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Medical Computing

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MRI, medical diagnostic technique that creates images of the body using the ... [8] Medical Dictionary: Magnetic resonance imaging. Retrieved March 31, 2006 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Medical Computing


1
Medical Computing
  • By Tuyen T Nguyen
  • University of Wisconsin-Platteville
  • Spring 2006

2
Introduction
  • Medical Computing in the US in the past 30 years.
  • Remarkable revolution
  • Result obtained from technology evolution are
    sophisticated
  • No surgery on every case
  • Noninvasive procedures
  • Required less time
  • More accurate results
  • Cost less

3
Introduction
  • The use of computer technology such as
  • CAT
  • Ultrasound
  • MRI
  • ENDOSCOPY
  • Pacemaker
  • Photoshop CS2
  • Nuclear magnetic

4
History of Computer Imaging
  • Early computer graphics (1960s-1970s) were
    based on devices that drew vectors (straight
    lines) and that was all.
  • Perhaps the most important advantage relevant to
    medical applications is that the interior of the
    objects are accessible to the viewer
  • Given surgeon a much better view

5
AbioCor Artificial Heart
  • The AbioCor Implant able replacement heart is the
    first completely self-contained artificial heart
  • It is expected to at least double the life
    expectancy of heart patients compare without a
    heart implant
  • On July 2, 2001 Dr. William Devries at Jewish
    Hospital in Louisville, Kentucky performed a
    first artificial heart transplant.

6
Jarvik Artificial Heart
  • Dr. William Devries implanted the Jarvik-7 into
    several patients.
  • One patient implanted Jarvik-7 survived 620 days.
  • Artificial hearts are used only on a temporary
    basis until a human heart becomes available.

7
Artificial Heart Continue
  • Internal Controller Unit This small electronic
    device is implanted in the patients abdominal
    wall. It monitors and controls the pumping speed
    of the heart.

8
Sensorized Artificial Heart
  • Next Generation Artificial Heart
  • With noninvasive sensors to realize the safety
    treatment and effective control for the patients.

9
Sensorized Artificial Heart
  • Tsukuba Bio-Telemetry System
  • Observe the condition of the patients
  • Driving condition of artificial heart from a
    remote place on-line.

10
Ultrasound
  • A basic ultrasound machine has the following
    parts
  • - transducer probe
  • - central processing unit (CPU)
  • - transducer pulse controls
  • - display
  • - keyboard/cursor
  • - disk storage device
  • - printer

11
Ultrasound
  • Central processing unit (CPU)- computer that does
    all of the calculations and contains the
    electrical power supplies for itself and the
    transducer probe.
  • The CPU is the brain of the ultrasound machine.
    It is a computer that contains the
    microprocessor, memory, amplifiers and power
    supplies for the microprocessor and transducer
    probe.

12
Ultrasound
  • The machine calculates the distance from the
    probe to the tissue or organ (boundaries) using
    the speed of sound in tissue and the time of each
    echos return.

13
Ultrasound
  • Ultrasound is use to check on the developing baby
    or determine the due date.
  • If one is having problems with blood circulation
    in a limb or heart, a Doppler ultrasound can
    check on the blood flow.
  • Ultrasound has been a popular medical imaging
    technique for many years.

14
3D Ultrasound Imaging
  • Ultrasound machines capable of three-dimensional
    imaging have been developed.
  • In these machines, several two-dimensional
    images are acquired by moving the probes across
    the body surface or rotating inserted probes.
  • The two-dimensional scans are then combined by
    specialized computer software to form 3D images.

15
X-rays
  • X-rays are basically the same thing as visible
    light rays. Both are wavelike forms of
    electromagnetic energy carried by particles
    called photons.
  • The difference between X-rays and visible light
    rays is the energy level of the individual
    photons.

16
X-rays Continue
  • X-rays let doctors peer inside a patient without
    any surgery at all.
  • Computer aided detection, or CAD, takes either an
    x-ray or digital mammogram image and with the
    press of a button marks areas of concern like
    calcifications subtle abnormalities that a
    radiologist may have missed.

