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Ergogenic Supplements

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... boys and sports such as; football, wrestling, hockey, gymnastics, and lacrosse ... sprints in cycling, swimming, and track and field, there has been mixed results ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ergogenic Supplements


1
Ergogenic Supplements
Gregory R. Schrader Anne Arundel Community
College Biology Department Arnold, MD
2
INTRODUCTION
  • In a survey conducted by researchers, 40 of the
    U.S. population is thought to use
    vitamins/mineral on a regular basis
  • Of that 40, 14 use at least 1
    herbal/nutritional supplement per week
  • 4 of all Americans (12million) have taken a
    sport supplement at least once
  • 1.2 million use them regularly
  • From 1992 - 1999 sales of dietary supplements
    increased from 3.3 billion to 12 billion

3
INTRODUCTION
  • A study examined male and female division I
    varsity athletes
  • Types of supplements used
  • 73 energy drinks
  • 61 calorie replacement
  • 47 multivitamins
  • 37 creatine
  • 32 vitamin C
  • Information obtained from
  • Males store nutritionist, fellow athletes,
    friends, coach
  • Females family members
  • Reason for taking
  • Males improve speed and agility, strength and
    power, weight/muscle gain
  • Females health or inadequate diet

4
INTRODUCTION
  • In a survey of 198 Olympic-level athletes in 1995
  • 98 said would take banned substance if
    guaranteed victory and undetectable
  • 50 said would take same substance if it would
    allow a winning season for 5 years but result in
    death
  • High school survey of steroid use
  • Indiana Football players use rate 6, mean
    age 14, 15 began before age 10
  • 1600 Canadian students 6th grade 2.8

5
INTRODUCTION
  • Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act
  • Act passed in 1994 stating that the US Food and
    Drug Administration (FDA) is not responsible for
    regulating/guaranteeing the purity or safety of
    dietary supplements
  • Designed to promote health and prevent disease
  • Restriction label cannot claim to cure, prevent,
    or treat a particular disease
  • Performance enhancing substances
  • Performance effects and safety
  • Lack of long term studies
  • Lack of studies on pediatric and adolescent
    population

6
INTRODUCTION
  • Fact or Fiction
  • Industry claims
  • Media and word of mouth
  • Current research

7
POPULAR SUPPLEMENTS
  • Creatine
  • Androstenedione
  • HMB
  • Ephedrine/MaHuang
  • L-arginine (amino acid)

8
CREATINE
  • Most popular nutritional supplement
  • From 1997 2000 sales increased 3x to 300
    million
  • First reported use in 1992 Summer Olympics
  • Prevalence in college athletes reported as high
    as 48 in college male athletes
  • Research studies reported
  • out of 1300 high school football players 30 were
    using creatine
  • creatine use in middle and high school athletes
    aged 10 to 18. (n 1103)
  • Results
  • 5.6 admitted taking creatine
  • Creatine use was reported in every grade 6-12
  • 44 of grade 12 athletes surveyed reported using
    creatine (approaches level of use in college
    athletes)
  • Creatine use more common in boys and sports such
    as football, wrestling, hockey, gymnastics, and
    lacrosse

9
CREATINE
  • Synthesis in the body
  • Creatine is found naturally in the body
  • Synthesized in the liver, pancreas, and kidneys
    from amino acids apporx. 1-2g/day
  • Also consumed from animal products
  • American diet of meat and fish provide 1-2g/day

10
CREATINE
  • In the body
  • Phosphocreatine resynthesizes ATP during maximal
    exercise
  • Requires transport into muscle via Na symporter
  • Depletion of phosphocreatine highly correlates
    with a reduction in force
  • 95 of all creatine is located in skeletal muscle
  • Breakdown to creatine at a rate of approx. 2g/day

11
CREATINE
  • Synthesis in the body
  • Creatine is found naturally in the body
  • Synthesized in the liver, pancreas, and kidneys
    from amino acids
  • Also consumed from animal products

12
CREATINE
  • Exercise
  • The beginning of intense exercise short duration
  • ATP (ATPase) ? ADP Pi E
  • Phosphocreatine
  • Pi Cr ? PCr
  • Energy buffer
  • PCr ADP H ? Cr ATP
  • Recovery
  • Cr ATP ? PCr ADP
  • BOTTOM LINE CREATINE PROVIDES IMMEDIATE
    ENERGY FOR MUSCLE WORK

