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Software Engineering Roger s' Pressman, Ph'D


In software problem analysis- design and testing slowly evolved.And at the same ... The Landscape. Different methods to achieve activities: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Software Engineering Roger s' Pressman, Ph'D

Software Engineering Roger s. Pressman, Ph.D
  • By Saroja Nalamalapu

Software Engineering
  • 1. Layered Technology
  • 2. Process Models
  • 3. The Management Spectrum
  • 4. Software project Management

5.Software Quality Assurance
  • SQA Conformance to explicitly stated functional
    and performance requirements, explicitly
    documented development standards, and implicit
    characteristics that are expected of all
    professionally developed software.

  • McCall and Cavano defined a set of quality
    factors that were a first step towards the
    development of metrics for software quality.
    These factors assessed software from 3 distinct
    point of views (1) product operation (using it)
    (2) product revision (changing it) (3) product
    transition (modifying it to work in a different
    environment, i.e. porting)

  • These factors include correctness, Reliability,
    Efficiency, Integrity, Usability,
    Maintainability, Flexibility, Testability,
    Portability, Reusability, Interoperability .
  • Invariant in past 20 years.

Specification and design
  • SQA begins with a set of technical methods and
    tools that help the analyst to achieve a high
    quality specification and the designer to develop
    a high quality design.
  • Formal technical review to accomplish quality
  • FTR-walk through or an inspection.

Software testing
  • Combines multi-step strategy with a series of
    test case design methods that help ensure
    effective error detection.
  • Even testing is not effective. So use FTRs
  • The major threat to software quality comes from
  • Measurement Software metrics must be colleced.

6. Software Configuration Management
  • The art of coordinating software development to
    minimize.. Confusion
  • It is an art of identifying, organizing and
    controlling modifications
  • Goal Maximize productivity
  • SCM activities are developed to 1)Identify the
    change 2)control change 3)ensure that the
    change is implemented 4)report change to others

7.The Technical Spectrum
  • In software problem analysis- design and testing
    slowly evolved.And at the same time to make the
    software engineering tasks more systematic,
    methods were developed.
  • Some methods stood the test of time.

Software Engineering methods- The Landscape
  • Different methods to achieve activities
  • 3 different regions ---Conventional software
    engineering methods, Object oriented approaches,
    formal methods.
  • Single objective to create high quality SW
  • Any method, if properly applied within a context
    of a solid set of sw engineering principles, will
    lead to higher quality sw than an undisciplined

Problem Definition
  • Customer communication
  • Basic requirements, then req. analysis.
  • Analysis Principles
  • 1.The data domain of problem must be modeled
    (data objects)
  • 2.The functional domain of the problem must be
    modeled (modeled as hierarchy, services to
    classes within the system, or a set of
    mathematical expressions.

Analysis Principles cont.
  • 3. The behavior of the system must be
    represented (externally observable states of
    operations and how transform occurs)
  • 4. Models of data, function and behavior must be
    partitioned (As the problem definition
    progresses, detail is refined and abstraction is
    reduced partitioning)
  • 5. The overriding trend in analysis is from
    essence toward implementation (Implementation
    leads from analysis toward design)

Analysis Methods
  • Beyond the scope
  • Similarities among different methods and regions
    data objects and relationships,
  • how functions operate on data, behavior at
    system level at more localized level,
    partitioning approach that leads to more
    detailed, foundation at which design begins

  • Set of basic principles and a pyramid of modeling
    methods that provide the necessary framework for
    getting it right
  • Design principles1. Data and the algorithms that
    manipulate data should be created as set of
    interrelated abstractions.
  • 2.The internal design detail of data structures
    and algorithms should be hidden from other sw

Design principles cont.
  • 3. Models should exhibit independence
    Effective modularity, i.e. independent models are
    easier to develop
  • 4. Algorithms should be designed using a
    constrained set of logical constructs
    Structured programming

Design Pyramid
  • Data design translates the data model created
    during the analysis into DS
  • Architectural design differs in intent depending
    upon the designers view point
  • Conventional design creates hierarchical sw
  • OOD views architecture as message network that
    enables objects to communicate

Design Pyramid cont.
  • Interface design creates implementation models
    for human- computer interface
  • Procedural design is conducted as algorithms are
    created to implement the processing requirements
    of program components

Program construction
  • 4th generation techniques, graphical programming
    methods, component-based sw construction
  • The challenges that face can only be solved
    through better approaches to analysis and design
    , more comprehensive SQA techniques, more
    effective and efficient testing

Software Testing
  • Testing is the process of executing a program
    with the intent of finding an error
  • Good test case high probability of finding an
    as-yet-discovered error
  • Successful test uncovers an as-yet-discovered
  • Testing can not show the absence of defects, it
    can only show that the sw defects are present

  • Characteristics of SW testing strategies
  • 1) Testing begins at module level
  • 2) Different testing techniques are required
    at different points of time
  • 3) Testing is conducted by developer of SW and
    an independent test group
  • 4) Testing and debugging are different

  • Any engineered product can be tested in 2 ways
  • 1)knowing the specified function that a product
    has been designed to perform (Black-box testing)
  • 2) knowing the internal workings of the product
    (white-box testing)

  • To build faster software
  • Components must be demonstrably defect free

  • SW plant must be rebuilt and that demands a
    reengineering strategy
  • Takes time and money
  • Paradigm for reengineering inventory analysis,
    document restructuring, code restructuring, data
    restructuring, reverse engineering (examine
    software internals to determine how the system
    has been constructed), forward engineering (
    rebuild the applications with modern SW pracices
    and principles)

  • New generation of SW tools to meet the
  • They should emphasize Reuse and Reengineering

Thank you.