Clean Air Mercury Rule CAMR - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Clean Air Mercury Rule CAMR PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 16847-OTZlZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Clean Air Mercury Rule CAMR

Description:

The Clean Air Mercury Rule will build on EPA's Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) ... Concentrations of mercury in the air are usually low. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:163
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 18
Provided by: robert157
Learn more at: http://www.westar.org
Category:
Tags: camr | air | clean | mercury | rule

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Clean Air Mercury Rule CAMR


1
Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR)
  • Office of Air and Radiation
  • May 2005

2
Benefits of the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR)
  • The Clean Air Mercury Rule will build on EPAs
    Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) to significantly
    reduce emissions from coal-fired power plants --
    the largest remaining sources of mercury
    emissions in the country.
  • When fully implemented, these rules will reduce
    utility emissions of mercury from 48 tons a year
    to 15 tons, a reduction of nearly 70 percent.
  • EPAs modeling shows that CAIR will significantly
    reduce the majority of the coal-fired power plant
    mercury emissions that deposit in the United
    States, and those reductions will occur in areas
    where mercury deposition is currently the
    highest.
  • The Clean Air Mercury Rule is expected to make
    additional reductions in emissions that are
    transported regionally and deposited
    domestically, and it will reduce emissions that
    contribute to atmospheric mercury worldwide.
  • Emission reductions occur while economic strength
    is preserved. U.S. maintains both low electricity
    prices and fuel diversity.

The first-ever federal rule to permanently cap
and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired
power plants.
3
Mercury Concerns
  • Concentrations of mercury in the air are usually
    low. However, atmospheric mercury falls to Earth
    through rain, snow and dry deposition and enters
    lakes, rivers and estuaries. Once there, it can
    transform into, methylmercury, and can build up
    in fish tissue.
  • Americans are exposed to methylmercury primarily
    by eating contaminated fish.
  • Because the developing fetus is the most
    sensitive to the toxic effects of methylmercury,
    women of childbearing age are regarded as the
    population of greatest concern.
  • Children who exposed to methylmercury before
    birth may be at increased risk of poor
    performance on neurobehavioral tasks, such as
    those measuring attention, fine motor function,
    language skills, visual-spatial abilities and
    verbal memory.
  • Methylmercury exposure may also result in
    cardiovascular and other health effects.
  • Ecosystems may be affected by mercury deposition.

4
U.S. Emissions of Human-Caused Mercury Have
Dropped 45 since 1990
Note 1999 emission estimate for utility coal
boilers is based on 1999 Information Collection
Request (ICR) 1990 and 1996 are based on
different methodology.
5
Two Ways to Address Hg Emissions from Power
Plants
  • The Presidents Clear Skies legislation is the
    preferred approach to achieving multi-pollutant
    emission reductions
  • Multipollution caps apply to entire country.
  • Legislation can provide more certainty and less
    complexity.
  • Use of existing Clean Air Act authority to
    address Hg emissions
  • Until legislation passes, concerns related to
    power plant Hg emissions demand we act now.
  • CAMR will provide significant reductions in Hg
    emissions from power plants in a highly
    cost-effective manner.

6
Key Elements of CAMR
  • The Clean Air Mercury Rule establishes standards
    of performance limiting mercury emissions from
    new and existing coal-fired power plants and
    creates a market-based cap-and-trade program that
    will reduce nationwide utility emissions of
    mercury in two distinct phases.
  • The first phase cap is 38 tons and emissions will
    be reduced by taking advantage of co-benefit
    reductions that is, mercury reductions achieved
    by reducing sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen
    oxides (NOx) emissions under CAIR the new Base
    Case.
  • In the second phase, due in 2018, coal-fired
    power plants will be subject to a second cap,
    which will reduce emissions to 15 tons upon full
    implementation.
  • New coal-fired power plants (means construction
    starting on or after Jan. 30, 2004) will have to
    meet new source performance standards in addition
    to being subject to the caps.
  • CAMR sets an emission reduction requirement for
    each State and Indian country, by distributing
    the national emissions cap among the States and
    Indian country.
  • Provides an optional cap and trade program based
    on successful Acid Rain and NOx Budget Trading
    programs as a method to implement the necessary
    reductions.
  • Allows States flexibility on how to achieve the
    required reductions, including whether to join
    the trading program.

