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Creating a Caring Environment in Physical Activity Settings

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Title: Creating a Caring Environment in Physical Activity Settings


1

Creating a Caring Environment in Physical
Activity Settings
Mary Fry University of Kansas
2
Being a Kid Isnt So Easy
  • 25 of kids are not on track to become healthy,
    thriving, productive adults
  • 20-30 of youngsters report depressive symptoms
    at clinically significant levels and
  • 8 of US high school youth attempt suicide each
    year

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State of Kansas/Nation
  • 2006 62 of Kansans are
  • overweight (36.4) or obese (25.9).
  • Nationally
  • 62 of youngsters 9-13 do not participate in any
    organized PA outside of school
  • 22 do not engage in any PA
  • Girls less active than boys
  • Overweight/obese youth are more likely to become
    overweight/obese adults

6
Reseach/Theory to Practice
  • Highlight Research
  • Share Strategies

7
Theory of Motivation
  • How do we optimize the motivation of every
    person?

8
Personal Definitions of Success
  • I feel successful. . . when I give my best effort
    and improve my skills over time.
  • Vs.
  • I feel successful when I outperform others

9
Al Oerters motivational perspective . . .
Competition then is a test of yourself to bring
out the best if you can in a competitive
environment. It's not about beating people. You
never measure yourself against anyone else's
capability- only what's inside you and if you've
driven yourself to the point where you just flat
out cannot be any better. That's all you can ask
of yourself. Again, competition is inside. It's
not about external rankings compared to anyone
else. I just set out to be at my absolute best.
Four-time Olympian Gold Medalist in the Discus
10
John Wooden
11
Mastery Climate
  • The Coach/Teacher/Leader . . .
  • Values Effort
  • Improvement
  • Encourages
  • Cooperation
  • Makes Everyone Feel
  • Like They Play an
  • Important Role
  • Conveys That It Is Okay to Make Mistakes

12
Performance Climate
  • The Coach/Teacher . . .
  • Values/Rewards Performance/Outcome
  • Encourages Team Rivalry
  • Punishes Mistakes

13
Summary of Motivational Climate Research
  • Performance-Involving Climate
  • Greater Pressure/Tension
  • Less endorsement of
  • Sportspersonship Behaviors
  • More Problematic Relationships
  • Between/Among Athletes Coaches
  • Less Perceived Gender/Ability Equity
  • Lower Team Satisfaction
  • Decreased Psychological Well-Being
  • (e.g., Happiness, Depression)
  • Mastery-Involving Climate
  • Enjoyment
  • Effort
  • Intrinsic Motivation
  • Gender/Ability Equity
  • Team Satisfaction
  • Sportspersonship
  • Enhanced relationships with/
  • between athletes coaches
  • Psychological Well-Being
  • (e.g., Happiness)

Point Perceptions of a mastery-involving climate
have been associated with more optimal
motivational responses.
14
The Notion of Caring
15
Educational philosopher Nel Noddings (1995). . .
commenting on the nations ardent push for
focusing solely on academic standards in middle
school, … we will not achieve even that meager
success academic success unless our children
believe they themselves are cared for and learn
to care
16
Caring Climate
  • the extent to which individuals perceive a
    particular setting to be interpersonally
    inviting, safe, supportive, and able to provide
    the experience of being valued and respected

17
National Youth Sport Camps
  • 400 campers surveyed
  • 5-week sport camp for underserved youth
  • Sponsored by the NCAA federally funded
  • Camp includes 50 hours of sport activities,
    lunch/snacks and enrichment activities (e.g.,
    computer, drug/alcohol awareness)

18
Summary of Results with Summer Sport Camp (NYSP)
Participants
  • When young campers perceive a caring climate in
    the program, they report. . .
  • Higher Enjoyment
  • Greater Desire for Future Participation
  • Greater Empathy
  • More Pro Social Behaviors
  • Fewer Anti-Social Behaviors
  • Greater Emotional Control
  • this in turn is linked to
  • Greater Psychological Well-Being
  • (Higher Hope Happiness
  • Lower Depression Sadness)

19
3 Sport Studies
  • Youngsters in city recreation/
  • competitive leagues
  • Baseball, Basketball Soccer
  • Completed a survey in the
  • last week of the season
  • that required 15-minutes

20
Results
  • Young athletes who perceived a caring climate on
    their teams were more likely to report . . .
  • Higher Enjoyment
  • Greater Commitment
  • Greater Empathy
  • More Hope
  • Like Their Teammates
  • Coaches More
  • Engage in Caring Behaviors Toward Their
    Teammates/Coaches
  • Higher self-esteem

