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Principles of Behavior Modification PSY333

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Principles of Behavior Modification (PSY333) Gary L. Cates, Ph.D., N.C.S.P ... Behavior Modification: The large over arching term to describe behavior ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Principles of Behavior Modification PSY333


1
Principles of Behavior Modification (PSY333)
  • Gary L. Cates, Ph.D., N.C.S.P

2
Clinical Behavior Therapy
3
Cognitive Behavior Modification
  • Cognition belief, thought, expectancy, attitude,
    or perception
  • Assumption 1 People respond to events in terms
    of their perceived significance.
  • Assumption 2 Cognitive deficiencies cause
    emotional disorders.
  • v Goal Change cognition to make better adjusted
    person

4
Method 1 Cognitive Restructuring
  • Substituting rational thoughts and appraisal of
    information for irrational or dysfunctional
    thinking.
  • Ellis Rational Emotive Therapy (Later REBT)
  • Beck Cognitive Therapy
  • Dichotomous Thinking Absolute terms
  • Arbitrary Inference Faulty conclusions
  • Overgeneralization One failure means failure in
    general
  • Magnification Exaggeration

5
Method 2 Self-instructional Coping methods
  • Identify internal stimuli that are stress related
  • Use them as SDs to engage in appropriate self
    talk
  • Appropriate self talk through a set of things to
    do to relax
  • Positive self reinforcing statements after
    positive self talk

6
Method 3 Problem-Solving Methods
  • General orientation Be systematic not impulsive
  • Problem Definition Be specific
  • Generation of alternatives Brainstorm solutions
  • Decision making Evaluate the pros and cons to
    each alternative and pick the best one.
  • Verification Keep track of progress (data)

7
Empirical Evaluation of Ellis
  • Reducing self talk 46
  • Reducing emotional distress 27
  • Gossette and OBrien (1992)
  • v Effects probably due to homework assignments,
    not the challenge of cognition.

8
Lets Add Cognitive Restructuring!
  • Lets not!
  • 83 of research suggests it adds nothing!
  • Helpful for social anxiety only

9
Empirical Evaluation of Beck
  • No better than a placebo (placebo may be
    effective!) NIMH, 1989
  • - 55 BT, 52 IPT, 46 CT, 34 BDPT (Agency for
    health care policy and research, 1994)

10
Behavioral vs. Cognitive
  • 83 of pure cognitive had no added benefit.
  • v Cognitive good for social-anxiety and phobia

11
Two Points
  • Cognitive techniques rely on rule-governed
    behavior
  • Rules control behavior only when linked to
    environmental contingencies

12
Areas of Clinical Behavior Therapy
  • Agoraphobia In vivo exposure (group or
    individual)
  • Cognitive restructuring does not add anything
  • OCD In vivo exposure (65-75)
  • Cognitive (imagining) led by therapist adds to
    effectiveness.
  • Stress Relaxation techniques and exercise
  • Depression Exercise is gaining a lot of momentum
  • placebo gt no Tx and to cognitive therapy
  • 30-60 minutes 3 times per week

13
Areas of Clinical Behavior Therapy
  • Alcohol Problems
  • Most successful programs use behavioral
    components such as
  • Decreasing reinforcing properties of alcohol
  • Teaching new skills
  • Strategies to prevent relapse
  • Contingency management
  • SOCIAL SUPPORT IMPORTANT! DRA?
  • v Tx good for problem drinkers not as effective
    for alcoholics
  • Obesity
  • Self-monitoring, stimulus control, changing
    eating behavior, behavioral contracts

14
Areas of Clinical Behavior Therapy
  • Marital Distress
  • Instigation of positive exchanges
  • Communication Training
  • Problem Solving Training
  • Habit Disorders
  • Habit reversal (Azrin Nunn, 1973)

15
History
16
Respondent Conditioning
  • 1904 Pavlov wins Noble Prize in Medicine
  • 1913 J.B. Watson writes Behaviorists Manifesto
  • 1916 Little Albert
  • 19 43 Clark Hull Operant Respondent
  • 1958 Wolpe reciprocal inhibition

17
Operant Conditioning
  • 1938 Behavior of Organisms
  • 1950 Keller Schoenfield Principles of
    Psychology
  • 1953 Science of Human Behavior
  • Testing out Sugar-milk, mmm-hmmm, Jellybeans
    Allyn Michael (1959).
  • 1965 Ullmann Krasner 1st bmod book
  • 1982 Iwata (Functional Analysis)

18
Terms
  • Behavior Modification The large over arching
    term to describe behavior principles being used
    to modify behavior
  • Behavior Therapy Pavlov-wople orientation with
    cognitive focus
  • Behavior analysis Operant orientation (Function)

19
Ethics in Behavior Modification
20
Ethical Issues for Human Services
  • Have goals of treatment been adequately
    considered?
  • Has choice of treatment methods been adequately
    considered?
  • Clients participation voluntary?
  • Subordinate client interests considered?
  • Adequacy of treatment been evaluated?
  • Confidentiality protected?
  • Referrals when necessary?
  • Therapist Qualified?

21
Careers in Behavior Modification
  • So you want to be a behavior modifier/analyst huh?

22
Schools in behavior analysis
  • http//programs.gradschools.com/usa/applied_behavi
    or_analysis.html
  • http//www.abainternational.org/sub/behaviorfield/
    education/accreditation/index.asp
  • Behavioral School Psychology
  • Syracuse, MSU, USM, UN-L, UO, ISU?

23
Interesting Jobs
  • Most you need a masters degree
  • Certified as behavior analyst Collect 3rd party
    pay
  • B.S. Marcus Institute, Kennedy Krieger,
  • Ph.D.
  • Licensed Psychologist
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