7
Cap and Trade Mechanism Allowance Allocation
and Markets
  • Set State budgets
  • Establish trading program
  • and market procedures
  • Administer tracking systems
  • Define allowance allocation
  • parameters
  • State Plan detailing how it will meet its budget
    for reducing mercury from coal-fired power plants
  • Voluntary trading program
  • - Adopt rules/program in 18 months
  • - Allocate Hg allowances

EPA ROLE
STATE ROLE
  • EPA is working to provide a smooth transition to
    new trading program
  • Designed with existing cap-and-trade programs in
    mind
  • Integration with CAIR program

8
New Source Requirements
  • New coal-fired power units (Subpart Da electric
    generating units) constructed after Jan. 30,
    2004 will have to meet new source performance
    standards in addition to being subject to the
    caps.
  • Since new sources are included in the cap, new
    sources will also need to hold allowances equal
    to their emissions.
  • Compliance with the NSPS is determined on a
    12-month rolling average basis, using data from a
    CEMS or sorbent trap monitoring system
  • Performance Specification 12-A (certification
    procedure for the Hg CEMS required under Subpart
    Da) has also been promulgated as part of the CAMR
    rule package

New Source NSPS Limits
9
Hg Monitoring Requirements
  • Stringent emission monitoring and reporting
    requirements ensure that monitored data are
    accurate, that reporting is consistent among
    sources and that the emission reductions occur.
  • All units would have the flexibility to install
    sorbent traps or CEMS
  • Some low- emitting units (qualify for a third option
  • Two-tiered approach requires annual stack testing
    if Hg emissions are
    testing if emissions are greater than 9 lb/yr,
    but
  • Sources may also petition to use an alternative
    monitoring system, under Subpart E of Part 75
  • The blueprint for the Hg trading program is found
    in Subpart HHHH of 40 CFR Part 60.
  • Subpart HHHH includes monitoring provisions
    (60.4170-76)
  • Subpart I has been added to Part 75
  • Establishes monitoring methods for Hg mass
    emissions
  • Similar to Subpart H for the NOx SIP Call
  • Revisions have been made to key sections of Parts
    72 and 75 to facilitate implementation of the
    Subpart I monitoring provisions

10
National Hg Power Plant Emissions Historic and
Projected with CAMR
Projected with CAMR
Note 1999 emission estimate for utility coal
boilers is based on 1999 Information Collection
Request (ICR) 1990 and 1996 are based on
different methodology.
Source EPA
11
Reductions in Hg Deposition under CAMR
Regional Annual Deposition of Mercury
Attributable to Electricity Generating Utilities
in the 2001 Base Year
  • By 2020, EPA projects significant reductions in
    utility attributable Hg deposition.
  • Reductions in deposition are largely due to the
    implementation of CAIR controls at utilities, and
    CAMR is projected to make additional reductions
    in regional and worldwide deposition.

