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  • MB0034

UNIT-1 An introduction to Research Methodology
  • Research- Research simply means a search for
    facts-answers to questions and solutions to
    problems. It is a purposive investigation. It is
    an organized inquiry. It seeks to find
    explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify
    the doubtful facts and to correct the
    misconceived facts.

  • Young defines Research as a scientific
    undertaking which, by means of logical and
    systematic techniques, aim to
  • Discover of new facts or verify and test old
  • Analyze their sequences, interrelationships and
    casual explanations
  • Develop new scientific tools, concepts and
    theories which would facilitate reliable and
    valid study of human behavior
  • Kerlinger defines research as a systematic,
    controlled empirical and critical investigation
    of hypothetical propositions about the presumed
    elations among natural phenomena.

Research and Scientific Method
  • The scientific method is based on certain
    articles of faith. these are
  • Reliance on Empirical Evidence
  • Use of relevant concepts
  • Commitment of Objectivity
  • Ethical Neutrality
  • Generalization
  • Verifiability
  • Logical Reasoning Process

Characteristics of Research
  • It is a systematic and critical investigation
    into a phenomenon
  • It is a purposive investigation aiming at
    describing, interpreting and explaining a
  • It adopts scientific method
  • It is objective an logical, applying possible
    test to validate the measuring tools and the
    conclusions reached
  • It is based upon observable experience or
    empirical evidence
  • Research is directed towards finding answers to
    pertinent questions and solutions to problems
  • It emphasizes the development of generalization,
    principles or theories
  • The purpose of research is not only to arrive at
    an answer but also stand up the test of criticism

Purpose of Research
  • Research extends knowledge of human beings ,
    social life and environment. The search is for
    answers for various types of questions What,
    Where, When, How and Why of various phenomena,
    and enlighten us.
  • Research establishes generalization and general
    laws and contributes to theory building in
    various fields of knowledge
  • Research brings to light information that might
    never be discovered fully during the ordinary
    course of life

  • Research verifies and tests existing facts and
    theory and these help improving our knowledge and
    ability to handle different situations
  • General laws developed through research may
    enable us to make reliable predictions of events
    yet to happen
  • Research aims to analyze interrelationship
    between variables and to derive causal e
    explanations thus enable us to have better
    understanding of the world
  • Applied research aims at finding solutions to
    solving problems viz. socio economic problems,
    health problems, human relations problems etc.
  • Research aids planning and thus contributes to
    national development .

  • Pure Research is undertaken for the sake of
    knowledge without any intention to apply it in
  • Applied research is carried on to find solution
    to a real life problem requiring an action or
    policy decision it is thus problem oriented and
    action directed.
  • Exploratory research which is also known as
    formulative research is the preliminary study of
    an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher
    has little or no knowledge

  • Descriptive study is a fact finding investigation
    with adequate interpretation
  • Diagnostic study is similar to descriptive study
    but with a different focus
  • Evaluation studies is a type of applied research.
    It is made for assessing the effectiveness of
    social or economic programs implemented or for
    assessing the impact of developmental projects on
    the development of the project areas
  • Experimental research is designed to assess the
    effects of particular variables on a phenomenon
    by keeping the other variable constant or
  • Analytical study is a procedure or techniques of
    analysis applied to quantitative data. It is also
    known statistical method
  • Historical research is study of past result and
    other information sources with a view to
    reconstructing the origin and development of an
    institution and discovering the trends in the

  • Actions research is a concurrent evaluation study
    of an action program launched on solving a
    problem for improving an existing situation.
  • Diagnosis
  • Sharing of diagnostic information
  • Planning
  • Developing change program
  • Initiation of organizational change
  • Implementation of participation and communication
  • Post experimental evaluation
  • Survey is a fact finding study which involves
    collection of data directly from a population or
    a sample thereof at particular time.

  • Research really begins when the researcher
    experience some difficulty, i.e. a problem
    demanding a solution within the subject-are of
    his discipline. This general area of interest,
    however, defines only the range of subject-matter
    within which the researcher would see and pose a
    specific problem for research. Personal values
    play an important role in the selection of a
    topic for research. Social conditions do often
    shape the preference of investigation in a subtle
    an d imperceptible way.

  • R.L. Ackoffs analysis affords considerable
    guidance in identifying problem for research. He
    visualizes five components of a problem.
  • Research-consumer
  • Research-consumer's Objectives
  • Alternative Means to Meet the Objectives
  • Doubt in Regard to Selection of Alternatives
  • There must be One of More environments to which
    the difficulty or problem pertains

Choosing the Problem
  • The sources from which one may be able to
    identify research problems or develop problems
  • Review of literature
  • Academic experience
  • Daily experience
  • Exposure to field situations
  • Consultations
  • Brain storming
  • Research
  • Intuition

Formulating the problem
  • The selection of one appropriate researchable
    problem out of the identified problems requires
    evaluation of those alternatives against certain
    criteria. Which may be grouped into
  • Internal Criteria
  • External Criteria

Internal Criteria
  • Researchers Interest
  • Researchers Competence
  • Researchers own resources

External Criteria
  • Research-ability of the problem
  • Importance and urgency
  • Novelty of the problem
  • Feasibility
  • Facilities
  • Usefulness and social relevance
  • Research personnel

Objective of Formulating the Problem
  • A problem well put is half-solved. The primary
    task of research is collection of relevant data
    and the analysis of data for finding answers to
    the research questions. The proper performance of
    this task depends upon the identification of
    exact data and information required for the
    study. The formulation serves this purpose. The
    clear and accurate statement of the problem, that
    development of the conceptual model, the
    definition of the objectives of the study, the
    setting of investigative questions, the
    formulation of hypothesis to be tested and the
    operational definitions of concepts and the
    delimitations of the study determined the exact
    data needs of the study.

