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UNDERHOOD MAINTENANCE

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Look for kinks and ensure that hoses don't touch hot or moving parts or sharp edges. ... Cat, Auto Insite, Gates And AllData. For the Pictures ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: UNDERHOOD MAINTENANCE


1
UNDERHOOD MAINTENANCE
2
ENGINE OIL
163C
  • What does engine oil do?
  • Lubricates
  • Cools
  • Seals
  • Cleans
  • Viscosity
  • Oil Types

3
OIL FILTERS
168C
  • Cleans oil
  • Paper Element
  • Inlet and Outlet Passages
  • Bypass Valve
  • Filter Identification

4
OIL FILTER FLOW
168C
  • Oil Filter Inlets are on outside
  • Oil Filter Outlet is in center
  • Sealing surface must be correct
  • Application must be correct

5
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
167C
  • Oil Pan
  • Pick Up Screen
  • Oil Pump
  • Oil Galleries
  • Pressure Relief Valve

6
COOLANT
170C
  • Raises Boiling Point
  • Lowers Freezing Point
  • Two Types of Anti-Freeze
  • Ethylene glycol
  • Propylene glycol
  • Mixture best at 50/50 Protects to -34 F
  • Acts as Lubricant for Water Pump
  • Remove 70 of Engine heat

7
What color COOLANT see the whole chart at peak
antifreeze
8
COOLANT info thanks to Kevin McCartney iatn
  • G05 - Hybrid/low silicate/OAT/phosphate free/8.0
    pH/Gold, orange,"kinda clear"or green. Chrysler
    (orange), Ford/ Mazda (Gold), MB (clear), Mazda
    (Gold), MTU marine (green).
  • G48 - Hybrid/low silicate/OAT/phosphate free/8.1
    pH/blue or green. BMW (blue), Volkswagon(G11)
    (blue), Audi (blue), Volvo (green), Saab (blue),
    Jaguar? (blue), Scania (blue), Man (blue).
  • G34 - Carboxylate OAT/silicate free/phosphate
    free/8.6 pH/pink, red, etc. Porsche (Kinda
    red/brown/orange), Volkswagon(G12) (red), Audi
    (red), Saab (red),
  • Dexcool - Carboxylate OAT/silicate
    free/phosphate free/8.6 pH/pink, red,
    orange,etc. very similar to G34 GM 1994 and
    later.
  • G30 - Carboxylate OAT/silicate free/phosphate
    free/8.6 pH/red. High silicate light
    duty/phosphates/10.6 pH/green. Low silicate
    light duty/phosphates/1.6 pH/green. Partially
    formulated HD/low silicate/phosphates/10.6
    pH/green. Fully formulated HD/low
    silicate/phosphates/10.6 pH/green.
  • "OAT" stands for Organic Acid Technology.

9
insite - fan/eng block
10
RADIATOR
172C
  • Two Types
  • Crossflow
  • Downflow
  • Construction
  • Copper
  • Aluminum
  • Hoses
  • Molded
  • Flexible

11
WATER PUMP
171C
  • Inlet
  • Outlet
  • Impeller
  • Hub
  • Weep Hole

12
THERMOSTAT
175C 176C
  • Engine Temp must be regulated 180 to 210 degrees
  • Located in upper passage
  • Engine has bypass hose for flow when stat is
    closed

Stant thermostats Cutaway
13
COOLING FANS
  • Engine only needs air flow at low speeds and idle
  • Types of Fans
  • Mechanical
  • Electric
  • Viscous clutch

14
HOSE CLAMPS
Crevice
Clamp
Wrong
Correct
  • Four Types of Clamps
  • Must install on hose correctly
  • Do not over tighten
  • Worm Drive easiest and does good job of clamping
    hose

15
Types of hose clamps
Single Wire
Twin wire
Constant Band
Worm Drive
16
RADIATOR CAP
  • Cap controls controls pressure and vacuum
  • Each pound of pressure can raise temperature 3
    degrees
  • Rating printed on top of cap
  • Pressure valve is connected to overflow reservoir

17
RADIATOR CAP
18
COOLING SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
19
COOLING SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
  • COMMON SERVICES AND REPAIRS of COOLING SYSTEM
  • Visual Inspection for external leaks
  • Replace radiator and heater hoses
  • Pressure Test Cooling System Cap
  • Replace Thermostat and Gasket
  • Replace Anti-freeze and Test
  • Flush Cooling System

For more information about cooling hoses go to
gates web site. http//www.gates.com/brochure.cfm?
brochure2833location_id3369
20
COOLING SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
  • Inspect and maintain coolant system hoses.
  • Look for kinks and ensure that hoses don't
    touch hot or moving parts or sharp edges.
  • Oil may damage hoses look for swollen, soft,
    mushy or sticky sections of hose.
  • Check clamp connections for leakage. Tighten
    clamps and replace as needed.
  • Physically check coolant hoses by conducting
    the following squeeze test.
  • 1) Make sure the engine is cool.