21
Are There Things That Your Coach Does That Let
You Know That He/She Cares About You and Your
Teammates?
  • Generous Praise Encouragement
  • Committed to Helping Athletes Improve
  • Genuinely Cares About Athletes as People
  • Shows Concern For Injured Athletes
  • Has Fun/Socializes w/ Athletes

22
Are There Things That Your Coach Does That Make
You Feel Like He/She Does Not Care About You?
  • Creates a Negative Atmosphere
  • Is Not Committed to Coaching
  • Over-Emphasizes Winning
  • Treats Athletes Unfairly
  • Too Much Conditioning
  • Lacks Sympathy for
  • Injuries

23
Are There Things That Your Teammates Do That Make
You Feel Like They Do Not Care About You or Each
Other?
  • Creates a Negative Atmosphere
  • - Yells/Rolls Eyes/Gets Made/Says, You Did
    Bad/Unsupportive
  • -Talks Mean About Others ( Behind Their Backs)
  • - Leaves People Out
  • Other Behaviors
  • - Dont Pass To Me
  • - Wont to Be My Partner in Practice
  • -Dont Care if Youre Hurt
  • -Negative After a Mistake

24
Strategies Ideas for Creating a Caring Climate
25
Study w/ Caring HS Physical Education Teachers
(Larson Silverman, 2005)
  • Frequent Caring Behaviors
  • Greet students by name
  • Ask about their life outside of PE
  • Speak to each student each day
  • Participate with students
  • Maximize transition time
  • Take mental notes when speaking with students
  • Have an open door policy

26
Reasons Teachers Give for Displaying Caring
Behaviors
  • Long-Term Relationships
  • Help students through tough times in their lives
  • Students need adults who show interest in them
  • Students will be more receptive and learn more
  • Obligation to the professors who trained them

27
Shelly Momany, 2nd Grade Teacher
  • Notes for parent
  • conference
  • Teaching Sign
  • Language
  • Heart shaped stones
  • Focus on individual
  • effort/improvement
  • Sets stage for students
  • to support one another
  • I am going to miss you
  • this weeked

Dear Students, I believe in You. I trust in
You. You are listened to. You are cared for. You
are very important to me. Sincerely, Ms. Momany
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University of Memphis students working with
Patients from St. Jude Childrens Research
Hospital
Gratitude
30
The PACT
31
THE STRENGTH CLUB
32
The Program
Twenty students (11 girls/9 boys) met twice
weekly for 1.5 hrs. The schedule
included… Snack time (15 min.) Physical
activities (45 min.) Life skills activities
(30 min.)
33
Choosing a mascot helps make participants feel
connected
34
Membership cards help reinforce the
program philosophy
35
Leader Involvement
36
Praise Phrases
37
Terry Orlick
  • Echo Canyon
  • Highlights

38
Praise for Effort Improvement
39
Quotes
  • Whatever affects one directly, affects all
    indirectly . . . I can never be what I ought to
    be until you are what you ought to be. You can
    never be what you ought to be until I am what I
    ought to be. This is the way the world is made.
    I didnt make it that way, but this is the
    interrelated structure of reality. -Martin
    Luther King, Jr.

40
Empathy Exercises
  • Taking others perspectives
  • (e.g., teachers, SC leaders)
  • Helps us to see beyond ourselves
  • An effective coping strategy

41
Developing a Sense of Humor
  • Add jokes

42
Team Building
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Making Cards
47
Challenges in Creating a Task-Involving Climate
  • Attendance
  • Life outside the Strength Club
  • Students with serious behavioral, psychological,
    and social problems

48
Kids Perceptions of the Climate
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Strategies for Creating a Caring Climate
  • Giving the shpeal
  • Add ice breakers/tm bldg activities
  • -Name Circle
  • Tell us about your family, favorite food, pets,
    movies, etc.
  • Connect with kids via postcard/email/text
    message/phone
  • Notice when kids miss
  • Make rosters w/ contact info to encourage
    communication.

59
Strategies for Creating a Caring Climate
  • Encourage parents to intro themselves to each
    other have kids introduce their parents to each
    other after session/practice
  • Tell parents how they can support you they can
    be role models (encourage all the kids) and help
    you emphasize effort and improvement
  • Greet parents after session share feedback
    Jake did a great job listening today Im
    psyched about how hard LuAnn was working today
  • Assess the program Get feedback from parents
    kids

60
Caring Strategies
  • Encourage kids to practice over weekend/inbetween
    meetings
  • Cheer each other on/compliment one another
    Praise Phrases
  • Notice and emphasize kids effort and improvement
    (Wow, Naomi, you seem much more comfortable
    floating on your back than you did 2 weeks ago-
    your hard work is really making a difference!)
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