred Cattle," Current Anthropology 1992,
    751-66, qtd. in McGrath, "Ecological
    Anthropology," Anthropological Theories A Guide
    Prepared by Students for Students 19 Oct. 2001,
    U. of Alabama, 18 Jan. 2005 ant/Faculty/Murphy/ecologic.htm.

Step 7 Referencing Review
  • In Text Citation
  • Direct Citation Use exact words from text
    between quotation marks.
  • Example There are not enough examples in this
    essay, (Brown, 19984).
  • Indirect Citation Rewrite idea or opinion of
    author in your own words as a paraphrase or a
  • Example Brown felt that a particular piece of
    writing was lacking in examples (19984).
  • Note that in 2 the authors name is used
    within the sentence, so it does not need to be
    restated in the parenthetical citation at the

Step 7 Referencing Review
  • In text citation Name of author somewhere in
    sentence or parenthetical information. Other
    information necessary to finding the information
    in the parenthetical material.
  • Footnotes/Endnotes
  • Footnotes at the bottom of the same page.
  • Endnotes citations and reference lists at end of
  • Using footnotes or endnotes
  • (a) Put a number at the end of the sentence which
    requires citation.
  • (b) Show number as superscript 15.
  • (c) Leave four spaces between the last line of
    text and the first footnote on each page.
  • (d) Indent first line.

Step 7 Foot- or Endnotes
  • Examples
  • 15 Ronald E. Pepin, Literature of Satire
    (Lewiston Edwin Press, 1988) 78
  • 16 Rodulf Anaya, Bless Me Ultima (New York
    Warner books, 1972) 66
  • 17 Anaya, 155
  • Note Just the last name if the author has been
    mentioned before. (Since its easy to
    copy/paste, most authors no longer use ibid. or
    op. cit.)

Step 7 Referencing
  • You need to provide a References or Work Cited
    list in addition to your textual citation
    (parenthetical citation, footnotes, or endnotes).
    A bibliography in additional to all of this is
  • A References or Work Cited list refers to all the
    books, articles and websites referred to in an
  • A Bibliography refers to the list of all the
    sources used, even if not cited. Includes
    reference list plus all read material. So, why
    add a bibliography? Because you may have read a
    number of useful books, websites, or articles
    that you would like to recommend to your readers
    in addition to the materials you actually cited
    within your paper.

Step 7 Referencing
  • Referencing rules
  • List sources alphabetically by surname of author
  • Chronological listing for more than one work by
    an author (new to old)
  • Authors surname appears first followed by
    authors given name and middle initial(s) if
  • Separate names by commas for more than one author
  • Include all necessary information. Be consistent
    and accurate.

Step 7 Referencing
  • Reference lists for different entries
  • Book
  • Brown, J. 1998, Essay Writing for University
    Students, Sage, London.
  • (Separate names for more than one author by
  • Brown, J., Smith, L., Jones, P. 1998, How to
    Write Good Essays, Sage, London.

Step 7 Referencing
  • Edited book
  • Brown, J. Smith, C. (eds),1998, Essay
    Writing for University Students, Sage,
  • Chapter or section of a book
  • Jones P.1997, Some students simply cannot
    write good essays, in Essay Writing for
    University Students, ed. J .Brown, Sage, London,

Step 7 Referencing
  • Journal article
  • Brown, G.1998, Some things are better left
    unsaid An introduction to the art of minding
    your own business, Journal of Self Improvement,
    Vol.3, No.2, pp 4-15.
  • Electronic Journal article
  • Brown, G. 1998, Some things are better left
    unsaid An introduction to the art of minding
    your own business, Journal of Self Improvement,
    online, Vol.3, No.2. Available Proquest 5000,
    Accessed 7 June 2003

Step 7 Referencing
  • Newspaper or magazine article
  • Greenwood, J. When time runs out, Gulf News,
    June 23, 2004, p.4
  • Electronic article
  • Brown, Gerry. Some things are better left
    unsaid An introduction to the art of minding
    your own business. Self improvement Vol. 2 Iss.
    3 (1998) pp. 211-234. Date found June 23, 2001
    at http//

Step 7 Referencing
  • Publication from a government body or
  • United Nations Crime and Justice Information
    Network, 1999, Report on Crime Rates in
    Developing Countries, 1997-1998.
  • Available http//
    9/htmlAccessed 5 June, 2000
  • Work with no apparent author
  • The Economist, Do economic sanctions
    work?23 February 23, 1999/ Date found March
    25, 2000 at http//www.theeconomist.ukaccessed
    25 March, 1999.