21
COOLING SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
  • 2) Use your thumb and fingers to check for
    weakness, not the whole hand.
  • 3) Squeeze near the connectors. A critical form
    of hose degradation called ECD Electrochemical
    degradation occurs within two inches of the ends
    of the hose.
  • 4) Check for differences in the feel between the
    middle and ends of the hose.
  • 5) If the ends feel soft, the hose should be
    replaced immediately.

22
COOLING SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
  • Hoses showing signs of wear or more than four
    years old should be replaced immediately.
  • Conduct a cooling system pressure test annually
    or more frequently depending on manufacturer
    recommendations and working conditions.
  • Many times a hose cracks from the inside from ECD
    you cannot see it.

23
COOLING SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
24
COOLING SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
25
Engine Heaters
  • Electrically operated heaters are often available
    as optional equipment on cars and light trucks.
    The heater may warm coolant with a heating
    element located in a coolant hose or in the
    engine block, or the heater may be located in a
    position that warms the engine oil. They help to
    provide easier starting in extremely cold
    temperatures.     

26
Types of Engine Heaters
Thanks NAPA
27
DRIVE BELTS
28
PULLEYS AND BELTS
Pg... 233 234C
  • Make sure you have the right size belt
  • Pitch and Width must be correct
  • Tension belt in foot pounds
  • Some water pumps turn in opposite direction

29
Belt Pulley Problems
Belt not aligned
Pulley worn
30
Belt Adjustment
  • Most new cars have automatic tensioners on them
    so no adjustment is needed. But the old belts
    must be checked and tightened.

31
Belt Adjustment
Find the Drive Belt Picture like this one from
All Data if you do not know how to adjust
it. Thanks All Data for use of the picture.
32
DRIVE BELTS PROBLEMSThanks Dayco
33
DRIVE BELTS PROBLEMS Thanks Dayco
34
DRIVE BELTS PROBLEMS
35
DRIVE BELTS PROBLEMS
Thanks to Gates for picture and info
APPEARANCE Each side of belt appears shiny or
glazed. In advanced stages, fabric becomes
exposed. CAUSE When in motion, the belt makes
contact with an object in its path such as a
flange or bolt. This may be caused by improper
belt tension or pulley bearing size. SOLUTION Rep
lace belt and remove the foreign object or, if it
cant be removed, ensure that contact is voided.
Check the automatic belt tensioner and ensure
proper belt tension.
36
DRIVE BELTS PROBLEMS
Thanks to Gates for picture and info
APPEARANCE Pieces or chunks of rubber material
have broken off from the belt. When chunk-out has
occurred, a belt can fail at any moment. CAUSE
Chunk-out can happen when several cracks in one
area move parallel to the cord line. Heat, age
and stress are the primary contributors. SOLUTION
Replace the belt immediately.
37
DRIVE BELTS PROBLEMS
Thanks to Gates for picture and info
APPEARANCE Belt material is sheared off from
the ribs and builds up in the belt grooves.
CAUSE There are a number of causes, including
lack of tension, misalignment, worn pulleys or a
combination of these factors. Pilling is found
most frequently in diesel engines, but is not
isolated to them. SOLUTION When pilling leads
to belt noise or excess vibration, the belt
should be replaced. Accessory brake pulleys
should be checked for material buildup between
groves. Replace if necessary.
38
DRIVE BELTS PROBLEMS
Thanks to Gates for picture and info
APPEARANCE Belt shows damage to the side with
the possibility of breaks in the tensile cord or
jagged edged ribs. A thumping or grinding noise
may also be heard when running. CAUSE A
foreign objectsuch as a small pebblein the
pulley can cause uneven wear and cut into the
belt. SOLUTION Replace belt and inspect pulley
for foreign objects or damage. Replace pulley if
necessary
39
DRIVE BELTS PROBLEMS
Thanks to Gates for picture and info
APPEARANCE A belt rib begins separating from the
joined strands. If left unattended, the cover
will often separate, causing the belt to
unravel. CAUSE Improper belt installation is a
common cause of premature failure. One of the
outer-most belt ribs is placed outside the pulley
groove, causing a belt rib to run without a
supporting or aligning pulley groove. SOLUTION
The belts life has been severely limited and
should be replaced immediately. Ensure all ribs
of the replacement belt fit into the pulley
grooves. Run the engine. Then, with the engine
off and battery disconnected, inspect the belt
for proper installation.
40
DRIVE BELTS PROBLEMS
Thanks to Gates for picture and info
APPEARANCE Small, yet visible cracks along the
length of a rib or ribs. CAUSE With continuous
exposure to high temperatures, the stress of
bending around the pulley leads to cracking.
Cracks begin on the ribs and grow into the cord
line. As a rule, if three or more cracks appear
in a three-inch section of a belt, eighty percent
of the life is gone and the belt should be
replaced. SOLUTION Replace Check tensioner
pulley and idler pulley for bearing wear. Replace
if necessary.
41
DRIVE BELTS PROBLEMS
Thanks to Gates for picture and info
APPEARANCE Sidewalls of the belt may appear
glazed or the edge-cord may become frayed and
ribs removed. A noticeable noise may result. In
severe cases, the belt can jump off the pulley.
CAUSE Pulley misalignment can be caused by two
conditions (see below). Misalignment forces the
belt to kink or twist while running, causing
premature wear. SOLUTION Replace the belt and
make sure to realign the pulleys. Also check to
make sure the pulleys, pulley brackets and shafts
are not bent or broken.
42
DRIVE BELTS PROBLEMS
Thanks to Gates for picture and info
APPEARANCE Small pinholes are visible on the
backside of the belt. Bumps may be visible and
fabric around the holes can be frayed. CAUSE
Rock, gravel or sand is wedged between the belt
grooves and pulley ridges. SOLUTION The belt
needs to be replaced to avoid tensile cord
separation and possible roadside failure.
43
DRIVE BELTS PROBLEMS
  • If You have a squeak and it sounds like a belt
    try squirting water on it if it goes away you
    probably need a new belt.

