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Title: Materials Heritage of India


1
Materials Heritage of India
Srinivasa Ranganathan Department of Materials
Engineering Indian Institute of Science School
of Humanities National Institute of Advanced
Studies Bangalore rangu_at_met.iisc.ernet.in
India
IIM
Diamond Jubilee September 11, 2006
IISc- Materials Engineering
2
The Birthday of the Grand Mogul Aurangazeb
  • .
  •  

This has 137 modelled enamelled and
jewel-encrusted figures of men and
animals (Johann Melchior Dinglinger-Dresden)
There are 5223 diamonds, 189 rubies, 175
emeralds, 1 sapphire, 53 baroque pearls
3
Indian Materials Heritage
  • Diamond
  • Silk
  • Dancing Girl, Mohenjadaro 2500 BC
  • Wootz Steel 300 BC
  • Delhi Iron Pillar AD 400
  • Zinc Extraction AD 1200
  • Chola Bronze Icons AD 1200
  • Kerala Bronze Mirrors

4
Hope Koh-i-Noor
The Koh-i-noor (Urdu ??? ???, "Mountain of
Light" is a 105 carat (21.6 g) diamond that was
once the largest known diamond in the world. The
Kohinoor originated in India, belonged to
various Indian and Persian rulers.It became part
of the Crown Jewels of England when Queen
Victoria was proclaimed empress of India.  
The Hope Diamond's history can be traced to a
blue diamond named theTavernier Blue from the
Kollur Mine in Golconda.The French
merchant-travele Jean Baptiste Tavernierrr
purchased it in 1660. The Tavernier Blue is
legendarily believed to be stolen from an eye of
a sculpted idol of the Sita.
5

The Diamond Sutra of Gautama Buddha
The Diamond Sutra (Vajracchedika-prajñaparamita-su
tra), "The Perfection of Wisdom Sutra that Cuts
like a Thunderbolt," is a short Mahayana Sutra
and teaches the practice of the avoidance of
abiding in extremes of mental attachment. A copy
of the Diamond Sutra, found sealed in a cave in
China in the early 20 th century, is the oldest
known dated printed book, with a printed date of
AD 868.
6
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7
Travellers and Trade Routes
Silk and Spice Routes
8
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9
VARANASI AND CHINESE SILK
The 7000 mile route spanned China, Central Asia,
Northern India and the Parthian and Roman
Empires. It connected the Yellow River Valley to
the Mediterranean Sea and past through places
such as Chinese cities Kansu and Sinkiang and
present day countries Iran, Iraq and Syria.
Northwestern Indians who lived near the Ganges
River played prominent roles as middlemen in the
China-Mediterranean silk trade because as early
as the third century AD, they understood that
silk was a lucrative product of the Chinese
Empire. The Chinese would trade their silk
with the Indians for precious stones and metals
such as jade, gold and silver and the Indians
would trade the silk with the Roman Empire. Silk
would be an expensive import for the Roman Empire.
10
Indian Literary Sources
  • Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Atharva Veda
  • Kautilyas Arthasastra 400 BC
  • Silappadikaram AD 200
  • Ratnasatra Texts
  • Rasasastra Texts
  • Rasarnava AD1200
  • Rasaratnakara
  • Rasaratnasamuccya AD 1300

