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Title: Integration of System Requirements and MultiAgent Software Architecture


1
Integration of System Requirements and
Multi-Agent Software Architecture
  • Lúcia Rosangela David Bastos
  • Jaelson Freire Brelaz de Castro

August, 2005
2
Contents
  • Motivation
  • Organizational Theory in MAS
  • The Tropos Project
  • The Bank Example
  • The SIRA Framework
  • Final Considerations

3
Motivation
  • Semantic Gap among Requirements and Architecture
  • Requirements are derived from concepts and
    relationships in the problem domain (for example,
    e-commerce, bank accounting) and architecture
    models are solution for the problem described in
    the requirements
  • This conceptual differences between what to do
    (requirements) versus how to do (architecture)
    is one of the challenging problem in software
    engineering
  • Goal-based Organizational Models
  • Goals can be related to functional abilities,
    business and system qualities
  • Goals can be used as starting point to construct
    the architectural description

Index
4
Organizational Concepts
  • Organizations are social groups that are
    goal-directed and have a set of structured
    activities to achieve their goals.
  • A social group is an organization unit with a set
    of organized members being involved in social
    relationships, pursuing common goals for some
    period of time with an identifiable domain
  • Actor is a individual with intentional
    properties, such as, goals, beliefs, abilities
    and compromises. Actors may be people, agents
    (software) or organizations.
  • Agents may become members of such an
    organizational group, if they succeed to
    undertake one or more roles that contribute
    towards the collective objectives.
  • Role is an abstract representation of the
    behavior of actor(s) that perform similar
    functions in a group

5
Organizational Concepts
Index
  • SIRA Framework uses Organizational concepts
  • Organizational group consist of a set of
    sub-groups.
  • A sub-group represents a context of a role.
  • A organizational domain can define the roles of
    various actors.
  • Responsibilities are defined in terms of goals
    and tasks

Multi-agent system organization of members to
achieve particular, possible common goals.
6
Tropos Project
Index
Ontology
Actors, social dependencies, goals, resources,...
Application area
(Requirements-driven) Software development
TROPOS
i
SIRA Framework
Detailed design
Early requirements
Architectural design
Late requirements
Tropos, in Greek, means manner (as in manner
of doing things)
7
The Bank Example
Index
  • Organizational chat of a bank example, which
    describes a strict partially set of named
    positions and roles.
  • Bank is an organization that holds money
    belonging to others, investing and lending it to
    get more money.

8
Systematic Integration between Requirements and
Architecture - SIRA Framework
Index
NFR Framework
Architectural catalogue
Organisational Model Specification
Assignment Model Definition
Architectural Configuration
Requirements models
Organisational Model Architectural Style
Assignment Model
Architectural Configuration
Sequence
9
i an Organizational Modeling Framework
  • Early requirements (organization modeling)
  • these concepts are used to model external
    stakeholders (people, organizations, existing
    systems), their relevant goals and
    inter-dependencies.
  • Late requirements
  • Resource, task and softgoal dependencies
    correspond naturally to functional and
    non-functional requirements.
  • Functional Goals are generally operationalized
    during Late Requirements

SIRA
10
The Bank Example in i notation
Index
SIRA
11
The Bank Example in i
  • Banks act as intermediaries between the people
    who have money to hold and those who depend on
    money for business transactions.
  • Bank Actor depends on the Customer's money
    (represented as resource Money) for investment,
    and depends on Customer to request loans
    (represented as goal Get Loan) and to earn more
    money (represented as softgoal Profitability).
  • Customer depends on Bank to hold his money in
    deposit or savings account (represented as goal
    Deposit Money), and to earn a certain amount of
    money called interest for depositing his money in
    a bank (represented as softgoal Deposit
    Profitability). He lets the bank use the money
    for new investments.

12
Architectural Catalogue
  • Multi-Agent Architecture as Social Structures
  • Global Architecture in terms of interconnected
    social components.
  • Concepts from organization theory (Mintzberg,
    Scott, Galbraith, )
  • 3 levels
  • 1 Macro level Organizational Styles
    (Organization Theory)
  • Vertical Integration, Pyramid, Joint Venture,
    Structure in 5, Bidding, Hierarchical
    Contracting, Co-optation, Takeover
  • 2 Micro level Patterns (Broker, Matchmaker,
    Contract-Net, Mediator, Monitor, Embassy,
    Wrapper, Master-Slave, )
  • 3 Atomic Social and intentional concepts

SIRA
13
Structure in-5 Style
Strategic and logistic components found in
organizations.
  • Operational core basic operations -- the input,
    processing, output associated with running the
    organization.
  • Strategic apex executive, strategic decisions.
  • Support Assists the operation core for
    non-operational services outside the basic flow
    of operational procedures.
  • Coordination standardizes the behavior of other
    components, help the system adapt to its
    environment.
  • Middle Agency Actors who join the apex to the
    core.