13
CREATINE
  • Exercise
  • Storage in dry muscle is 125mmol/kg dependent
    on fiber type
  • Different fibers types
  • Type II (fast twitch)
  • High resting concentration
  • Depletion rate greater
  • Type I (slow twitch)
  • Low resting concentration
  • Depletion rate lower

14
CREATINE
  • Forms of Supplementation
  • Liquid serum form usually 1oz serving/day no
    loading required
  • Powder white chalky powder
  • Loading - (4-5) 1 tspn serving (20-25g)/day for
    5-7days
  • Maintenance -(1-2) 1 tspn servings (5-10g)/day
  • Concentrate seen in pill and gum form dosages
    vary with product
  • Creatine Complex Multiple forms in one powder
    (e.g., creatine ester, creatine monohydrate,
    creatine alpha-ketoglutarate, tri-creatine
    malate)

15
CREATINE
  • Industry claims
  • Increase muscle mass by increasing the intensity
    of workouts
  • Increasing power (force per unit time) by
    increasing creatine stores
  • Workout longer and harder
  • Improve memory and intelligence

16
CREATINE
  • Word of mouth
  • The more the better
  • Causes dehydration, cramping and headaches
  • Take with drinks containing sugar or caffeine

17
CREATINE
  • Current findings
  • Research is done with powder form of
    supplementation
  • Avg. results with common prescribed loading
    (20-25g)/day
  • Increase in muscle Cr are approx. 20
    (150-155mmol/kg)
  • Extremely variable between individuals
  • Based on initial stores
  • Muscle strength increased up to 30 with short
    term supplementation
  • In other anaerobic activities such as sprints in
    cycling, swimming, and track and field, there has
    been mixed results

18
CREATINE
  • Current findings
  • Acute Effects
  • Short term use of Cr can significantly enhance
    the maintenance of muscle force and power during
    exhaustive bouts of exercise
  • Due to supplying the increase demand placed on
    the immediate ATP system
  • Cr supplementation does not seem to enhance
    aerobic oriented activities

19
CREATINE
  • Current findings
  • Acute effects (cont)
  • Increase in body mass of .5 2 kg
  • Most likely due to increased water retention
    shown as a decreased urinary volume

20
CREATINE
  • Current findings
  • Chronic Effects
  • Very few studies have investigated the benefits
    and risks of long term creatine use
  • To Date
  • Most common 4-9 days showed improvement in muscle
    strength and 1-2.3 increase in body mass
    (debatable whether water or protein)
  • 4 weeks of creatine supplementation effects on
    total lifting volume(TLV) and work(TW), and body
    composition in Div. 1A football players
  • Increase in muscle strength (45)
  • Increase in muscle mass

21
CREATINE
  • Current findings
  • Side effects
  • No direct cause and effect relationship between
    negative side effects and creatine use
  • GI distress, nausea, and muscle cramping have
    been attributed to Cr supplementation
  • Long term use
  • Down regulation of creatine transport protein
  • Not clear on significance of this finding
  • Those with existing kidney problems
  • Limited data on elderly and no safety data on
    young adults

22
CREATINE
  • Current findings
  • Long term use
  • A review published in 2005 states a lack of well
    controlled long term studies
  • Four studies ranging from 2 months to over 5
    years of creatine supplementation have been
    conducted since 2002
  • Many variables measured kidney, muscle, and
    liver enzymes, lipid profiles, electrolytes, etc
  • No adverse effects noted
  • One study found that effects of creatine on
    muscle function and muscle total creatine content
    declined with long term use ( 2-3 months)

23
CREATINE
  • Current findings
  • Creatine combined with glucose or caffeine
  • Glucose shown to enhance Cr accumulation in
    muscle via insulin response to carbohydrate
    ingestion
  • 90 100g of glucose per 5g of creatine needed to
    elicit effect. This proportion is difficult to
    consume
  • Caffeine shown to decrease the effect of
    creatine supplementation

24
CREATINE
  • Current findings
  • Dosages
  • All research using creatine supplementation has
    shown that the recommended doses are most
    effective and more is not better
  • Loading - (4-5) 1 tspn serving (20-25g)/day for
    5-7days
  • Maintenance -(1-2) 1 tspn servings (5-10g)/day
    Research is done with powder form of
    supplementation
  • Research suggests that the powder be scooped
    directly in the mouth with a few sips of water
  • Loading phase may not be necessary
  • Most individuals consume 12-14g/day in the
    non-loading phase

