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Planning A Healthy Diet


Avoid alcohol if pregnant, lactating, under 21, or have ... Video on food label. Food Labels. Nutrient Claims. Must meet FDA definitions. No implied claims ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Planning A Healthy Diet

Planning A Healthy Diet
  • Chapter 2

Objectives for Chapter 2
  • Provide a definition of healthy eating and the
    principles involved.
  • List the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans
  • Utilizing MyPyramid, to evaluate your diet.
  • Interpret the Nutrition Facts panel on a food

Principles and Guidelines
  • Diet-Planning Principles
  • Adequacy (dietary)providing sufficient energy
    and essential nutrients for healthy people
  • Balance (dietary)consuming the right proportion
    of foods
  • kcalorie (energy) controlbalancing the amount of
    foods and energy to sustain physical activities
    and metabolic needs
  • Nutrient densitymeasuring the nutrient content
    of a food relative to its energy content
  • Moderation (dietary)providing enough but not too
    much of a food or nutrient
  • Variety (dietary)eating a wide selection of
    foods within and among the major food groups

2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans
  • 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans are most
    recent nutrition and physical activity
  • Established in 1980
  • Set by the US Dept. of Agriculture and Dept. of
    Health and Human Services
  • To promote health and reduce risk of chronic
    disease through diet and physical activity
  • Published every five years
  • Targeted to the general public over 2 years of age

Dietary Guidelines for Americans at a Glance
  • Adequate Nutrients within Energy Needs
  • Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods,
  • Dont exceed daily calories needed to maintain a
    healthy weight.
  • People over age 50. Consume vit B12.
  • Weight management
  • Maintain a balance between the amount of calories
    consumed and expended.
  • Those who need to lose weight. Aim for a slow,
    steady weight loss

2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans at a Glance
  • Physical Activity
  • Be physically active,
  • spend at least 30 minutes in moderately intense
    physical activity each day.
  • Include cardiovascular conditioning, stretching
    exercises for flexibility, and resistance
    exercises for muscle strength and endurance.
  • Children and adolescents. Engage in at least 60
    minutes of physical activity on most, days.
  • Food groups to encourage
  • at least 3 servings of whole grains,
  • 3 of fat-free or low-fat milk products,
  • 2 cups of fruit,
  • and at least 2 ½ cups of colorful vegetables each

2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans at a Glance
  • Fats
  • Keep dietary fat between 20-35 of daily calories
  • choose vegetable oils, nuts, and fish for
    heart-healthy, unsaturated fats.
  • 300 mg/day of cholesterol, and keep trans fatty
    acid as low as possible.
  • Carbohydrates
  • Choose whole grains, fruits, and vegetables more
    often than sugary soft and fruit drinks, bakery

2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans at a Glance
  • Sodium
  • Keep daily sodium intake less than 2,300 mg (1
    tsp salt).
  • Individuals with hypertension, blacks, and
    middle-aged and older adults. Aim to consume no
    more than 1,500 mg of sodium per day
  • meet the potassium recommendation (4,700 mg/day)
    with food.
  • Alcoholic Beverages
  • Avoid alcohol if pregnant, lactating, under 21,
    or have certain medical conditions.
  • one drink per day for women and up to two drinks
    per day for men.
  • Food Safety
  • Properly clean, prepare, and store foods to avoid
    microbial food-borne illness.

What Is a Food Guide Pyramid
  • Visual diagrams that provide variety of food
    recommendations to help create a healthy diet
  • Food groups and relative proportions
  • Various countries have food guidance systems
    based on their food supply and cultural food
  • MyPyramid is the most recent food guidance system
    for Americans, released by the USDA in 2005.

Healthy Eating Around the World
1992 Food Guide Pyramid
2005 Food Guide Pyramid
Anatomy of MyPyramid
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How to Use MyPyramid
  • How much from each food group should you,
    personally, be eating?
  • The interactive website gives
    you the number of servings to eat from each food
    group based on your daily calorie needs.
  • Your calorie needs are based on your age, gender,
    and activity level.

My Pyramid Food Groups
  • Orange Grains, make ½ whole grains
  • Green Vegetables, vary your veggies
  • Red - Fruits
  • Blue Milk, get you calcium rich foods
  • Purple meat and beans, go lean with protein

Whats a Serving? Eat With Your Hands!
Diet-Planning Guides
  • USDA Food Guide
  • Nutrient Density
  • Foods can be of high, medium or low nutrient
  • Must consider energy needs when choosing these
  • Discretionary Kcalorie Allowance
  • Calculated by subtracting the amount of energy
    required to meet nutrient needs from the total
    energy allowance
  • For weight loss, a person should avoid consuming
    discretionary kcalories.

