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Virtual Environments

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... Nintendo 64 and the PlayStation gaming consoles ... Sony PlayStation -- How ... CD mark CD as 'legit' for PlayStation. Sony Proprietary CD format ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Virtual Environments


1
Virtual Environments
  • Vic Baker
  • Manager, WV VE Lab
  • Lecturer, WVU CSEE

2
What are Virtual Environments?
  • Lets define Virtual Environments as computer
    generated worlds that are represented through
    computer generated imagery, audio, and
    human-computer interaction

3
Outline for this presentation
  • Basic 3D terminology and concepts including 3D
    modeling
  • An explanation of Virtual Reality and what
    high-end tools are currently available such as
    the ImmersaDesk and the CAVE
  • Household VE platforms -- Nintendo 64 and the
    PlayStation gaming consoles

4
Lets start with the basics
  • Anti-aliasing
  • Texture mapping
  • Blending
  • Fog
  • Flat, Gouraud, and Phong shading
  • Persistence Of Vision (POV)

5
Anti-Aliasing
  • Anti-Aliasing disguises the stair step effect.

6
Texture Mapping
  • Texture mapping is the applying of a bitmap to a
    wire-frame mesh. The purpose is to add a sense
    of realism to the wire-frame model.

7
Blending
  • Blending enables you to produce translucent
    objects.

8
Fog
  • Fog makes objects far from the viewpoint seem to
    fade in the distance.

9
Shading Styles
  • Flat vs Gouraud vs Phong shading

10
Persistence of Vision
  • Persistence of Vision (POV) refers to how many
    frames per second are required to give the
    illusion of fluid motion
  • 24 frames per second are required to achieve POV.
  • We strive for 30-60 fps!

11
Think about this ...
  • To create a 5 second animation with POV at 24
    fps, that requires 120 separate frames!

12
What did you say???
  • With a running time of 69 minutes, Walt Disneys
    Bambi required 99,360 separate frames of
    animation.
  • My thesis document was 120 pages and contained
    100,000 characters.
  • Thats almost 1 frame for every letter in my
    thesis!

13
Basic 3D tools and terms
  • Modeling packages
  • OpenGL -- a programmatic approach
  • Polygons to pixels lets talk about the
    rendering pipeline

14
And now, a word about ...
  • Modeling Packages

15
OpenGL
  • The Programmatic Approach to Graphics

16
OpenGL is a Programming API that allows us to
  • Draw Objects
  • View Objects
  • Apply Lighting
  • Texture Mapping
  • Perform animation
  • Add Interactivity

17
Some OpenGL Commands
  • glTranslatef(GLfloat dx, GLfloat dy, GLfloat dz)
  • glRotatef(GLfloat angle, GLfloat x, GLfloat y,
    GLfloat z )
  • glScalef(GLfloat x, GLfloat y, GLfloat z )
  • glVertex3f(GLfloat x, GLfloat y, GLfloat z )
  • glNormal3fv(const GLfloat v )

18
OpenGL demos
  • Windows 9x and NT have screen savers that are
    created using OpenGL. Examples are 3D Pipes, 3D
    Text, and 3D Flying Objects.

19
The Rendering Pipeline
  • Pictures are made up of objects
  • Objects are made up of polygons
  • Polygons are made up of vertices
  • Where do we start?!?
  • Follow the yellow brick road!

20
The Rendering Pipeline
  • 9 steps of the pipeline
  • Read input
  • Backface Culling
  • Trivial Accept/Reject
  • Lighting
  • Viewing Transformation
  • Clipping
  • Divide by W/Map to 3D Viewport
  • Rasterization
  • Display

21
Virtual Reality
  • The Next Generation in Visualization

22
Virtual Reality
  • Virtual Reality (VR) is the next wave in
    human-computer interaction
  • Virtual Reality allows us to immerse ourselves
    into realistic 3D environments and interact with
    this world

23
Cutting Edge VR Tools
  • ImmersaDesk
  • CAVE
  • Infinity Wall

24
ImmersaDesk
  • 5 x 4 screen that projects stereo images
  • Users wear LCD shutter glasses
  • Interaction is through a wand or speech

25
ImmersaDesk
  • WV recently acquired an ImmersaDesk through the
    work of Dr. Frances Van Scoy and the National
    Science Foundations EPSCoR program
  • Only about 3 dozen Universities and Research
    centers have this technology

26
ImmersaDesk
  • Powered by an SGI Onyx 2 computer with 4 R10000
    CPUs running at 250 Mhz
  • 512 MB main memory
  • Reality graphics board