25
CREATINE
  • Memory and intelligence
  • To early to tell
  • Few studies have shown a significant improvement
    on working memory and intelligence
  • Problems how cognitive variables are measured

26
ANDROSTENEDIONE
  • In the body
  • Androstenedione is found naturally
  • Serves as a precursor to testosterone


27
ANDROSTENEDIONE
  • Exercise
  • Common knowledge
  • Increase testosterone production
  • Increase muscle mass

28
ANDROSTENEDIONE
  • Form of supplementation
  • Many different ways to take androstenedione
  • Taken alone sublingual form
  • Combined with other drugs (stacked)
  • Tri andro (three types of andro)
  • Nor andro (two types of andro)

29
ANDROSTENEDIONE
  • Industry claims
  • 337 increase in testosterone levels for 2-3 hrs
  • Increase muscle mass and strength
  • Natural alternative to anabolic steroids

30
ANDROSTENEDIONE
  • Word of mouth
  • Get the benefits of steroids without the side
    effects
  • Testosterone is not elevated long enough to get
    negative effects
  • Cycling not needed

31
ANDROSTENEDIONE
  • Current findings
  • researchers looked at the effects of short and
    long term oral androstenedione supplementation in
    30 healthy, normotesterogenic men
  • Results
  • total testosterone levels were not affected by
    short or long term use
  • Serum estrone and estradiol (female sex hormones)
    increased concentration after 2, 5 and 8 weeks of
    use

32
ANDROSTENEDIONE
  • Current findings
  • Results (cont)
  • Knee extension strength and mean cross sectional
    area of type 2 muscle fibers increased
    significantly and similarly in placebo and andro
    groups
  • Increased in FFM and decrease in FM were also
    similar in both groups
  • Decrease in HDL cholesterol levels after 2 weeks
    of andro use and remained low weeks 5 and 8

33
ANDROSTENEDIONE
  • Current findings
  • researchers looked at the effects of
    androstenedione-6 (androstenedione, 300 mg
    dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEA), 150 mg) serum
    testosterone levels in healthy, normotesterogenic
    young men
  • Results
  • Serum free and total testosterone were not
    affected
  • Serum estrone and estradiol were elevated
  • No difference in strength b/w 2 groups
  • 12 decrease in HDL cholesterol levels

34
ANDROSTENEDIONE
  • Risks
  • Increased cardiovascular risk
  • Increased estrogen levels
  • Irreversible gynecomastia(male breast formation)
  • Premature epiphyseal closure

35
HMB
  • In the body
  • Beta-hydroxy-metylbutyrate (HMB) is naturally
    produced from proteins containing the amino acid
    Leucine
  • Used in protein synthesis

36
HMB
  • Form of supplementation
  • Tablet form most common
  • 750 mg tablets
  • Dosage
  • 3-4 tablets a day
  • 1 morning
  • 1 midday
  • 1-2 pre-exercise

37
HMB
  • Industry claims
  • Increase strength and muscle mass by acting as a
    precursor to muscle that supports repair
  • Cycling not needed
  • Safe at recommended dose

38
HMB
  • Current findings
  • Researchers examined the effects of HMB on 70
    normal healthy individuals
  • Divided into 2 studies
  • Study 1 looked at the effects of different levels
    of HMB on protein proteolysis(breakdown)
  • Results 1.5-3.0g/day of HMB showed a reduction
    in proteolysis
  • Study 2 looked at the effects of 3g/day HMB on
    FFM compared to control
  • Results significant gains in FFM at weeks 2-4-6
    for HMB group compared to control

39
HMB
  • Current findings
  • Another study looked at the effects of HMB on
    trained athletes
  • Results
  • 3 or 6g/day dosage of HMB for 28 days did not
    show a reduction in proteolysis or increase FFM
    or strength

40
HMB
  • Adverse Effects
  • Insufficient data to date lack of controlled
    long-term studies

41
MaHuang/Ephedrine
  • Estimated 3 billion doses sold in 1999

42
MaHuang/Ephedrine
  • MaHuang dried stems of the ephedra plant, has
    been used in traditional Chinese medicine for
    5,000 years.
  • MaHuang/Ephedrine Medically used for colds
    and flu, fever, chills, headache, edema,
    bronchial asthma, lack of perspiration, nasal
    congestion, aching joints and bones, and coughs
    and weezing.