How Discretionary Calories Fit into a Balanced
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Diet-Planning Guides
  • USDA Food Guide
  • Serving Equivalents
  • Cups are used to measure servings of fruits,
    vegetables, and milk.
  • Ounces are used to measure servings of grains and
  • Visualization with common objects can be used to
    estimate portion sizes.
  • Mixtures of Foods
  • Foods that fall into two or more groups
  • Examples are casseroles, soups, and sandwiches

Diet-Planning Guides
  • USDA Food Guide
  • Vegetarian Food Guide
  • Reliance on plant foods such as grains,
    vegetables, legumes, fruits, nuts and seeds
  • Similar food groups and servings sizes
  • Ethnic food choices fit into the food pyramid
  • Asian examples
  • Mediterranean examples
  • Mexican examples

Food Terminologies
  • Processed foods treated to change their
    physical, chemical and microbiological properties
  • Fortified foods additional of nutrients that
    are not original to the product
  • Refined foods stripping of whole grain
  • Enriched foods addition of nutrients lost
    during processing

What Is a Food Label and Why Is It Important?
  • The food label tells you whats in the package.
  • To help consumers make informed food choices
  • Since 1920s, Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
    mandated that every packaged food be labeled
  • Name of the food
  • Net weight
  • Name and address of manufacturer or distributor
  • List of ingredients in descending order by weight

What Is a Food Label and Why Is It Important?
  • Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990
    mandated that labels now also show
  • Uniform nutrition information and serving sizes
  • Health claims that are accurate and science-based
  • How a serving of food fits into an overall daily
  • Uniform definitions for descriptive labels terms
    such as fat-free and light
  • Exemptions from a Nutrition Facts panel on label
  • Deli items, bakery foods, ready-to-eat foods
    prepared and sold in restaurants, or produced by
    small businesses

Food Labels
  • Daily values
  • 2000 kcal per day
  • Reference male who weighs 154 lbs
  • Reference female who weighs 126 lbs
  • The ingredient list
  • All ingredients listed
  • Listed by weight
  • Serving sizes
  • Facilitate comparison among foods
  • Need to compare to quantity of food actually
  • Do not necessarily match the food guide pyramid

Food Labels
  • Nutrition Facts
  • Listed by quantity and percentage standards per
    serving, called Daily Values
  • kCalories listed as total kcalories and kcalories
    from fat
  • Fat listed by total fat, saturated fat, and trans
  • Cholesterol
  • Sodium
  • Carbohydrate listed by total carbohydrate,
    starch, sugars, and fiber
  • Protein
  • Vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, and calcium are
    listed in DV only.

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Using the Nutrition Facts Panel to Comparison
On the Label Labeling Claims
  • Nutrient Content Claims
  • Describe the level or amount of a nutrient in
    food product
  • Health Claims
  • Describe a relationship between a food or dietary
    compound and a disease or health-related
  • Structure/Function claims
  • Describe how a nutrient or dietary compound
    affects the structure or function of the human

A Structure/Function Label Claim
Video on food label
Food Labels
  • Nutrient Claims
  • Must meet FDA definitions
  • No implied claims
  • General terms include free, good source of,
    healthy, high, less, light or lite, low, more,
    and organic.
  • Energy terms include kcalorie-free, low kcalorie,
    and reduced calorie.
  • Fat and cholesterol terms include percent
    fat-free, fat-free, low fat, less fat, saturated
    fat-free, low saturated fat, less saturated fat,
    trans fat-free, cholesterol-free, low
    cholesterol, less cholesterol, extra lean, and
  • Carbohydrate terms include high fiber and
  • Sodium terms include sodium-free and salt-free,
    low sodium, and very low sodium.

Vegetarian Diets
  • Types of vegetarian Diets
  • Lactovegetarian include dairy products
  • Lact-ovo-vegetarian include dairy and egg
  • Vegans strictly plant based
  • Flexitarian sometimes include poultry and meet

Vegetarian Diets
  • Health Benefits of Vegetarian Diets -
  • Healthy body weights are common due to high
    intakes of fiber and low intakes of fat.
  • Blood pressure is often lower due to lower body
    weights, low-fat and high-fiber diets, and plenty
    of fruits and vegetables.
  • Lower incidence of heart disease due to
    high-fiber diets, eating monounsaturated and
    polyunsaturated fats, and low intakes of dietary
  • Inclusion of soy products like tofu and tempeh
  • Lower incidence of cancer due to high intakes of
    fruits and vegetable

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Vegetarian Diet Planning
  • Protein
  • Lacto-ovo-vegetarians consume animal-derived
    products and thus high-quality protein.
  • Meat replacements and textured vegetable protein
    can be used.
  • Iron - Iron-rich vegetables and fortified grain
    products consumed with foods that are high in
    vitamin C can help vegetarians meet iron needs.
  • Zinc - Consuming legumes, whole grains, and nuts
    can provide zinc to those who do not consume meat.

Vegetarian Diet Planning
  • Calcium
  • Calcium is not an issue for the lactovegetarian.
  • Calcium-rich foods should be consumed.
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vegans may not receive enough B12 from the diet.
  • Consumption of fortified products or
    supplementation may be necessary.
  • Vitamin D can come from sunlight exposure or
    fortified foods.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids - Food sources include
    flaxseed, walnuts, soybeans, and their oils.

See For yourself Extra Credit
  • Go to your local supermarket or grocery store and
    compile a list of 5 examples of health claims
    made on the labels of various foods. Record the
    name of the food, the actual claim, and any
    information supporting the health claim that is
    listed on the packaging.
  • Go to to obtain your personalized
    food guide