17
Computerized Axial Topography Scan
  • CAT scan takes the idea of conventional x-ray
    imaging to a new level. Instead of finding the
    outline of bones and organs, a CAT scan machine
    forms a full three-dimensional computer model of
    a patients insides.
  • Doctors can even examine the body one narrow
    slice at a time to pinpoint specific areas.

18
CAT Continue
  • In a CAT scan machine, the x-ray beam moves all
    around the patient, scanning from hundreds of
    different angles.
  • The computer takes all this information and
    puts together a 3-D image of the body.

19
CAT Continue
  • This figure shows a scanned liver slice.
  • Since they examine the body slice by slice, from
    all angles, CAT scans are much more comprehensive
    than conventional x-rays.

20
Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) Scan
  • MRI, medical diagnostic technique that creates
    images of the body using the principles of
    nuclear magnetic resonance.
  • MRI can generate thin-section images of any part
    of the body including the heart, arteries, and
    veins from any angle and direction, without
    surgical invasion and in a relatively short
    period of time.

21
MRI Scan
  • The main magnet immerses the patient in a stable
    and very intense magnetic field, and the gradient
    magnets create a variable field.
  • The rest of an MRI system consists of a very
    powerful computer system, some equipment that
    allows us to transmit RF (radio frequency) pulses
    into the patients body while they are in the
    scanner, and many order secondary components.

22
MRI
  • This image set is comparing a young individual
    (left) with an athletic male in his 80s (center)
    and with a person of similar age having
    Alzheimers disease (right), all imaged at the
    same level.

23
Computer Technology in Endoscopy
  • The endoscope has revolutionized the field of
    gastroenterology. Through it, doctor can
    directly examine almost any part of the
    intestinal tract.
  • Biopsies can also be obtained
  • Here is the picture of the normal stomach.

24
Endoscopy
  • A thin, flexible, lighted tube called an
    endoscope will insert through the mouth or
    rectum.
  • The endoscope transmits an image of the inside
    of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, so the
    physician can examine the lining of these organs.

25
Endoscopy
  • The scope also blows air into the stomach this
    expands the folds of tissue and makes it easier
    for the physician to examine the stomach.
  • The physician can see abnormalities, like
    inflammation or bleeding, through the endoscope
    that dont show up well on X-rays.
  • The physician can also insert instruments into
    the scope to treat bleeding abnormalities or
    remove samples of tissue (biopsy) for further
    tests.

26
Pacemaker
  • Pacemakers are prescribed for people of all ages
    whose hearts beat too slowly.
  • Pacemakers detect the slow heart rate and send
    electrical impulses to the heart to stimulate the
    heart muscle to beat faster.
  • Well over 2 million pacemakers have been
    implanted worldwide since 1960.

27
System for Programming and Monitoring Implanted
Devices
  • This specialized computer system is used to
    communicate with implanted devices such as
    pacemakers and defibrillators through the skin.
  • Using this computer, the doctor can read
    information from the devices memory to determine
    if abnormal cardiac episodes occurred, such as
    cardiac arrest.

28
Monitoring Implanted Devices
  • To interact with a pacemaker or defibulator
    device, a doctor places a magnetic wand over the
    device. This allow the system to
  • - Receive information from the device.
    Based on this information, the doctor or nurse
    may want to change the therapy.
  • - Send instructions to the device. When the
    therapy needs to change, the doctor can send the
    new instructions to the device without any
    surgery.

29
Monitoring Implanted Devices
  • The use of the computer system represents a big
    step in using remote and internet-based
    technology in the management of cardiac patients.
  • The remote viewing capability allows clinicians
    to access real-time clinical expertise at a
    different location quickly over standard
    telephone lines.
  • The clinical experts are able to see the exact
    data being seen on the computer, thus increasing
    efficiency and facilitating improved consulting
    and troubleshooting sessions.

30
Nuclear magnetic resonance technology
  • Was first described by Felix Bloch and Edward
    Mills Purcell in 1946. Both shared the Nobel
    Prize in physics in 1952 for their discovery.
  • Uses high magnetic fields and ratio-frequency
    pulses to manipulate the spin states of nuclei,
    and reflect the position of nucleic within the
    molecule.