43
MaHuang/Ephedrine
  • Chemistry
  • Primary active ingredient is ephedra
  • Dominant alkaloid is Ephedrine, which is the
    chemical copy of the herbal compound used as a
    drug in medicine
  • Pseudo-ephedrine is a chemical isomer that
    similar to ephedra
  • Ephedra contains both Pseudo-ephedrine and
    ephedrine, referred to as the ephedra alkaloids

44
MaHuang/Ephedrine
  • Pharmacology of ephedra alkaloids
  • a(alpha) ß(beta) adrenergic agonists
  • Enhances Sympathetic NS stimulation
  • Peripheral vasoconstriction
  • Bronchodilation
  • Elevation of blood pressure
  • Cardiac stimulation
  • Diureses
  • Potent CNS stimulant

45
MaHuang/Ephedrine
  • Form of supplementation
  • Natural herbal pill form
  • Diet pills
  • Energy pills
  • Combination of diet and energy products with
    caffeine or natural caffeine such as kola nut,
    guarana, or tea.
  • Combined in sport drinks

46
MaHuang/Ephedrine
  • Industry Claims
  • Weight loss and thermogenesis
  • Ability to open adrenergic receptor sites found
    in heart and lungs, thereby increasing metabolic
    rate and caloric consumption
  • Net result is a release of fatty acids from
    stored fat cells.
  • Quicker consumption of fat into energy.
  • Improve muscle strength and development
  • Improve athletic performance

47
MaHuang/Ephedrine
  • Industry claims (cont.)
  • Benefits body building and endurance athletes by
    promoting thermogenesis
  • Increase contractile strength of muscle fibers,
    allowing bodybuilders to work harder and heavier

48
MaHuang/Ephedrine
  • Current findings
  • Current studies show no increase in muscle
    strength, time to exhaustion, oxygen uptake,
    perceived fatigue
  • Looking at a three fold increase in the
    theraputic dose of ephedra showed an increase
    in strength and power during 30 seconds of
    maximal cycling
  • Higher doses may have ergogenic effect also
    increases risk

49
MaHuang/Ephedrine
  • Current findings
  • International Journal of Obesity (1993)
  • Ephedrine and caffeine as a thermogenic formula
  • Found to be safe and effective for thermogenesis
  • Many studies have shown when combined with
    caffeine products, the thermogenic effect can be
    improved as much as 20. Ratio of 20 mg
    ephedrine to 200 mg of caffeine(100-150mg/cup of
    coffee), 3x day. Significant decreases in total
    body weight observed
  • One study looked at endurance benefits of
    ephedrine combined with caffeine
  • Dose 1mg/Kg ephedrine 5mg/Kg caffeine
  • Increase in time to exhaustion
  • Decrease in perceived fatigue
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Increased heart rate

50
MaHuang/Ephedrine
  • Current findings
  • Largest review to date (Shekelle et. al)
  • Showed a modest short-term weight loss of
    .9Kg/month more than placebo
  • Also showed 2.2 3.6 fold increase in
    psychiatric, autonomic, GI symptoms and heart
    palpitations

51
MaHuang/Ephedrine
  • Toxicology
  • Large Doses ( 150mg/d) can cause
  • Nervousness
  • Headaches
  • Insomnia
  • Dizziness
  • Palpitations
  • Skin flushing
  • Tingling and vomiting

52
MaHuang/Ephedrine
  • Contraindications
  • High blood pressure
  • Gastric ulcer
  • Active heart disease
  • Stimulant sensitive
  • Pregnant
  • Diabetes
  • Thyroid dysfunction
  • Difficulty in urination due to enlarged prostate
    gland

53
MaHuang/Ephedrine
  • Potential Health Hazards
  • 1995 Bureau of Food and Drug Safety in Texas
    received approx. 500 reports of adverse events
    associated with ephedrine containing products
  • 2001 study in NEJM listed adverse events ranging
    from permanent disability to deaths either
    definitely or probably related to ephedra
  • Approx. 21 states have passed regulations that
    are more stringent then federal regulations.
    Ephedrine by prescription only.
  • DEA is concerned over the potential use of
    ephedrine in the manufacturing of illicit drugs.
  • December 31, 2003 Ephedra banned by the FDA
    followed death of Baltimore Oriole prospective
    pitcher death autopsy showed ephedra linked to
    heat related death
  • April, 2005 U.S. gov. Judge removes ban based on
    testimony of manufactures claim that Ephedra has
    been safely used for many years