Process of Defining the Problem
  • Developing title
  • Building a conceptual model
  • Define the objective of the study

Criteria of Good Research Problem
  • Verifiable evidence
  • Accuracy
  • Precision
  • Systematization
  • Objectivity
  • Recording
  • Controlling conditions
  • Training Investigators

  • A hypothesis consists either of a suggested
    explanation for an observable phenomenon or of a
    reasoned proposal predicting a possible causal
    correlation among multiple phenomena.The
    scientific method requires that one can test a
    scientific hypothesis. Scientists generally base
    such hypotheses on previous observations or on
    extensions of scientific theories. Even though
    the words "hypothesis" and "theory" are often
    used synonymously in common and informal usage, a
    scientific hypothesis is not the same as a
    scientific theory. A Hypothesis is never to be
    stated as a question, but always as a statement
    with an explanation following it.

Characteristics of Good Hypothesis
  • Conceptual clarity
  • Specificity
  • Testability
  • Availability of techniques
  • Theoretical relevance
  • Consistency
  • Objectivity
  • Simplicity

Types of Hypothesis
  • Causal hypothesis
  • Null Hypothesis
  • Alternative Hypothesis

Concepts of Hypothesis Testing
  • The level of Significance
  • Decision Rule of Test of Hypothesis

Type I Type II Errors
  • Type I error, also known as an "error of the
    first kind", an a error, or a "false positive"
    the error of rejecting a null hypothesis when it
    is actually true. Plainly speaking, it occurs
    when we are observing a difference when in truth
    there is none. Type I error can be viewed as the
    error of excessive credulity.
  • Type II error, also known as an "error of the
    second kind", a ß error, or a "false negative"
    the error of failing to reject a null hypothesis
    when it is in fact not true. In other words, this
    is the error of failing to observe a difference
    when in truth there is one. Type II error can be
    viewed as the error of excessive skepticism.

Procedure for testing Hypothesis
  • Making a formal statement
  • Selecting a significant level
  • Deciding the distribution to use
  • Selecting a random sample computing an
    appropriate value
  • Calculation of the probability
  • Comparing the probability

Testing of Hypothesis
  • Z-testIt is based on the normal probability
    distribution and is used for judging the
    significance of several statistical measures,
    particularly the Mean.
  • T-testIt is based on t-distribution and is
    considered an appropriate test for judging the
    significance of sample mean etc. when population
    variance is not known.
  • X2-testIt is based on chi-square and as a
    parametric test is used for comparing a sample
    variance to a theoretical population variance is
  • F-testIt is based on f-distribution and is used
    to compare the variance of the two-independent

  • A research design is a logical and systematic
    plan prepared for directing a research study. It
    specifies the objectives of the study the
    methodology and techniques to be adopted for
    achieving the objectives. It constitutes the blue
    print for the collection, measurement and
    analysis of data.It is the plan, structure and
    strategy of investigation conceived so as to
    obtain answers to research questions.

  • According to Jahoda and Destsch and Cook
    describe, A research design is the arrangement
    of conditions for collection and analysis of data
    in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the
    research purpose with economy in procedure.
  • A research design is the program that guides the
    investigator in the process of collecting,
    analyzing and interpreting observations.

Characteristics of a Good Research Design
  • It is a series of guide posts to keep one going
    in the right direction.
  • It reduces wastage of time and cost.
  • It encourages co-ordination and effective
  • It is a tentative plan which undergoes
  • It has to be geared to the availability of data
    and the cooperation of the informants.
  • It has also to be kept within the manageable

Components of Research Design
  • Dependent and Independent variables
  • Extraneous Variable
  • Control
  • Research hypothesis
  • Experimental and control groups
  • Treatments
  • Experiment
  • Experiment Unit

Experimental Non-Experimental Hypothesis
Testing Research
  • Hypothesis-Testing Research When the objective
    of a research is to test a research hypothesis.
  • Experimental hypothesis testing research A
    research in which the independent variable is
  • Non-experimental hypothesis testing research A
    research in which the independent variable is not

Research Design in case of Exploratory Research
  • Exploratory research studies are also termed as
    Formulative research studies. The main purpose of
    such studies is that of formulating a problem for
    more precise investigation or of developing the
    working hypothesis from an operational point of
    view.The major emphasis in such studies is on the
    discovery of ideas and insights.The three methods
    in the context of research design are
  • The Survey of concerning literature
  • Experience survey
  • Analyses of insight-stimulating.

Research Design in case of Descriptive
Diagnostic Research Studies
  • Descriptive research studies are those studies
    which are concerned with describing the
    characteristics of a particular individual, or of
    a group, whereas as diagnostic research studies
    determine the frequency with which something
    occurs or its association with something
    else.From the point of view of the research
    design, the descriptive as well as diagnostic
    studies share common requirements.In descriptive
    as well as in diagnostic studies, the researcher
    must be able to define clearly, what he wants to
    measure and must find adequate methods for
    measuring it along with a clear cut definition of
    population he wants to study.

