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Culture and Relationships

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Culture and Relationships. Theory & Research in Intercultural ... A Third-Culture Perspective. Elise's. Family Culture. Elise. White M.C. American Culture ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Culture and Relationships


1
Culture and Relationships
  • Theory Research in Intercultural
    CommunicationCOM 372
  • John R. BaldwinIllinois State University

2
A systems explanation
3
A systems explanation
Output Stability Satisfaction Family
adjustment Increased society tolerance Third
(family/rel) culture
Input Motives/Goals Definitions of
relationship Cultures of origin Cultural values,
communication Family cultures
  • Process (Throughput)
  • Communication patterns
  • Conflict
  • Self-disclosure
  • Power negotiation, etc.

4
More on Systems Approach
  • System
  • Environment
  • Open/closed systems
  • Input/Throughput/Output
  • Homeostasis/Dynamic Equilibrium
  • Feedback
  • Positive Change the system!
  • Negative Keep the system the same!
  • First/Second-order system change!
  • The problem may not be that there is no feedback
    but that the rules the system is following do not
    work! Plus ça change, plus cest la même chose

5
Input Questions
  • What are some input factors that might impact
    intercultural, intergroup, or other sorts of
    relationships?
  • How might the input factors change between
  • International couples
  • Intergroup couples (religious, ethnicity, etc.)
  • Stigmatized couples

6
Input Motives
  • Lampe (1981, 1982)
  • What are the main reasons that people date
    interethnically?
  • What are the main reasons people do not?
  • Do people date marry for the same reasons?
    (Brazil example)

7
Input Differences (?issues)(Romano, 1988)
Values In-laws Food and drink Sex Male/females roles Time Place of residence Politics Dealing w/stress Friends Illness/suffering Religion Food drink Social class Language/Comm Raising children Ethnocentrism
8
Process Issues (Markoff, 1977)
  • Problems in communication (verbal, NV
    differences)
  • Difference in values
  • The concept of marriage (e.g., Char, Collier)
  • Individual behavior and practices (not cultural)
  • Prejudices and stereotypes (yes, even in
    marriage!)
  • The surrounding family (distance --gt greater
    success!)

9
Process Issues
  • What are some process issues intercultural
    couples might face?
  • What leads (IC) relationships to develop?
  • What are some ways IC couples might resolve
    cultural differences?

10
Process Issues (Graham, Moeai, Shizuru, 1985)
  • The Romeo Juliet Effect
  • Internal versus External problems
  • individual living habits
  • interference with extended family
  • children
  • different cultural customs
  • time with friends
  • language difficulties
  • financial problems

11
Process IR Dating/Marriage
  • Are the issues the same in interracial dating and
    marriage as in intercultural dating and
    marriage?
  • What about interfaith marriage?

12
Process Solutions
  • Tsengs 5 Patterns of ICM Adjustment
  • One-Way Adjustment One partner gives in to the
    culture of the other
  • Alternative Adjustment The couple alternates
    between cultural
  • Simultaneous Adjustment Elements of both
    cultures are adopted at the same time.
  • Mixing Within a given culture or time, the
    couple uses aspects of one culture or the other.
    Tseng uses an example like "enchiladas tonight,
    sushi tomorrow night." Compromise (as opposed
    to submission, consensus, or obliteration).
  • Creative Adjustment The couple adopts elements
    of neither culture, but finds their "own" way

13
Intercultural Relationships
  • Some explanations of relational growth
  • Propinquity Shared spaces? interaction potential
  • Similarity-Attraction Hypothesis Its similarity
    that makes relationships grow
  • URT Noits your ability to predict and explain
    the other or (AUM) to reduce your anxiety
  • Social Penetration Theory Self-disclosure
  • Depth breadth of SD
  • 4 stages of relationships
  • Dialectical approach Tensions
  • Turning points Key moments

14
Evaluating a theory
  • Does it make sense with everyday life? (e.g., by
    working through a single example)
  • Are there enough counterexamples to expand the
    theory?
  • Does it fit prior research?
  • Does it meet goals of type of theory?
  • How does it address theory evaluation standards?
  • How does it compare to other theories?

15
Theory evaluation standards
  • Scope, boundaries How broad is it? Is what it
    covers clear?
  • Logical consistency Does it hold together well?
  • Parsimony Is it appropriately simple?
  • Testability (if scientific) Can the propositions
    be measured and tested?
  • Predictive ability (if scientific) Can we make
    good predictions with the variables provided?
  • Heurism Does it lead to new study or theory?
    Does it stand the test of time?
  • Explanatory power Does it explain most cases, or
    are there classes of cases it does not explain?
  • Utility Is it useful in everyday life?

16
Anxiety-Uncertainty Management
  • Background URT
  • Concepts
  • Stranger
  • Anxiety and Uncertainty (not !)
  • Effectiveness (and adaptation)
  • Mindfulness vs. Scripts
  • Thresholds
  • Management

17
AUM Refining the structure
  • A list of variables
  • Knowledge, Motivation, Skills
  • Hofstedes Dimensions
  • Current structure
  • Proximal factors
  • Distal (secondary) factors
  • Order and direction of influence

18
AUM
  • Application My Big Fat Greek Wedding
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vQcAL5ljKvqE (3.57)
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vb6mAAky_5og (3.25)
  • Evaluation

19
International Marriaegs in Japan (Quasha
Quasha, 2012)
  • Method
  • Concepts specific to Japanese relationships?
  • What are some specific aspects of the
    relationships the authors describe that
    illustrate the role of culture in relationship?
  • What are some other specific aspects of
    relationships you recall from the readings?
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