11
Konjikido- the golden temple of Lord Buddha in
Japan
12
Zinc Extraction Retorts at Zawar, Rajasthan
13
Dancing Girl, Mohenjadaro 2500 BC
Lost wax method of casting
14
Bronze Buddha in Todaiji Temple in Nara
(original figure dated to 752 AD and restored
15
Chola Bronze Icon of the dancing Nataraja, ca
AD1000,
Thanjavur Art Gallery
16
Gun Metal Bronze Cannons
Fath Raihbar belonging to Aurangzeb and now
located at Petla Burj at Golconda
fort.Courtesy R Balasubramaniam
17
Indian Craftsmen Twentieth Century
18
Delta bronze is a fcc array Cu31 Sn8 (cF416) of
supertetrahedra
Aranmula Mirror
   E. A. Lord and S. RanganathanThe Gamma-brass
Structure and the Boerdijk-Coxeter HelixJ.
Noncrystalline Solids, 334-335, 121 (2004)  
Sharada Srinivasan and S Ranganathan, Nonferrous
Metals Heritage of Mnakind, Trans IIM , 2005
19
Iron Making by the Agarias
20
Delhi Iron Pillar AD 400
21
Fabrication methodology of the Pillar
Horizontal (Radial forging) Prof.
Balasubramanian
Vertical (Axial forging) Prof. Anantharaman
  • Two school of thoughts for the fabrication of
    Delhi Iron Pillar
  • Horizontal (Radial forging)
  • Vertical (Axial forging)

22
47 ?m
99 ?m
142 ?m
222 ?m
54 ?m
130 ?m
33 ?m
23
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24
Swords of Tippu Sultan era (late 18th century)
from the National Museum, New Delhi. (Image
courtesy Mohammed Moiennuddin)
25
WOOTZ STEEL
  • 400BC AD 1200 Myths, Legends, Poetry
  • 1807-1908 Travellers Tales
  • 19 th Century-England ( M Faraday), France (J R
    Breant), Russia (P Anossoff)
  • 20th Century U S A ( C S Smith, O Sherby, J D
    Verhoeven)
  • Archaeometallurgy- India (K N P Rao, T. Loewe, S
    Srinivasan), Sri Lanka (G Juleff),
  • Merv (Ann Feuerbach)

26
A conjectural sketch of a view of Buchanans
furnace.
27
Iron-carbon (Fe-C) diagram and first phase
diagram of any alloy to be established, done by
Roberts-Austen in 1898 after whom austenite came
to be named.
28
Wootz Steel The Establishment of the Materials
Science Paradigm
  • Composition
  • Microstructure
  • Processing
  • Properties
  • Performance

29
Sword of Tipu Sultan Courtesy the Clive Museum
Ladder pattern Courtesy J. D. Verhoeven
30
Four Outstanding Researches in Metallurgical
History
  • CS Smith 1963
  • Wootz Steel from India 300BC
  • Discovery of Carbon as an Element
  • Phase Diagram
  • Microstructures

31
Michael Faraday inventor of electricity and
investigator of wootz
32
Microstructures of steels (a) ferrite grains in a
hypoeutectoid steel, (b) pearlite lamellae in an
eutectoid steel (c) pearlite with cementite at
grain boundaries in a hypereutectoid steel (d)
martensite from Osmond
33
Superplastic flow in ultra high carbon steel
(after Sherby)
34
Materials Tetrahedron
Praveen Chaudhari Merton C Flemings
Society
Man assays Metals. We can also use Metals to
assay Man.
35
Materials hypertetrahedron for Wootz steel
36
Dawn of the Diamond Age
Bliss was it in that dawn to be alive, But to be
young was very heaven!
In diamond, then, a dense network of strong bonds
Creates a strong, light, and stiff material.
Indeed, just as we named the Stone Age, the
Bronze Age, and the Steel Age after the
materials that humans could make, we might call
the new technological epoch we are entering the
Diamond Age.
37
Back to the Future
The world economy that these merchants inhabited
shattered a century or so later, in the
revolution of global trade that took place
following Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama's
discovery in 1498of the sea route to the East.
Bypassing the Middle East, and conquering the
centers of spice production in South Asia,
European colonial tradersfirst the Portuguese,
then the Dutch and finally the Britishwrecked
the old trading network and imposed with their
cannons and caravels a Western imperial system of
command economics. Looked at now with hindsight,
what is happening today with the rise of India
and China is merely the rebalancing of the
traditional equilibrium, with Europeans not as
colonial masters but instead reverting to their
old role as consumers of the goods and services
of the East.
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