  • The research design must make enough provision
    for protection against bias and must maximize
    reliability.With due concern for the economical
    completion of the research study, the design in
    such studies must be rigid and not flexible and
    must focus attention on the following
  • Formulating the objective of the study
  • Designing the methods of data collection
  • Selecting the sample
  • Collecting the data
  • Processing and analyzing the data
  • Reporting the findings

Research Design in case of Hypothesis-Testing
Research Studies
  • Hypothesis-testing research studies generally
    known as experimental studies are those where the
    researcher tests the hypothesis of causal
    relationships between variables. Such studies
    require procedures that will not only reduce bias
    and increase reliability, but will permit drawing
    inferences about causality.Usually, experiments
    meet these requirements. Hence, when we talk of
    research design in such studies, we often mean
    the design of experiments.

Principles of Experimental Designs
  • The Principle of Replication
  • The Principle of randomization
  • Principle of local control

Important Experimental Designs
  • Before and After without control design
  • After only with control design
  • Before and after with control design
  • Formal Experimental Designs
  • Completely Randomized design(CR design)
  • Randomized block design (RB design)
  • Latin square design (LS design)
  • Factorial design

  • A case study is one of several ways of doing
    research whether it is social science related or
    even socially related. It is an intensive study
    of a single group, incident, or community.Other
    ways include experiments, surveys, multiple
    histories, and analysis of archival information.
  • Rather than using samples and following a rigid
    protocol to examine limited number of variables,
    case study methods involve an in-depth,
    longitudinal examination of a single instance or
    event a case. They provide a systematic way of
    looking at events, collecting data, analyzing
    information, and reporting the results. As a
    result the researcher may gain a sharpened
    understanding of why the instance happened as it
    did, and what might become important to look at
    more extensively in future research. Case studies
    lend themselves to both generating and testing

  • Another suggestion is that case study should be
    defined as a research strategy, an empirical
    inquiry that investigates a phenomenon within its
    real-life context. Case study research means
    single and multiple case studies, can include
    quantitative evidence, relies on multiple sources
    of evidence and benefits from the prior
    development of theoretical propositions. Case
    studies should not be confused with qualitative
    research and they can be based on any mix of
    quantitative and qualitative evidence.
    Single-subject research provides the statistical
    framework for making inferences from quantitative
    case-study data. This is also supported and
    well-formulated in (Lamnek, 2005) "The case
    study is a research approach, situated between
    concrete data taking techniques and
    methodological paradigms."

  • When selecting a case for a case study,
    researchers often use information-oriented
    sampling, as opposed to random sampling. This is
    because the typical or average case is often not
    the richest in information. Extreme or atypical
    cases reveal more information because they
    activate more basic mechanisms and more actors in
    the situation studied. In addition, from both an
    understanding-oriented and an action-oriented
    perspective, it is often more important to
    clarify the deeper causes behind a given problem
    and its consequences than to describe the
    symptoms of the problem and how frequently they
    occur. Random samples emphasizing representative
    ness will seldom be able to produce this kind of
    insight it is more appropriate to select some
    few cases chosen for their validity.

  • Three types of information-oriented cases may be
  • Extreme or deviant cases
  • Critical cases
  • Paradigmatic cases.

  • Cases selected based on dimensions of a theory
    (pattern-matching) or on diversity on a dependent
    phenomenon (explanation-building).
  • No generalization to a population beyond cases
    similar to those studied.
  • Conclusions should be phrased in terms of model
    elimination, not model validation. Numerous
    alternative theories may be consistent with data
    gathered from a case study.
  • Case study approaches have difficulty in terms of
    evaluation of low-probability causal paths in a
    model as any given case selected for study may
    fail to display such a path, even when it exists
    in the larger population of potential cases.

  • The subject must be viewed as a specimen in a
    cultural series. That is, the case drawn out from
    its total context for the purposes of study must
    be considered a member of the particular cultural
    group or community. The scrutiny of the life
    histories of persons must be done with a view to
    identify the community values, standards and
    their shared way of life.
  • The organic motto of action must be socially
    relevant. That is, the action of the individual
    cases must be viewed as a series of reactions to
    social stimuli or situation. In other words, the
    social meaning of behavior must be taken into

  • The strategic role of the family group in
    transmitting the culture must be recognized. That
    is, in case of an individual being the member of
    a family, the role of family in shaping his
    behavior must never be overlooked.
  • The specific method of elaboration of organic
    material onto social behavior must be clearly
    shown. That is case histories that portray in
    detail how basically a biological organism, the
    man, gradually blossoms forth into a social
    person, are specially fruitful.
  • The continuous related character of experience
    for childhood through adulthood must be stressed.
    In other words, the life history must be a
    configuration depicting the inter-relationships
    between the persons various experiences.

  • Social situation must be carefully and
    continuously specified as a factor. One of the
    important criteria for the life history is that a
    persons life must be shown as unfolding itself
    in the context of and partly owing to specific
    social situations.
  • The life history material itself must be
    organized according to some conceptual framework,
    this in turn would facilitate generalizations at
    a higher level.

  • A part of population is known as sample. The
    method consisting of the selecting for study, a
    portion of the universe with a view to draw
    conclusions about the universe or population
    is known as sampling. A statistical sample
    ideally purports to be a miniature model or
    replica of the collectivity or the population
    constituted of all the items that the study
    should principally encompass, that is, the items
    which potentially hold promise of affording
    information relevant to the purpose of a given
  • Sampling helps in time and cost saving. It also
    helps in checking their accuracy. But on the
    other hand it demands exercise of great care
    caution otherwise the results obtained may be
    incorrect or misleading.