27
CAVE
  • Cave Automated Virtual Environment
  • Room sized VR environment
  • Users wear LCD shutter glasses
  • Interaction through a wand or speech

28
How Do we Create Worlds?
  • Modeling packages
  • OpenGL
  • VRML

29
Typical Uses for VE
  • Accident reconstruction
  • Crime re-enactment
  • Entertainment
  • Scientific Visualization
  • Battle simulations

30
Virtual Environments
  • Projects using the ImmersaDesk include
  • WV Geographical Informational Systems
  • Literature Land, WVU English Dept.
  • WVU Physics Dept.
  • Low vision and VR, Vic Baker
  • NIOSH, joint research in visualization
  • numerous other projects throughout the State

31
Bring on the Games!
  • Lets see how the Sony PlayStation stacks up
    against the Nintendo 64!

32
Gaming Consoles
  • While many children (and college students)
  • have a gaming console in their homes, the
  • computational power contained in these units
  • is anything but childs play.

33
Sony PlayStation
  • 32 bit RISC (R3000A) running at 33 MHz
  • 16 Mbit RAM (Main)
  • 8 Mbit RAM (VRAM)
  • 4 Mbit RAM (Audio)
  • 16.7 Million colors (24 bit)
  • 256 x 224 (up to 640 x 480) resolution

34
Sony PlayStation -- How fast can it draw?
  • Graphics Processor Unit capable of 360,000 flat,
    shaded polygons per second
  • GPU capable of 180,000 texture mapped, Gouraud
    shaded polygons per second
  • Geometry Engine can process 4,500,000
    vertices/second (1,500,000 polygons/sec for flat
    shading)

35
Sony PlayStation Media Format
  • Games come on CD
  • CD can not be easily duplicated. Bad sectors on
    CD mark CD as legit for PlayStation
  • Sony Proprietary CD format
  • Net Yaroze lets you create games for your
    PlayStation using your PC

36
Nintendo 64
  • 64 bit R4000 running at 93.75MHz
  • 36 Mbit RAM (main)
  • 4,500 Mbit transfer speed
  • Graphics and Audio co-processor running at 62.5
    MHz
  • 32 bit RGBA frame buffer support
  • 21 bit color video output

37
Nintendo 64
  • CPU and Reality Co-Processor have more than four
    million transistors
  • vector processor that can perform over a half a
    billion arithmetic operations per second
  • approximately 10 times the raw compute power of
    some of the popular Intel Pentiums in use today.

38
Nintendo 64 -- How fast can it draw?
  • Pretty fast!!!
  • When running Super Mario 64, the N64 is computing
    approx 80,000,000 adds/subs/mults per second

39
Nintendo 64 Media Format
  • 256 Mbit cartridges
  • Cartridges allow for fast access but have limited
    storage
  • N64 Disk Drive will store 64 MB
  • N64 DD will read 1 MB/sec 6X CD

40
Nintendo 64 Party Trivia
  • Amaze your friends with some pretty cool trivia
    about why the N64 is so cool
  • Tell them about how many tax returns it could
    compute in a second
  • How NASA could have used it for Moon missions
  • What would happen if we networked all N64s in the
    world together .. Lets see!

41
N64 Party Trivia
  • The raw computational power inside the N64 could
    perform the calculations necessary to tabulate
    the tax returns of 6.5 million people per second
    (IRS Form 1040, the long form)

42
N64 Party Trivia
  • The Nintendo 64 has roughly 1,000 times the
    performance of the computers used to land a man
    on the moon.

43
Nintendo 64 Party Trivia
  • If the Webster's dictionary was on an N64
    cartridge, the N64 could read the entire
    dictionary in 1/4 of a second.

44
Nintendo 64 Party Trivia
  • The N64 can perform 3.5 times as many adds per
    second as the original Cray-1, which cost
    8,000,000 in 1976. The Cray-1 also consumed
    60,000 watts of power, compared to the Nintendo
    64 machine's 5 watts.

45
Nintendo 64 Party Trivia
  • The N64 design team included engineers that
    designed SGI workstations, PCs, military flight
    simulators, supercomputers, NASA software
    systems, stereos, stadium scoreboards, etc.

46
More information
  • Want to learn more? Check out these sites!
  • www.csee.wvu.edu/vic/thesis/abstract.html
  • www.csee.wvu.edu/cs288
  • www.csee.wvu.edu/vanscoy/idesk.html
  • 157.182.194.150 (WV VE Lab)
  • www.nintendo.com/n64/hardware.html
  • www.playstation.com
  • www.mips.com/coolApps/s3p6.html
  • e-mail -- vic_at_csee.wvu.edu
  • TAKE CS 288!!!!!
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