Step 8 Final organization of paper
  • Checklist of main ingredients
  • Your paper should include the following
  • Title Page if 10 pages or longer full
    information on first page other wise. That
    should include Your name, the course, the
    assignment, the date, the title of the paper.
  • Table of Contents and List of Illustrations if 10
    pgs. or longer.
  • Introduction with abstract, methodology, or other
    introductory material as instructed.
  • Body (subsections as needed)
  • Conclusion
  • If you are using endnotes, place these after the
  • Works Cited
  • Bibliography, Glossary, Appendix, or Index as

Step 8 Final organization of paper
  • Guidelines
  • Introduction
  • Engage the interest of the reader with a problem
    statement (why was the paper written, what is at
    issue here?
  • Show the main idea and explain how it will be
  • Provide a lead to engage the readers attention
    and interest.
  • Include statement of the research question,
    thesis, methodology.
  • Provide a summary of the problems/issues the
    paper encountered.
  • Include an explanation of how the paper is

Step 8 Final organization of paper
  • Body.
  • Things to Remember When Writing Your Body
  • Use the same language in your body paragraphs
    that you did in your introduction. For instance,
    if you have phrased one of the points you wish to
    make a certain way in your introduction, phrase
    it the same way in your body paragraph.
  • Devote each body paragraph to only one point. DO
    NOT try to include too much information into each
  • Make sure that you phrase everything clearly so
    that your specific audience can understand what
    you are trying to say.
  • Paragraphs are used as a way to introduce a new
    idea, and break your paper down into a series of
    related points that you wish to make in support
    of your thesis statement.
  • Each of Your Paragraphs Should Contain These
  • Paragraph Unity Paragraph Unity means that your
    paragraph develops one main point, that is set
    forth by your topic sentence, and that all of the
    sentences in the paragraph relate to and support
    that main point.
  • Paragraph Development Paragraph Development
    means that you have included all of the necessary
    information, explanation and support for your
    main point or topic sentence so that your reader
    fully understands the point you are trying to
  • Paragraph Coherence Paragraph Coherence means
    that you have developed your point in an
    organized and logical way, which shows the
    connections between your sentences and ideas.
  • TRANSITIONS. One of the most important aspects
    of the body of your paper. Transitions between
    paragraphs as well as between sentences are
    essential in order for a paper to be readable,
    for the reader to fully understand the
    connections between the points you are trying to
    make and for the overall coherence of your essay.
    The use of transitions creates one unified paper
    instead of several smaller papers all thrown
    together under a similar larger topic.
  • Where Do We Need Transitions?
  • Between Sections -- This divides the major ideas
    or topics of your paper
  • Between Paragraphs -- This divides the minor
    ideas of your writing because you must show a
    logical connection between your paragraphs.
  • Between Sentences -- This shows the relationship
    between your sentences. These transitions are
    generally only a word or two, and can be done
    through the use of conjunctions which are words
    used to combine two sentences and show the
    relationship between them.
  • Between Parts of a Sentence -- This shows how
    phrases connect within your sentences.
  • Remember to use a variety of transitional

Step 8 Final organization of paper
  • Conclusion
  • Similar to introduction, should be well-organized
    and brief.
  • Summarize the argument.
  • Show how/that the thesis has been proved, or the
    problem solved (if it has). If your research
    question included a thesis that did not pan out,
    explain that. Be honest. Often, in student
    papers, there is not enough time given the due
    date, a large enough research sample, or
    sufficient statistical analysis to honestly prove
    anything. So, the results are interesting, but
    not statistically meaningful.
  • Suggest where further interesting research could
    be done.
  • Make predictions leading from the research, if
    thats possible and appropriate.