Advantages of Sample Survey
  • The size of the population
  • Amount of funds budgeted for the study
  • Facilities
  • Time

Sampling Procedure
  • Purpose of the survey
  • Measurability
  • Degree of precision
  • Information about population
  • The nature of the population
  • Geographical area of the study and the size of
    the population
  • Financial resources
  • Time limitation
  • Economy

Characteristics of a Good Sample
  • Representative ness
  • Accuracy
  • Precision
  • Size

  • Probability or Random Sampling
  • A probability sampling scheme is one in which
    every unit in the population has a chance
    (greater than zero) of being selected in the
    sample, and this probability can be accurately
    determined. The combination of these traits makes
    it possible to produce unbiased estimates of
    population totals, by weighting sampled units
    according to their probability of selection.

  • Example We want to estimate the total income of
    adults living in a given street. We visit each
    household in that street, identify all adults
    living there, and randomly select one adult from
    each household. (For example, we can allocate
    each person a random number, generated from a
    uniform distribution between 0 and 1, and select
    the person with the highest number in each
    household). We then interview the selected person
    and find their income.

  • People living on their own are certain to be
    selected, so we simply add their income to our
    estimate of the total. But a person living in a
    household of two adults has only a one-in-two
    chance of selection. To reflect this, when we
    come to such a household, we would count the
    selected person's income twice towards the total.
    (In effect, the person who is selected from that
    household is taken as representing the person who
    isn't selected.)

  • In the above example, not everybody has the same
    probability of selection what makes it a
    probability sample is the fact that each person's
    probability is known. When every element in the
    population does have the same probability of
    selection, this is known as an 'equal probability
    of selection' (EPS) design. Such designs are also
    referred to as 'self-weighting' because all
    sampled units are given the same weight.

Non-Probability Sampling
  • Nonprobability sampling is any sampling method
    where some elements of the population have no
    chance of selection (these are sometimes referred
    to as 'out of coverage'/'undercovered'), or where
    the probability of selection can't be accurately
    determined. It involves the selection of elements
    based on assumptions regarding the population of
    interest, which forms the criteria for selection.
    Hence, because the selection of elements is
    nonrandom, nonprobability sampling does not allow
    the estimation of sampling errors. These
    conditions place limits on how much information a
    sample can provide about the population.
    Information about the relationship between sample
    and population is limited, making it difficult to
    extrapolate from the sample to the population.

  • Example We visit every household in a given
    street, and interview the first person to answer
    the door. In any household with more than one
    occupant, this is a nonprobability sample,
    because some people are more likely to answer the
    door (e.g. an unemployed person who spends most
    of their time at home is more likely to answer
    than an employed housemate who might be at work
    when the interviewer calls) and it's not
    practical to calculate these probabilities.

Types of Probability Sampling
  • Simple Random SamplingIn a simple random sample
    ('SRS') of a given size, all such subsets of the
    frame are given an equal probability. Each
    element of the frame thus has an equal
    probability of selection the frame is not
    subdivided or partitioned. Furthermore, any given
    pair of elements has the same chance of selection
    as any other such pair (and similarly for
    triples, and so on). This minimizes bias and
    simplifies analysis of results. In particular,
    the variance between individual results within
    the sample is a good indicator of variance in the
    overall population, which makes it relatively
    easy to estimate the accuracy of results.

  • However, SRS can be vulnerable to sampling error
    because the randomness of the selection may
    result in a sample that doesn't reflect the
    makeup of the population. For instance, a simple
    random sample of ten people from a given country
    will on average produce five men and five women,
    but any given trial is likely to overrepresent
    one sex and underrepresent the other. Systematic
    and stratified techniques, discussed below,
    attempt to overcome this problem by using
    information about the population to choose a more
    representative sample.
  • SRS may also be cumbersome and tedious when
    sampling from an unusually large target
    population. In some cases, investigators are
    interested in research questions specific to
    subgroups of the population. For example,
    researchers might be interested in examining
    whether cognitive ability as a predictor of job
    performance is equally applicable across racial
    groups. SRS cannot accommodate the needs of
    researchers in this situation because it does not
    provide sub samples of the population. Stratified
    sampling, which is discussed below, addresses
    this weakness of SRS.

Stratified random Sampling
  • Where the population embraces a number of
    distinct categories, the frame can be organized
    by these categories into separate "strata." Each
    stratum is then sampled as an independent
    sub-population, out of which individual elements
    can be randomly selected. There are several
    potential benefits to stratified sampling.
  • Stratification process involves three major
    decisions. They are stratification base or bases,
    number of strata and strata sample sizes.
  • Example University students may be divided on
    the basis of discipline, and each discipline
    group may again be divided into juniors and

Systematic sampling
  • Systematic sampling relies on arranging the
    target population according to some ordering
    scheme and then selecting elements at regular
    intervals through that ordered list. Systematic
    sampling involves a random start and then
    proceeds with the selection of every kth element
    from then onwards. In this case, k(population
    size/sample size). It is important that the
    starting point is not automatically the first in
    the list, but is instead randomly chosen from
    within the first to the kth element in the list.
    A simple example would be to select every 10th
    name from the telephone directory (an 'every
    10th' sample, also referred to as 'sampling with
    a skip of 10').

Cluster Sampling
  • It means random selection of sampling units
    consisting of population elements.Each such
    sampling unit is a cluster of population
    elements. Then from each selected sampling unit,
    a sample of population elements is drawn by
    either simple random selection or stratified
    random selection.Where the population elements
    are scattered over a wide area and a list of
    population elements is not readily available, the
    use of simple or stratified random sampling
    method would be too expensive and
    time-consuming.In such cases Cluster Sampling is
    usually adopted. The cluster sampling process
    involves Identify clusters, examine the nature
    of clusters, and determine the number of stages.