Regional Annual Deposition of Mercury
Attributable to Electricity Generating Utilities
in 2020 under CAMR (2020 Deposition Scale)
Regional Annual Deposition of Mercury
Attributable to Electricity Generating Utilities
in 2020 under CAMR (2020 Deposition Scale)
12
CAMR Health and Environmental Benefits
Due to both technical and resource limits in
available modeling, only able to quantify and
monetize the benefits for a few of endpoints.
  • Estimated benefits (from avoided IQ decrements)
    of reducing exposures from recreational
    freshwater anglers range from 0.2 million to
    2.0 million annually.
  • benefit estimate does not include consumption
    from commercial sources or subsistence anglers.
  • Estimated PM-related benefits are approximately
    1.4 million to 40 million annually
  • calculation of these benefits uncertain since
    highly dependent on uncertain future technology
    choices of the industry
  • Other non-monetizable benefits cardiovascular
    effects, ecosystem effects and other genotoxic
    or immunotoxic effects.
  • In 2020, CAMR will cost about 750 million a
    year. Implementation beyond 2020 leads to higher
    annual benefits and costs.
  • Although the cost-benefit analysis shows a net
    cost to society, CAMR achieves a significant
    reduction in Hg emissions by domestic sources. In
    addition, the cost of Hg exposure falls
    disproportionately on populations who consume
    larger amounts of recreationally caught
    freshwater fish than the general population.

13
Annualized Private Cost of CAMR
  • The net present value of CAMR incremental to CAIR
    for the years 2007-2025 is 3.9 billion.

Note From IPM. Cost of CAIR is 2.4 billion in
2010, 3.6 billion in 2015, and 4.4 billion in
2020, with a net present value of 41.1 billion.
14
Other Projected Impacts
Natural Gas Prices
Regional Retail Electricity Prices
Note Henry Hub prices
Generation Mix
Coal Production for Electricity
Generation (million tons)
Other
2020
Renewables
2015
2010
Hydro
Nuclear
Gas/Oil
Coal
Note Retail prices for 2000 are from AEO2003.
Natural Gas prices for 2000 are from Platts
GASdat. All other data is from EPAs Integrated
Planning Model.
15
CAIR/CAMR Approach vs Clear Skies Act 2003
  • The Administration remains committed to working
    with Congress to help advance the Clear Skies
    legislation in order to achieve greater certainty
    and nationwide emission reductions, but believes
    the U.S. needs regulations in place now.
  • The Clear Skies Act of 2003 would provide a
    federally implemented cap-and-trade program
    covering all 50 States and would
  • establish a SO2 cap of 4.5 million tons in 2010
    and 3 million tons in 2018
  • establish a NOx cap of 2.1 million tons in 2008
    and1.7 million tons in 2018
  • establish a mercury cap of 26 tons in 2010 and 15
    tons in 2018
  • establish a two trading zones for the NOx
    reductions
  • CAIR covers 28 eastern States and DC and CAMR
    covers 50 States and DC. Together they would
  • establish a regional SO2 cap of 3.6 million tons
    in 2010 and 2.5 million tons in 2018
  • establish a regional NOx cap of 1.5 million tons
    in 2008 and 1.3 million tons in 2018
  • establish a national mercury cap of 38 tons in
    2010 and 15 tons in 2018
  • establish a regional NOx ozone-season cap for
    States covered by NOx SIP call
  • Under CAIR/CAMR, the national caps are
    distributed to the States and States must achieve
    the required emission reductions using one of two
    compliance options
  • 1) meet the States emission budget by requiring
    power plants to participate in an
    EPA-administered interstate cap-and-trade system
    that caps emissions, or
  • 2) meet an individual State emissions budget
    through measures of the States choosing.
  • CAIR allows States to achieve reductions from
    power plants and other sources and CAMR requires
    reductions from coal-fired power plants.

16
Summary
  • CAMR significantly cuts emissions of mercury from
    power plants and
  • Builds on EPAs Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR)
    to allow power industry to address mercury, SO2
    and NOx emissions in a coordinated effort.
  • Along with CAIR, will protect public health and
    the environment without interfering with the
    steady flow of affordable energy for American
    consumers and business.
  • Along with CAIR, is expected to make reductions
    in emissions that are transported regionally and
    deposited domestically, and it will reduce
    emissions that contribute to atmospheric mercury
    worldwide.

17
To Learn More…
  • Clean Air Mercury Rule
  • www.epa.gov/mercury
About PowerShow.com