31
Nuclear Magnetic Continue
  • Most famous use is in magnetic resonance imaging
    for medical diagnosis.
  • Provides anatomical definition of normal and
    abnormal tissues.
  • Also use to diagnostic imaging of the breast and
    regions of the abdomen.

32
Nuclear Magnetic Continue
  • In several respects, NMR spectroscopy offers a
    technique complementary to X-ray crystallography
    and neutron diffraction.
  • An important consideration is that NMR structures
    typically are obtained from proteins in solution,
    with no requirement that the protein be
    crystallizable.

33
Adobe Photoshop CS2
  • What is Adobe Photoshop CS2?
  • The professional image-editing
  • Can achieve an amazing result

34
Adobe Photoshop CS2
  • System requirement
  • Intel Xeon
  • Intel Centino
  • Pentium III or 4 processor
  • 320 MB of RAM
  • 650 of available hard-disk space

35
Adobe Photoshop CS2
  • Who need this?
  • Anyone who want a professional result when
    creating, editing, and retouching a processing
    digital images
  • Wisely use in plastic surgery image!

36
Adobe Photoshop CS2
  • Who want to look 10 years younger virtually? May
    be 5 years?
  • You can use Adobe Photoshop to make you look good
    AND feel good!

37
Adobe Photoshop CS2
  • Limitation
  • Only in 2D for graphics and photos
  • Can be in 3D with text
  • Can do many real cool things

38
Conclusion
  • Computer technology has penetrates all aspect of
    human life internet access to medical to
    military control defense system.
  • Advance technology from networking to computer
    image provide the great tools for medical field.
  • Offer great support in the diagnostic stage and
    draw conclusion in a short period of time
  • It truly contributes a quality decision analysis
    in healthcare system.

39
Reference
  • 1Andrew Millman, Nicholas Lee, Andrew Brooke.
    BMJ 1995 311800-802(23
  • September). ABC of Medical Computing Computers
    in General Practices. Retrieved March 31, 2006,
    from
  • http//bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/311/70
    08/800
  • 2 Advantech- ePlatform Services in Medical
    Computing. Retrieved April 1, 2006 from
  • www.advantech.com.tw/ePlatform/Med/in
    troduction.asp
  • 3 Hadjiyski, L. Ph.D., Sahiner, B. Ph.D., Chan,
    H. Ph.D., Bogot, N. M.D., Cascade, P. M.D.,
    Kazerooni, E. M.D. (2004, November 29). New
    computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) methods for
    cancer. News-Medical.Net. Retrieved April 1,
    2006, from
  • http//www.news-medical.net/?id6495
  •  
  • 4 Photoshop Tutorials Absolute Cross.
    Retrieved April 1, 2006 from
  • http//www.absolutecross.com/tutorials/photoshop/
  •  
  • 5 Nuclear magnetic resonance Wikipedia, the
    free encyclopeda. Retrieved April 1, 2006 from
  • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_magnetic_resonance
  •  
  • 6 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Retrieved April
    1, 2006 from
  • http//hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nuclear
    /nmr.html
  •  

40
Reference
  • 8 Medical Dictionary Magnetic resonance
    imaging. Retrieved March 31, 2006
  • http//www.wrongdiagnosis.com/medical/magnetic_res
    onance_imaging.htm
  •  
  • 9 Article Coronary Artery Disease Screening
    Tests. Retrieved April 1, 2006
  • http//www.medicinenet.com/coronary_artery_disease
    _screening_tests_cad/article.htm
  •  
  • 10 Andy Anderson. Steve Johnson. Perspection.
    Inc. Adobe Photoshop CS
  •  
  • 11 McGraw-Hill - Concise Encyclopedia of
    engineering
  •  
  • 12 Eric J. Light President. The Internal
    Medical Spa Association. Retrieved April 1, 2006
    from
  • www.medicalspaassociation.org/vocabulary.htm
  •  
  • 13 How stuff works. Retrieved April 2, 2006
    from
  • www.howstuffworks.com/ultrasound.htm

41
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