Multi-stage and Sub-sampling
  • Multistage sampling is a complex form of cluster
    sampling in which two or more levels of units are
    imbedded one in the other. The first stage
    consists of constructing the clusters that will
    be used to sample from. In the second stage, a
    sample of primary units is randomly selected from
    each cluster (rather than using all units
    contained in all selected clusters). In following
    stages, in each of those selected clusters,
    additional samples of units are selected, and so
    on. All ultimate units (individuals, for
    instance) selected at the last step of this
    procedure are then surveyed.

  • This technique, thus, is essentially the process
    of taking random samples of preceding random
    samples. It is not as effective as true random
    sampling, but it probably solves more of the
    problems inherent to random sampling. Moreover,
    It is an effective strategy because it banks on
    multiple randomizations. As such, it is extremely
  • Multistage sampling is used frequently when a
    complete list of all members of the population
    does not exist and is inappropriate. Moreover, by
    avoiding the use of all sample units in all
    selected clusters, multistage sampling avoids the
    large, and perhaps unnecessary, costs associated
    traditional cluster sampling.

Random Sampling with Probability Proportional to
  • The procedure of selecting clusters with
    probability Proportional to size (PPS) is widely
    used. If one primary cluster has twice as large a
    population as another, it is give twice the
    chance of being selected. If the same number of
    persons is then selected from each of the
    selected clusters, the overall probability of any
    person will be the same. Thus PPS is a better
    method for securing a representative sample of
    population elements in multi-stage cluster

Double Sampling and Multiphase Sampling
  • It refers to the subsection of the final sample
    form a pre-selected larger sample that provides
    information for improving the final selection.
  • When the procedure is extended to more than two
    phases of selection, it is called multi-phase
    sampling. This is also known as sequencing
    sampling, as sub-sampling is done from a main
    sample in phases.

Replicated or Interpenetrating Sampling
  • It involves selection of a certain number of
    sub-samples rather than one full sample from a
    population. All the sub-samples should be drawn
    using the same sampling technique and each is a
    self-contained and adequate sample of the
    population.The replicated samples can throw light
    on variable non-sampling errors.But disadvantage
    is that it limits the amount of stratification
    that can be employed.

Convenience or Accidental Sampling
  • It means selecting sample units in a just hit
    and miss fashion e.g. interviewing people whom
    we happen to meet.This sampling also means
    selecting whatever sampling units are
    conveniently available e.g.a teacher may select
    students in his class. This method is also known
    as accidental sampling because the respondents
    whom the researcher meets accidentally are
    included in the sample.

  • Purposive (or judgment) Sampling this method
    means deliberate selection of sample units that
    conform to some pre-determined criteria. This is
    also known as judgment sampling.This involves
    selection of cases which we judge as the most
    appropriate ones for the given study. It is based
    on the judgment of the researcher or some expert.
    It does not aim at securing a cross section of a
    population. The chance that a particular case be
    selected for the sample depends on the subjective
    judgment of the researcher.

  • Quota Sampling It is a form of convenient
    sampling involving selection of quota groups of
    accessible sampling units by traits such as sex,
    age, social class etc.It is method of stratified
    sampling in which the selection within strata is
  • Snow-Ball Sampling It is the colorful name for a
    technique of building up a list or a sample of a
    special population by using an initial set of its
    members as informants.

  • Data refers to information or facts usually
    collected as the result of experience,
    observation or experiment, or processes within a
    computer system, or premises. Data may consist of
    numbers, words, or images, particularly as
    measurements or observations of a set of
    variables. The data needed for a social science
    research may be broadly classified into a) Data
    pertaining to human beings, b) data relating to
    organization and c) Data pertaining to
    territorial areas.

Personal Data
  • Demographic and Socio-economic characteristics of
    individualAge, sex, Race, social class,
    Religion, Marital status, education, occupation,
    income, family size, life style etc.
  • Behavioral variables Attitudes, opinions,
    awareness, knowledge, practice, intentions etc.
  • Organizational data consist of data relating to
    an organizations origin, ownership, objectives,
    resources, functions, performance and growth.
  • Territorial data are related to geo-physical
    characteristics, resource endowment, population,
    occupational pattern infrastructure degree of
    development etc.of spatial divisions like
    villages, cities, talluks, districts, state and
    the nation.

Sources of Data
  • Raw data is a term for unprocessed data, it is
    also known as primary data.. Raw data can be
    input to a computer program or used in manual
    analysis procedures such as gathering statistics
    from a survey.It is the original sources from
    which the researcher directly collects data that
    have not been previously collected.Primary data
    are first hand information collected through
    various methods such as observation,
    interviewing, mailing etc.

Advantages of Primary Data
  • It is the original source of data
  • It is possible to capture the changes occurring
    in the course of time.
  • It flexible to the advantage of researcher
  • Extensive research study is based of primary data

Disadvantages of Primary Data
  • Primary data is expensive to obtain
  • It is time consuming
  • It requires extensive research personnel who are
  • It is difficult to administer

Methods of Collecting Primary Data
  • There are various methods of data collection. A
    method is different from a tool while a
    method refers to the way or mode of gathering
    data, a tool is an instruments used for the
    method. For example, a schedule is used for
    interviewing. The important methods are
  • Observation
  • Interviewing
  • Mail survey
  • Experimentation
  • Simulation
  • Projective technique

Secondary Sources of Data
  • Secondary data is collecting and possibly
    processing data by people other than the
    researcher in question. Common sources of
    secondary data for social science include
    censuses, large surveys, and organizational
  • Secondary data analysis is commonly known as
    second-hand analysis. It is simply the analysis
    of preexisting data in a different way or to
    answer a different question than originally
    intended. Secondary data analysis utilizes the
    data that was collected by someone else in order
    to further a study that you are interested in

Secondary Sources of Data
  • There are sources containing data which have
    been collected and compiled for another purpose.
    The secondary sources consists of readily
    compiled statistical statements and reports whose
    data may be used by researchers for their studies
    e.g. census reports, annual reports and financial
    statements of companies, statistical statements,
    reports of Government Departments. Annual reports
    of currency and finance published by the reserve
    bank of India , statistical statements relating
    to Co-operatives and Regional banks, published by
    the NABARD etc.