SIRA
14
Joint Venture Style
  • Based on a agreement between two or more
    principal partners.
  • Principal Partner Autonomous on a local
    dimension and interacts directly with other
    principal partners to exchange services, data and
    knowledge
  • Joint Management actor coordinates tasks and
    manages the sharing of knowledge and resources.
  • Secondary Partners Supply services or support
    tasks for the organization core

SIRA
15
Architectural Catalogue and Quality Attributes
Predictability, Security, Adaptability,
Cooperativity, Competitivity, Availability,
Integrity, Modularity, Aggregability
() contributes positively (very positively)
- (--) contributes negatively (very negatively)
SIRA
16
The Organizational Model
Index
  • Organisational concepts
  • Organisation is a group. It consist of a
    collection of sub-groups. A Sub-group represents
    a context of a role. A organisational structure
    can define the roles of various members (actors).
  • Roles corresponds to the division of labour
  • Members corresponds to a set of agent in the
    group
  • Responsibilities are defined in terms of goals
    and tasks
  • Multi-Agent System corresponds to a group
  • Organizational Meta-model

SIRA-OM
17
The Organizational Meta Model
Index
  • Extension of the i Meta-model in Telos

SIRA-OM
18
The Organizational Model Specification
Index
Requirement model
Role Identification
Organizational Model
Goal/Task Refinement
Architectural Selection
Architectural Style
Sequence
NFR Framework
Architectural catalogue
SIRA
19
Organizational Model Goal/Task Refinement
  • Bank Group is a Multi-Agent System
  • Main Responsibilities (Goals)
  • Services and capabilities assigned to a Group.
    Responsibility is extracted from the goals to be
    fulfilled by system actors, like Get Loan or
    Deposit Money

SIRA-OM
20
Goal/Task Refinement - Get Loan
  • Means-end analysis - The goal Get Loan is
    achieved through the task Lending Money.
  • The task is achieved through the sub-tasks
    Customer Profile Management, Loan Request
    Analysis and Loan Account Management

New Profile
Customer Profile Management
Update Profile
Credit Analysis
Loan Request Analysis
Lending Money
Payment Analysis
Get Loan
New Loan Account
Loan Balance
Loan Account Management
Accounting
Strategic Analysis
SIRA-OM
21
Goal/Task Refinement Deposit Money
  • Means-end analysis - The goal Deposit Money is
    achieved through the task Account Management.
  • The task is achieved through the sub-tasks
    Customer Profile Management, New Account and
    Account Transaction and Accounting

SIRA-OM
22
Organizational Model Role Identification
  • Role Identification involves the distribution of
    tasks to perform a group goal, like Get Loan or
    Deposit Money

SIRA-OM
23
Role Identification Get Loan
  • Role Identification involves the distribution of
    tasks to perform a group goal

New Profile
Customer Profile Management
Update Profile
Credit Analysis
Loan Request Analysis
Lending Money
Payment Analysis
Get Loan
New Loan Account
Loan Transactions
Loan Account Management
Accounting
Strategic Analysis
24
Role Descriptions Get Loan
  • The Goal Get Loan is performed with a set of six
    roles

25
Role Interactions Get Loan
  • Social Graph - Interaction sequence of roles
    played to fulfil a group goal

26
Matrix Representation Get Loan
  • Get Loan - Matrix representations
  • The sender is the row (out degree)
  • The target is the columns (in degree)

27
Role Identification Deposit Money
28
Role Description Deposit Money
  • The Goal Deposit Money is performed with a set of
    six roles

29
Role Interaction Deposit Money
  • Social Graph - Interaction sequence of roles
    played to fulfil a group goal

30
Matrix Representation Deposit Money
  • Deposit Money - Matrix representations
  • The sender is the row (out degree)
  • The target is the columns (in degree)

31
Organizational Model - Architectural Selection
  • Architectural Properties
  • Each architecture must conform to the application
    domain qualities
  • Each architectural candidate will be analyzed
    based on positive contributions to priority
    qualities (constraints) of the application domain
  • NFR Framework
  • Each architectural candidate will be analyzed
    based on positive contributions to priority
    qualities (constraints) of the application domain
  • Selecting an Architectural Style

