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Muscle Anatomy and Physiology

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... Anatomy and Physiology. Structure or Anatomy. Function or Physiology. Muscle ... Muscle Physiology. Energized myosin head attaches to binding site on ... Physiology ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Muscle Anatomy and Physiology


1
Muscle Anatomy and Physiology
  • Structure or Anatomy
  • Function or Physiology
  • Muscle Fiber Types
  • Tension Development

2
Levels of Fibrillar Organization
3
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4
Sarcomere Design
  • Each myofibril is composed of a series of
    sarcomeres
  • Sarcomeres are composed of protein filaments held
    in relative position by connective tissue called
    Z line
  • Myosin filament is long rod-like protein looks
    like a set of golf irons
  • Actin filament is globular protein looks like
    strings of pearls

5
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6
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7
Muscle Physiology
  • Energized myosin head attaches to binding site on
    actin filament
  • Once attached, myosin head swivels and pulls the
    actin across which pulls Z line toward middle of
    myosin filament
  • Binding of ATP molecule disassociates myosin
    crossbridge from actin
  • Splitting of ATP to ADP energizes myosin head for
    another cycle

8
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9
Muscle Physiology
  • If all of the components necessary for muscle
    contraction are present, why arent cross bridges
    always moving and the muscle always in a state of
    contraction?

10
Role of Calcium in Contraction
  • At rest, tropomyosin covers the actin binding
    site so the myosin head cannot attach
  • When excited, calcium is released from the
    sarcoplasmic reticulum in the muscle cell to bind
    with troponin which is attached to the
    tropomyosin covering the binding site
  • Troponin pulls the tropomyosin off the binding
    site so the myosin head can attach

11
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12
Muscle Excitation
  • This sequence is repeated as long as there is
    calcium present
  • Muscle relaxes when calcium pumped back into
    sarcoplasmic reticulum

13
Muscle Fiber Types
  • Differentiation of Types twitch rates
  • Physiological Differences
  • Performance Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Genetics, Gender, Training, and Muscle Fiber
    Plasticity
  • Muscle Fiber Recruitment Order

14
Muscle Fiber Types
I
IIa
IIb
Twitch
Slow
Fast
Fast
Color
Red
Red
White
Energy
Oxidative
Ox/
Glyc
Glycolytic
Fatigue
Resists
Resists
Fatigues
15
Muscle Fiber Plasticity
  • Muscle fiber type appears to be genetically fixed
  • Training can alter oxidative capacity of type II
    fibers

16
Muscle Fiber Recruitment depends on Intensity not
Speed
  • Order of muscle fiber recruitment is from most
    oxidative to least oxidative
  • Order of fiber recruitment is from slowest to
    fastest
  • Order of fiber recruitment is from smallest
    diameter to largest diameter
  • Order is Type I ?Type IIa ? Type IIb

17
Tension Development
  • Neuromuscular Excitation
  • Summation and Tetanus
  • Gradation of Muscle Contraction
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