Features of Secondary Sources
  • They are readymade and readily available, and do
    not require the trouble of constructing tools and
    administering them.
  • They consist of data which a researcher has no
    original control over collection and
    classification. Both the form and the content of
    secondary sources are shaped by others. Clearly,
    this is a features which can limit the research
    value of secondary sources.
  • Secondary sources are not limited in time and
    space. That is, there searcher using them need
    not have been present when and where they were

Use of Secondary Data
  • Specific information from secondary sources may
    be used for reference purpose.E.g. The general
    statistical information in the number of
    co-operative credit societies in the country,
    their coverage of villages, their capital
    structure, volume of business etc.
  • It is used as bench marks against which the
    findings of research may be tested.e.g. the
    findings of a local or regional survey may be
    compared with the national averages the
    performance indicators of a particular bank may
    be tested against the corresponding indicators of
    the banking industry as a whole and so on.
  • It may be used as the sole surface of information
    for a research project. Such studies as
    securities Market Behavior, Financial Analysis of
    companies etc.

Advantages of Secondary Data
  • Secondary data, if available can be secured
    quickly and cheaply.
  • Wider geographical area and longer reference
    period may be covered without much cost. Thus,
    the use of secondary data extends the
    researchers space and time reach.
  • The use of secondary data broadens the data from
    which scientific generalizations can be made.
  • Environmental and cultural settings are required
    for the study.
  • The use of secondary data enables a researcher to
    verify the findings bases on primary data.It
    readily meets the need for additional empirical
    support. The researcher need not wait the time
    when additional primary data can be collected.

Disadvantages of Secondary Data
  • It is not necessary that available data may meet
    our specific needs.
  • The available data may not be as accurate as
    desired. To assess their accuracy we need to know
    how the data were collected.
  • The secondary data are not up-to-date and become
    obsolete when they appear in print, because of
    time lag in producing them.For example
    population census data are published two or three
    years later after compilation, and no new figures
    will be available for another ten years.
  • Finally, information about the whereabouts of
    sources may not be available to all social
    scientists.Even if the location of the source is
    known, the accessibility depends primarily on
    proximity.For example, most of the unpublished
    official records and compilations are located in
    the capital city, and they are not within the
    easy reach of researchers based in far off places.

Evaluation of Secondary Data
  • Data Pertinence
  • Data Quality
  • Data Completeness

  • Observation is either an activity of a living
    being (such as a human), consisting of receiving
    knowledge of the outside world through the
    senses, or the recording of data using scientific
    instruments. The term may also refer to any datum
    collected during this activity.

Observation as a Scientific Method
  • The scientific method requires observations of
    nature to formulate and test hypotheses. It
    consists of these steps
  • Asking a question about a natural phenomenon
  • Making observations of the phenomenon
  • Hypothesizing an explanation for the phenomenon
  • Predicting a logical consequence of the
  • Testing the prediction in a controlled
    experiment, a natural experiment, an
    observational study, or a field experiment
  • Creating a conclusion with data gathered in the

  • Observation plays a role in the second and fifth
    steps. However the need for reproducibility
    requires that observations by different observers
    be comparable. Human sense impressions are
    subjective and qualitative making them difficult
    to record or compare. The idea of measurement
    evolved to allow recording and comparison of
    observations made at different times and places
    by different people. Measurement consists of
    using observation to compare the thing being
    measured to a standard an artifact, process or
    definition which can be duplicated or shared by
    all observers, and counting how many of the
    standard units are comparable to the object.
    Measurement reduces an observation to a number
    which can be recorded, and two observations which
    result in the same number are equal within the
    resolution of the process.

  • Human senses are limited, and are subject to
    errors in perception such as optical illusions.
    Scientific instruments were developed to magnify
    human powers of observation, such as weighing
    scales, clocks, telescopes, microscopes,
    thermometers, cameras, and tape recorders, and
    also translate into perceptible form events that
    are unobservable by human senses, such as
    indicator dyes, voltmeters, spectrometers,
    oscilloscopes, interferometers, geiger counters,
    MRI machines, radio telescopes, and DNA
  • One problem encountered throughout scientific
    fields is that the observation may affect the
    process being observed, resulting in a different
    outcome than if the process was unobserved. For
    example, it is not possible to check the air
    pressure in an automobile tire without letting
    out some of the air, changing the pressure.
    However, in most fields of science it is possible
    to reduce the effects of observation to
    insignificance by using better instruments.

"Observer" personality trait
  • People with "Observer" personalities are
    motivated by the desire to understand the facts
    about the world around them. Believing they are
    only worth what they contribute, Observers have
    learned to withdraw themselves, to watch with
    keen eyes, and to speak only when they think they
    can shake the world with their observations.
    Sometimes they do just that. However, some
    Observers are known to withdraw completely from
    the world, becoming reclusive hermits and fending
    off social contacts with abrasive cynicism.
    Observers generally fear in competency and
    uselessness they want to be capable and
    knowledgeable above all else.