Step 9 Final organization of paper
  • Finishing your rough draft The last thing you
    should write is your abstract or executive
    summary if you plan to include either.
  • Revision 1 At this stage, revise your
    introduction to go well with the conclusion.
    Often, the introduction is the worst part of a
    student paper because it is hard to get a paper
    going. So, it is the section that is most in
    need of revision. Always rewrite it after you
    write the conclusion. Then, run spell check and
    proofread carefully. Once all the parts have been
    put together, dont stop!
  • Revision 2 This is just the end of your first
    draft. Go back and create another outline, this
    time of what you actually wrote. See if anything
    needs to be reworded or moved around for
    claritys sake. If you move things around in
    revision, then rework the Table of Contents, List
    of Illustrations. Check foot- or endnotes if you
    use them. If you used Word, the numbers
    probably fixed themselves, the footnotes fixing
    themselves, but the Endnotes will need to be
  • Revision 3 Run spell check and proofread
    carefully yet again. As you revised, errors
    could have crept in And remember, often spell
    check wont catch errors in grammar, words that
    are words but not what you really meant, etc. Go
    over things with a fine tooth comb, looking for
    places that seemed clear originally, the language
    was less than felicitous, etc. You might want to
    hand it to a trusted friend. Its all too easy
    to see what we expect to see rather than whats
    actually there. And, we may not find things that
    lack clarity. After all, we know what we mean.

STEP 9 Proof Reading/Formatting
  • Proofreading
  • Examine the Introduction of your paper
  • Is there a lead?
  • Find the thesis, is it well defined?
  • Does it summarize the issues ? how?
  • Does it explain the approach to be used? How?
  • Do you think it is a good introduction or not?
    Why? Could you improve it in any way? How?

STEP 9 Final Drafting (putting it all together)
  • Title Page (first page)
  • Title, name, course, date
  • Contents Page and List of Illustrations (Second
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Illustrations
  • Figures
  • Tables

STEP 9 Proof Reading/Formatting
  • Examine the conclusion of your paper.
  • Does it have all the necessary required features?
  • Does it have the thesis statement ?
  • Does it provide a summary to the main points
    mentioned in your paper?
  • Does it suggest future recommendations?
  • Do you think it is a good conclusion or not, why?
    Could you improve it in any way? How?

STEP 9 Proof Reading/Formatting
  • Examine the layout, content, and grammar of your
  • Layout/Presentation Margins, spacing,
    indentation, correct citation, references, page
    numbers etc.
  • Content/Organization Thesis statement, outline,
    introduction / body / conclusion, quotations,
    paraphrases, summaries and correct citations,
    reference list and bibliography. Transition
    words, cohesive devices, smooth transition
    between paragraphs.
  • Grammar/Structure Spelling, tenses, punctuation,

STEP 10 Proof Reading/Formatting
  • Formatting
  • If you are handing in a physical paper, use
    white, twenty-pound, 8 ½ by 11 inch paper
  • Margins one-inch margins all around the text of
    paper left side, right side, and top and
  • Spacing
  • Double-space print papers, including quotations,
    notes, and the list of works cited. Indent
  • Single space electronically submitted papers.
    Use full block style. Double space between
    paragraphs. Do not indent paragraphs.
  • Page Numbers Number pages consecutively
    throughout the manuscript (including the first
    page) in the upper right-hand corner of each
    page, one-half inch from the top.
  • Pages before the introduction are given Roman
  • Pages starting at the introduction are given
    Arabic numerals.

STEP 10 Proof Reading/Formatting
  • Tables and Figures Tables should be labeled
    Table at the top and clearly named. Other
    material such as photographs, images, charts, and
    line-drawings should be labeled Figure and be
    properly numbered and captioned. Make sure that
    the source(s) of each are clearly stated within
    the caption. Be careful to segway into the
    illustration within the text, and discuss it
    afterwards. Tables and figures should be within
    the body of the paper, not afterwards.
  • Binders Generally, the simpler the better. A
    simple staple in the upper left-hand corner of
    your paper should suffice. I actively dislike
    those slick binders with the slider plastic
    pieces that hold them together. They already are
    starting to come apart before I get them to my
    office. You wont get extra points for
    expensively bound papers.

  • The end
  • Bonnie Duncan
  • July 11, 2008
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