SIRA-OM
32
Architectural Alternatives of the Bank Example
  • Architectural Properties (NFR Framework)
  • Security
  • Availability
  • Integrity
  • Selected Architecture - Structure-in-5 Style

() contributes positively (very positively)
- (--) contributes negatively (very negatively)
SIRA-OM
33
Organizational Elements of the Bank Example
  • Roles, Interactions and Architectural Style

SIRA
SIRA-OM
34
The Assignment Model Definition
Index
Sequence
SIRA
35
Assignment Model Centrality Analysis
  • The Centrality of Actors
  • The extent to which an organization revolves
    around an actor
  • The star network
  • Two aspects to describe the location of actors in
    terms of how close they are to the center in a
    organizational structure
  • Degree Centrality (influence and prominence)
  • Closeness Centrality (importance of a position
    near to the center)
  • Centrality analysis Bank Example (Get Loan and
    Deposit Money)
  • Architecture
    (Structure-in-5 and Joint Venture)

SIRA-AM
36
Centrality Analysis Bank Example - Get Loan
  • Degree Centrality
  • Influential (out degree)
  • Prominent (in degree)
  • Closeness Centrality
  • The distance of an actor for all other - inverse
    of the geodesic distance (farness) and normalized
    relative to the most center actor ( g-1 )

37
Centrality Analysis Bank Example Deposit
Money
  • Degree Centrality
  • Influential (out degree)
  • Prominent (in degree)
  • Closeness Centrality
  • The distance of an actor for all other - inverse
    of the geodesic distance (farness) and normalized
    relative to the most center actor ( g-1 )

38
Centrality Analysis Structure-in-5 Style
  • Social Graph and Matrix
  • Degree Centrality
  • Influential (out degree)
  • Prominent (in degree)
  • Closeness Centrality
  • The distance of an actor for all other - inverse
    of the geodesic distance (farness) and normalized
    relative to the most center actor ( g-1 )

39
The Social Graph - Structure-in-5 Style
Social Graph from i model with two more
relations
40
Matrix Representation Structure-in-5 Style
41
Centrality Analysis Joint-Venture Style
  • Social Graph and Matrix
  • Degree Centrality
  • Influential (out degree)
  • Prominent (in degree)
  • Closeness Centrality
  • The distance of an actor for all other - inverse
    of the geodesic distance (farness) and normalized
    relative to the most center actor ( g-1 )

42
The Social Graph - Joint-Venture Style
Social Graph from i model with two more
relations
Contractual activity
43
Matrix Representation Joint-Venture Style
44
Assignment Model Cluster Analysis
  • Cluster is a technique to identify natural groups
    within the data set.
  • The Cluster analysis is a way to grouping roles
    into sub-group. The roles are analyzed using two
    techniques
  • The Centrality Measures
  • The centrality analysis indicates the extend to
    which a group is organized around its most
    central actor
  • The Degree of Structural Equivalence
  • The similarity matrix indicates the extend to
    which two actors have the same profile of
    relations to all other actors in the group.
  • Cluster Analysis of the Bank Example

SIRA-AM
45
Cluster Analysis Centrality Measures
  • The first step is to measure the overall
    integration of the group
  • The degree is measured using by computing the
    difference between the centrality scores of the
    most central point and those of all other point.
  • In the Bank Example
  • the actors Loan Manager and Profile Manager are
    the most central actors
  • They have partial similarity in the centrality
    results
  • Similar relations with others actors
  • Related degree centrality (out degree 100 and
    88)
  • Identical closeness centrality (100)

46
Cluster Analysis Structural Equivalence
  • The degree of structural equivalence
  • Degree to which two actors have the same profile
    of relations to all other actors in the group.
  • The degree is measured using the Pearson
    Correlation (r). Correlation is a technique for
    investigating the relationship between two
    variables.
  • Person correlation ranges from 1,00 to 1,00.

47
Cluster Analysis Pearson Correlation (r)
  • The Pearson correlation (r) is used to calculate
    each similarity index.
  • In the bank example, the Person correlation
    indices is calculated as follow
  • Bank Group has n6. Loan Manager is X
    1,0,1,1,1,1 and Profile Manager is
    Y1,0,0,1,1,1.

?
48
Cluster Analysis - Bank Example
  • The similarity or distance matrix for all
    pair of actors.The Pearson correlation (r) is
    used to calculate each similarity index
  • Taking the score in each cluster that is closest
    to some other cluster, the similarity is
    recalculated and the next most similar pair is
    joined.
  • The pair most similar is Loan Manager and
    Profiler Manager. The calculated similarity is
    partial positive (0,6325).