  • QUESTIONNAIRE A questionnaire is a research
    instrument consisting of a series of questions
    and other prompts for the purpose of gathering
    information from respondents. Although they are
    often designed for statistical analysis of the
    responses, this is not always the case. The
    questionnaire was invented by Sir Francis Galton.

  • Questionnaires have advantages over some other
    types of surveys in that they are cheap, do not
    require as much effort from the questioner as
    verbal or telephone surveys, and often have
    standardized answers that make it simple to
    compile data. However, such standardized answers
    may frustrate users. Questionnaires are also
    sharply limited by the fact that respondents must
    be able to read the questions and respond to
    them. Thus, for some demographic groups
    conducting a survey by questionnaire may not be

Questionnaire construction
  • Question types
  • Usually, a questionnaire consists of a number of
    questions that the respondent has to answer in a
    set format. A distinction is made between
    open-ended and closed-ended questions. An
    open-ended question asks the respondent to
    formulate his own answer, whereas a closed-ended
    question has the respondent pick an answer from a
    given number of options. The response options for
    a closed-ended question should be exhaustive and
    mutually exclusive.

  • Four types of response scales for closed-ended
    questions are distinguished
  • Dichotomous, where the respondent has two options
  • Nominal-polytomous, where the respondent has more
    than two unordered options
  • Ordinal-polytomous, where the respondent has more
    than two ordered options
  • (bounded)Continuous, where the respondent is
    presented with a continuous scale
  • A respondent's answer to an open-ended question
    is coded into a response scale afterwards.

Types of Questionnaires
  • Structured/ Standardized questionnaire
  • Unstructured questionnaire

Modes of sending Questionnaires
  • Personal delivery
  • Attaching questionnaire to a product
  • Advertising questionnaire in a newspaper of
  • News stand insets

Improving the Response Rate in a mail survey
  • Quality printing
  • Covering letter
  • Advance information
  • Incentives
  • Follow-up-contacts
  • Larger sample size

Advantages of Questionnaire
  • They are less costly than personal interviews, as
    cost of mailing is the same through out the
    country, irrespective of distance.
  • They can cover extensive geographical areas
  • Mailing is useful in contacting persons such as
    senior business executives who are difficult to
    reach in any other way.
  • The respondents can complete the questionnaires
    at their convenience
  • Mail surveys, being more impersonal, provide more
    anonymity than personal interviews.
  • Mail surveys are totally free from the
    interviewers bias, as there is no personal
    contact between the respondents and the
  • Certain personal and economic data may be given
    accurately in an unsigned mail questionnaire.

Disadvantages of Questionnaire
  • The scope for mail surveys is very limited in a
    country like India where the percentage of
    literacy is very low.
  • The response rate of mail surveys is low. Hence,
    the resulting sample will not be a representative

Distinction b/w Schedules Questionnaires
  • Questionnaires are mailed to the respondent
    whereas schedules are carried by the investigator
  • Questionnaires can be filled by the respondent
    only if he is able to understand the language in
    which it is written and he is supposed to be a
    literate. This problem can be overcome in case of
    schedule since the investigator himself carries
    the schedules and the respondents response is
    accordingly taken.
  • A questionnaire is filled by the respondent
    himself whereas the schedule is filled by the

  • An interview is a conversation between two or
    more people (the interviewer and the interviewee)
    where questions are asked by the interviewer to
    obtain information from the interviewee. It is
    one of the prominent methods of data collection.
    It is done by using a structured schedule or an
    unstructured guide. It may be used either as a
    main method or as a supplementary one is studies
    of persons. It is the only suitable method for
    gathering information from illiterate or less
    educated respondents.People are usually more
    willing to talk than to write. Once report is
    established, even confidential information may be
    obtained. It permits probing into the context and
    reasons for answers to questions.

  • A meeting of minimum two expert- candidate
  • Arranged to examine the suitability of the
  • Tested for subject knowledge, skills and desired
    behavior in a very limited time

structured interview
  • A structured interview (also known as a
    standardized interview or a researcher-administere
    d survey) is a quantitative research method
    commonly employed in survey research. The aim of
    this approach is to ensure that each interviewee
    is presented with exactly the same questions in
    the same order. This ensures that answers can be
    reliably aggregated and that comparisons can be
    made with confidence between sample subgroups or
    between different survey periods.
  • Structured interviews are a means of collecting
    data for a statistical survey. In this case, the
    data is collected by an interviewer rather than
    through a self-administered questionnaire.
    Interviewers read the questions exactly as they
    appear on the survey questionnaire. The choice of
    answers to the questions is often fixed
    (close-ended) in advance, though open-ended
    questions can also be included within a
    structured interview.

  • A structured interview also standardizes the
    order in which questions are asked of survey
    respondents, so the questions are always answered
    within the same context. This is important for
    minimizing the impact of context effects, where
    the answers given to a survey question can depend
    on the nature of preceding questions. Though
    context effects can never be avoided, it is often
    desirable to hold them constant across all

Unstructured Interviews
  • Unstructured Interviews are a method of
    interviews where questions can be changed or
    adapted to meet the respondent's intelligence,
    understanding or belief. Unlike a structured
    interview they do not offer a limited, pre-set
    range of answers for a respondent to choose, but
    instead advocate listening to how each individual
    person responds to the question.
  • The method to gather information using this
    technique is fairly limited, for example most
    surveys that are carried out via telephone or
    even in person tend to follow a structured
    method. Outside of sociology the use of such
    interviews is very limited.