44
DRIVE BELTS
45
DRIVE BELTS
  • Make sure you know how to route the serpentine
    belt around the pulleys.

46
DRIVE BELT TENSIONER
  • .

47
DRIVE BELT TENSIONER
Thanks to Goodyear for the picture info
1. SPRING Maintains belt tension at a constant
value throughout the operating range.2. ARM
Connects spring to idler pulley while maintaining
proper alignment.3. INSERT BEARING Provides
angular alignment needed for proper belt
tracking.4. DAMPING ELEMENT (SPRING SUPPORT)
Provides additional tensioner damping and load
balancing.5. SPRING HOUSING/SPINDLE Anchors
spring. Arm pivots around the spindle.6. IDLER
PULLEY Pulley surface is grooved, flat or
crowned.7. PULLEY BOLT Allows service
replacement of pulley means for lifting arm.8.
DUST SHIELD Prevents high-pressure spray,
foreign material or installation tools from
damaging the bearing seal.Note Sometimes
integrated with pulley bolt.9. FRONT PLATE
Holds tensioner together.10. THRUST WASHER
Provides thrust wear surface.
http//www.goodyearbeltsandhose.ca/replacement/car
sandlt/tensioners.html
48
DRIVE BELT TENSIONER
  • Make sure the tensioner is in good shape.

49
Idler Pulleys
Dont forget the Idler Pulley. We change out the
belt and the tensioner but forget the other
pulleys. Are they whining, check the nylon
ones for wear across the surface. All can wear
but nylon ones need to be replaced more
often. (see picture on previous page)
50
AIR INDUCTION SYSTEM
182C
  • Air Filter traps abrasive particles
  • Must be changed regularly
  • System can control inlet air temperature
  • Housings usually plastic

51
AIR INDUCTION SYSTEM
  • Air filter Service indicator
  • This reading shows normal indication when the
    filter element is clean. (Readings vary with
    system design.)
  • As the filter element slowly fills with dust and
    soot, the indicator moves up the calibrated gauge
    to show the exact percentage of filter life
    remaining.
  • Here the reading shows the filter is no longer
    allowing sufficient air into the engine and
    should be changed.

http//www.cat.com/cda/layout?m37503x7
52
Air Filter Service Indicator
53
FUEL SYSTEM
  • Tank, Pump, inlet sock,sender
  • Lines
  • Fuel Filter
  • Fuel pressure tap

54
UNDERHOOD FLUIDS
185C - 187C
  • Power Steering Fluid
  • Brake Fluid
  • Reservoir
  • Ratings (DOT 3,4,5)
  • Must not use lesser rating
  • Do not mix!
  • Electrolyte
  • Water/acid mix in the battery
  • Window Washer Fluid

55
BATTERY
187C - 195C
  • Safety is very important!
  • Chemical Action
  • Lead Peroxide
  • Sponge lead
  • Battery Construction
  • Battery Types
  • Battery size and ratings

56
Thanks to Dayco, Cat, Auto Insite, Gates And
AllData For the Pictures
DUH, Thats all folks!!!
http//www.gates.com/brochure.cfm?brochure2837lo
cation_id3373
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