49
Cluster Analysis The New Social Graph
50
Cluster Analysis The New centrality analysis
SIRA-AM
51
Assignment Model Similarity Analysis
  • Similarity Analysis examines the correlation
    between two groups.
  • The Cluster analysis is a way to grouping roles
    into sub-group. The roles are analyzed using two
    techniques
  • The Centrality Correlation
  • The first correlation is based on centrality
    measures
  • The Similarity Correlation
  • The similarity matrix indicates the extend to
    which the sub-group have the same profile of
    relations to the components.

SIRA-AM
52
Similarity Analysis Centrality Correlation
  • The degree is measured using by computing the
    difference between the centrality scores of the
    most central point and those of all other point.
  • Centrality Bank and Structure-in-5

53
Similarity Analysis Similarity Correlation
Matrix of correlation based on In-degree
(receiving relations)
Matrix of correlation based on Out-degree
(sending relations)
54
Similarity Analysis Correlation Matrix
  • Bank graph
    Structure-in-5 graph

strong () or partial () positive correlation,
strong (--) or partial (-) negative correlation
SIRA-AM
55
Assignment Model Group and Architecture
  • Bank graph
    Structure-in-5 graph

strong () or partial () positive correlation,
strong (--) or partial (-) negative correlation
SIRA
SIRA-AM
56
The Architectural Configuration
Index
Architectural Mapping
Assignment Model
Architectural Configuration
Sequence
SIRA
57
Architectural Mapping
58
The Bank Architectural Configuration
Index
SIRA
59
Final Considerations - Contributions
Index
  • Narrowing the gap among requirements gtlt
    architectures
  • Using same concepts for requirements and
    architectures
  • Description in i framework
  • Organizational concepts
  • Mapping requirements into architecture and
    maintaining consistency of interactions
  • Refine requirement and derive architecture into a
    systematic process

60
Final Considerations Future Works
Index
  • Several Aspects of SIRA Framework requires
    further works
  • Validation in a broad range of applications
  • Definition of mechanism to deal with norms and
    conflict resolution in the organizational model
  • Definition of guidelines to identify roles in the
    problem domain
  • Definition of the process to support the
    development of SIRA models
  • Tools to support the SIRA Process
  • Architectural Catalogue To include social graph
    catalogue

61
Publications (2002 2003)
Index
  • Bastos, L.R.D. and Castro, J.F.B.(2002) An
    Event Based Layered Architecture for Bank
    Systems. V Workshop Iberoamericana de
    Ingenieria de Requisitos y Ambientes de Software
    - IDEAS2002.
  • Bastos, L.R.D. and Castro, J.F.B.(2002)
    Aplicação da Arquitetura com Modelo de Controle
    Baseado em Eventos no Banco do Brasil S.A. XVI
    Brazilian Symposium on Software Engineering
    SBES2002, p.207-221.
  • Bastos, L.R.D. and Castro, J.F.B.(2003)
    Integrating Organizational Requirements and
    Socio-Intentional Architectural Styles. Second
    International Workshop From SofTware Requirements
    to Architectures (STRAW03), 2003. p.114 121.
  • Bastos, L.R.D. and Castro, J.F.B.(2003)
    Integration between Organizational Requirements
    and Architecture. WER03 - VI Workshop em
    Engenharia de Requisitos.

SIRA
62
Publications (2004 2005)
Index
  • Bastos, L.R.D. and Castro, J.F.B. (2004)
    Systematic Integration between Requirements and
    Architecture. Third International Workshop on
    Software Engineering for Large-Scale Multi-Agent
    Systems SELMAS'04.
  • Bastos, L.R.D. and Castro, J.F.B. (2004)
    Enhancing Requirements to derive Multi-Agent
    Architectures. WER04 - VII Workshop em
    Engenharia de Requisitos.
  • Bastos, L.R.D. and Castro, J.F.B. (2005)
    Systematic Integration between Requirements and
    Architecture. LNCS 3390 Software Engineering
    for Multi-Agent Systems III, pp. 85-103.R.Choren
    et all. (Eds.), Springer-Verlag, 2005.
  • Bastos, L.R.D. and Castro, J.F.B. (2005) From
    Requirements to Multi-Agent Architecture based on
    Organisational Concepts. 4th International
    Workshop on Software Engineering for Large-Scale
    Multi-Agent Systems SELMAS'05.
  • Bastos, L. R.D. e Castro, J. F.B. (2005)
    Organizational Model to Derive Multi-Agent
    Architecture from Requirements. CAISE05 Forum.

SIRA
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