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How To Overcome Barriers of Recruiting Research Participants


In order to develop effective strategies to improve child ... 10.00 McDonald's coupons to complete youth interview. Raffle with prizes. Travel reimbursement ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: How To Overcome Barriers of Recruiting Research Participants

How To Overcome Barriers of Recruiting Research
  • The 10th Annual APSAC Colloquium
  • Tuesday, May 28th - Saturday, June 1st 2002
  • Presenters
  • Denise D. Warren, MSW, Jill Pegues, B.S., Rogayah
    Meyer, Ph.D.
  • University of Maryland
  • School of Social Work

  • In order to develop effective strategies to
    improve child welfare outcomes, as well as to
    establish what works and for whom, it is
    necessary to collect outcome data through
    evaluation research.
  • Obtaining sufficient data for analyses hinges on
    the ability of personnel to recruit and retain
    caregivers to voluntarily participate.
  • Longitudinal studies such as these require that
    participants be willing to participate in
    follow-up research.

Learning Objectives
  • Understand What is Involved in Recruiting
  • Employ Successful Recruiting Strategies
  • Identify Ways to Make Research a Positive
    Experience for Participants

Anticipate Potential Barriers
  • Know characteristics of your sample
  • Characteristics of our sample population
  • Elderly caregivers
  • Predominately African-American women
  • Caregivers caring for multiple children
  • Limited mobility issues
  • Hard to track
  • Various work schedules and availabilities
  • Various educational, income, and literacy levels

Be prepared for the effort required
  • Allows for sufficient amount of data to be
    collected in a timely fashion for data analysis
  • Reduces time between planned and actual
    implementation schedules
  • Our Start-up Procedures for Interviewing
  • Training required for interviewers and/or
  • Cold-calling (both anticipated and mid-stream
    change not anticipated)
  • Frequent updates on contact information for

  • Our training areas include
  • Communication style
  • Knowledge of projects
  • Rapport building how to establish quickly
  • Cultural considerations
  • Safety
  • Making the call (cold-calling)

Making the Call
  • How to get someone to Say YES
  • Phone Etiquette
  • -Introductions (of self and affiliation(s))
  • -Tone of Voice
  • -Mannerisms
  • Using a workable script
  • Mock calling

Obtaining Participant Information
  • Because phone/address/participant information
    changes so frequently, we use multiple sources to
    get current information
  • Caseworkers at contracting agency
  • Database searches at contracting agency
  • Telephone book
  • Online searches

Scheduling Participants
  • Our procedures for scheduling an interview
  • - Commit participant to day and time.
  • - Schedule interviewer(s).
  • - Depending on location secure a room(s) or
  • driving directions.
  • - Obtain necessary paperwork, equipment, etc.
    to conduct
  • interview.
  • - Confirm interview by phone 1 day before and
    day of
  • scheduled interview.
  • - For interviews scheduled 4 days or more after
  • call, send confirmation letter in mail.

Scheduling Participants cont.
  • Scheduling a single interview may involve
    numerous attempts before an appointment can be
    solidified and/or kept.
  • - Average number of call attempts (per cg) 3
  • (ranging anywhere from 1-9 calls)
  • - Scheduling attempts (i.e how many times
  • we had to reschedule 1 interview before a
  • interview is actually carried out)

Strategies and Recruitment Ideas
  • Offer multiple locations to complete interview
  • Locations we offer
  • Caregivers home
  • Local DSS Office
  • University of Maryland
  • Saturday Festival
  • Light refreshments
  • Child care provided
  • Activities/Games/Movies for children
  • 10.00 to complete cg interview
  • 10.00 McDonalds coupons to complete youth
  • Raffle with prizes
  • Travel reimbursement

Strategies and Recruitment Ideas cont.
  • Efforts to Improve Show Rates
  • - Make confirmation and reminder calls.
  • - Brochures.
  • - Be flexible. Tailor times and locations
  • that are convenient for the participant.
  • Establish or maintain positive working
    relationship with those who can assist you in
    obtaining information
  • Helpful tip
  • - Make yourself known to people within their
    agency (i.e.establish a physical

Strategies and Recruitment Ideas cont.
  • Use of Incentives
  • What we use
  • McDonalds Gift Certificates
  • Movie Passes
  • 10.00 for completion of 1st interview
  • Quarterly Raffles

Ensuring that the Interview Process is a Positive
  • Since longitudinal studies require continued
    participation, it is especially important that
    the first interview is positive such that
    participants are willing to be involved in
    follow-up research.

What Works
  • Computerized interviewing
  • Offering multiple locations to complete interview
  • Establishing rapport (over the phone in-person)
  • Listening
  • Making participant feel comfortable
  • Politeness and respectfulness
  • Interacting with young children

  • The most important consequences of our research
  • Increasing permanency options available to
  • Providing stability and safety for children
    committed to state care
  • Decreased state costs

Thank you.
  • For additional information about this
    presentation, please contact
  • Jill Pegues, B.S.,
  • Rogayah Meyer, Ph.D.
  • Denise D. Warren, MSW
  • University of Maryland
  • School of Social Work
  • 525 West Redwood Street
  • Louis L. Kaplan Hall
  • Baltimore, MD 21201
  • (410) 706-8474
  • http//