Focused Interview
  • This technique is used to collect qualitative
    data by setting up a situation (the interview)
    that allows a respondent the time and scope to
    talk about their opinions on a particular
    subject. The focus of the interview is decided
    by the researcher and there may be areas the
    researcher is interested in exploring.
  • The objective is to understand the respondent's
    point of view rather than make generalizations
    about behavior. It uses open-ended questions,
    some suggested by the researcher (Tell me
    about) and some arise naturally during the
    interview (You said a moment agocan you tell me
    more?). The researcher tries to build a rapport
    with the respondent and the interview is like a
    conversation. Questions are asked when the
    interviewer feels it is appropriate to ask them.
    They may be prepared questions or questions that
    occur to the researcher during the interview. The
    wording of questions will not necessarily be the
    same for all respondents.

Clinical Interview
  • This is similar to the focused interview but with
    a suitable difference. While the focused
    interview is concerned with the effects of
    specific experience, clinical interview is
    concerned with broad underlying feelings or
    motivations or with the course of the
    individuals life experiences.
  • The personal history interview used in social
    case work, prison administration, psychiatric
    clinics and in individual life history research
    is the most common type of clinical interview.
    The specific aspects of the individuals life
    history to be covered by the interview are
    determined with reference to the purpose of the
    study and the respondent is encouraged to talk
    freely about them.

Depth Interview
  • This is an intensive searching interview aiming
    at studying the respondents opinion, emotions
    or convictions on the basis of an interview
    guide. This requires much more training on
    inter-personal skills than structured interview.
    This deliberately aims to elicit unconscious as
    well as extremely personal feelings and emotions.
  • This is generally a lengthy procedure designed to
    encourage free expression of affectively charged
    information. If requires probing. The interviewer
    should totally avoid advising or showing
    disagreement. Of course, he should use
    encouraging expressions like uh-huh or I see
    to motivate the respondent to continue narration.
    Some times the interviewer has to face the
    problem of affections,i.e. the respondent may
    hide expressing affective feelings. The
    interviewer should handle such situation with
    great care.

Approaches to Interview
  • The Participants
  • The relationship between the participants is a
    transitory one
  • Interview is not a mere casual conversational
  • Interview is a mode of obtaining verbal answers
    to questions put verbally
  • Interview is an inter-actionable process
  • Interviewing is not a standardized process

Qualities of Interviews
  • Data availability
  • Role perception
  • The interviewer should also know his role
  • Respondents motivation

Merits of Interview Method
  • Greatest value of this method is the depth and
    detail of information that can be secured. When
    used with well conceived schedules, an interview
    can obtain a great deal of information. It far
    exceeds mail survey in amount and quality of data
    that can be secured.
  • The interviewer can do more to improve the
    percentage of responses and the quality of
    information received than other method. He can
    note the conditions of the interview situation,
    and adopt appropriate approaches to overcome such
    problems as the respondents unwillingness,
    incorrect understand of question, suspicion etc.

  • The interviewer can gather other supplemental
    information like economic level, living
    conditions etc. through observation of the
    respondents environment.
  • The interviewer can use special scoring devices,
    visual materials and the like in order to improve
    the quality of interviewing.
  • The accuracy and dependability of the answers
    given by the respondent can be checked by
    observation and probing.
  • Interview is flexible and adaptable to individual
    situations. Even more, control can be exercised
    over the interview situation.

Demerits of Interview Method
  • Its greatest limitation is that it is costly and
    time consuming.
  • The interview results are often adversely
    affected by interviewers mode of asking
    questions and interactions, and incorrect
    recording and also by the respondents faulty
    perception, faulty memory, inability to
    articulate etc.
  • Certain types of personal and financial
    information may be refused in face-to-face
    interviews. Such information might be supplied
    more willingly on mail questionnaires, especially
    if they are to be unsigned.
  • Interview poses the problem of recording
    information obtained from the respondents. No
    full proof system is available. Note taking is
    invariably distracting to both the respondent and
    the interviewer and affects the thread of the

Interviewing techniques in Business Research
  • Preparation
  • Introduction
  • Developing Rapport
  • Carrying the interview forward
  • Additional sittings
  • Recording the interview
  • Closing the interview
  • Editing

Interview Problems
  • Inadequate Response
  • Interviewers Bias
  • Non-Response
  • Non-Availability
  • Refusal
  • Inaccessibility
  • Methods and Aim of control of non-response

Telephone Interviewing
  • It is a non-personal method of data collection.
    It may be used as a major method or supplementary
    method.It will be useful in the following
  • When the universe is composed of those persons
    whose names are listed in telephone
    directories,e.g. business houses, business
    executives, doctors, other professionals.
  • When the study required responses to five or six
    simple questions e.g. radio or TV program survey.
  • When the survey must be conducted in a very short
    period of time, provided the units of study are
    listed in telephone directory.

  • When the subject is interesting or important to
    respondents, e.g. a survey relating to trade
    conducted by a trade association or a chamber of
    commerce, a survey relating to a profession
    conducted by the concerned professional
  • When the respondents are widely scattered.

Group Interviews
  • It is a method of collecting primary data in
    which a number of individuals with a common
    interest interact with each other. In a personal
    interview, the flow of information is multi
    dimensional. The group may consist of about six
    to eight individuals with a common interest. The
    interviewer acts as the discussion leader. Free
    discussion is encouraged on some aspect of the
    subject under study. The discussion leader
    stimulates the group members to interact with
    each other. The desired information may be
    obtained through self-administered questionnaire
    or interview, with the discussion serving as a
    guide to ensure consideration of the areas of
    concern. In particular, the interviewers look for
    evidence of common elements of attitudes,
    beliefs, intentions and opinions among
    individuals in the group. At the same time, he
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