54
MaHuang/Ephedrine
  • Potential Health Hazards
  • Health care provider awareness (FDA)
  • Question clients about use of dietary supplements
    and herbal medications
  • Report any adverse effects to dietary
    supplements, including those containing ephedrine
    to FDAs Med Watch Program 800-FDA-1088
  • Consumers can report to FDA hotline 800-FDA-4010

55
L-ARGININE
  • In the body
  • L-Arginine is a conditionally essential amino
    acid
  • produced in the kidney and to a lesser extent, in
    the liver.
  • Serves as a precursor to Nitric Oxide(NO)


56
L-ARGININE
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Relaxes smooth muscle in blood vessels
  • Decreases blood pressure
  • Increases blood flow and delivery of nutrients

57
L-ARGININE
  • Form of supplementation
  • Capsule 500 -1000mg 1-4/day
  • Powder form
  • 5000mg 3/day
  • Combined with other drugs (stacked)
  • Creatine-arginine-glutamine

58
L-ARGININE
  • Industry claims
  • Increase muscle mass and strength
  • Decrease body fat
  • Reduce risk of heart disease
  • Support healthy blood sugar levels
  • Boosts energy
  • Supports healthy sexual performance

59
L-ARGININE
  • Word of mouth
  • Get multiple benefits without side effects
  • Can take at all ages

60
L-ARGININE
  • Current findings
  • No consistent findings in healthy individuals
  • A few studies have looked at individuals with
    heart failure or hypertension
  • Results
  • Decreased heart rate response to exercise
  • Improved blood flow (determined by a decrease in
    non-oxidative blood markers)

61
L-ARGININE
  • Problems
  • No dosage recommendation
  • No consistent data with healthy individuals
  • No long term studies

62
L-ARGININE
  • Risks
  • may worsen heartburn, ulcers, or digestive upset
    cause by medications.
  • increase stomach acid by stimulating the
    production of gastrin
  • may alter potassium levels, especially in people
    with liver disease.
  • may alter the levels of chloride, sodium, and
    phosphate.

63
L-ARGININE
  • Risks
  • may increase blood sugar levels
  • Shown to aggravate symptoms of genital herpes

64
Up and Coming Supplements
  • Supplements to watch
  • Cortisol Blockers
  • Chromium

65
Reasons Athletes Take Ergogenic Drugs
  • Increase in strength and power
  • Increase in endurance
  • Increase in aggressiveness
  • Increase in speed and acceleration
  • Enhancement of competitive attitude
  • Enhancement of concentration
  • Enhancement of eye-hand coordination
  • Diminishment of pain perception
  • Diminishment of anxiety
  • Diminishment of fatigue
  • Weight Control

66
Substance Abuse and Dependence
Defining symptom of Substance Abuse UCR Use,
followed by adverse Consequences, followed by
Repetition of use and consequences. Adverse
consequences may occur in areas of physical
health, emotional health, or social functioning.
67
Substance Abuse and Dependence
  • Signs and Symptoms
  • Continued use despite recurrent problems
  • Impaired Control
  • Tolerance and Withdrawal

68
Substance Abuse and Dependence
Tolerance more of the substance to get the same
effect that smaller doses once produced Withdrawal
athlete feels physically ill when he or she
stops or cuts down use of the substance Athletes
with withdrawal symptoms have physical dependence.
69
Patterns of Substance Use
Hazardous Use (At-Risk Use) places the athlete
at risk of developing problems Substance Abuse
(Problem Use) the continued use of a substance
despite harmful problems or adverse consequences
resulting from its use Substance Dependence
(Dependent Use) most severe and characterized
by impaired control over use, adverse
consequences, and sometimes tolerance and
withdrawal
70
Screening Questions
  • Have you felt you ought to cut down on your drug
    use?
  • Have people annoyed you by criticizing your drug
    use?
  • Have you felt bad or guilty about your drug use?
  • Have you ever used drugs the first thing in the
    morning to steady your nerves or to get the day
    started (eye-opener)?

71
Ethical Implications
  • Nutritional Need or Athletic Overconformity
  • Overconformity in sport suggest that athletes
    preparing for competition exhibit forms of
    positive deviance not because they disregard the
    social values of society but because they are
    willing to go beyond them
  • Excessive supplementation is an example of such
    behavior

72
Supplement Conclusion
  • Beneficial without adverse effects on individuals
    health?
  • Advertising claims vs. truth
  • Responsible use
  • Abuse and dependence
  • Ethical considerations
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