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Rockets

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NASA Launches. Graph. Introduction 2. History 2. Principals 2. How rockets work 2 ... rocket launches lifted of from Cape Canaveral at 12:16 pm, according to NASA, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Rockets


1
Rockets
  • Flying into space

2
Rodolfo Ramirez
Principles of technology
January 2006
3
Table of contents
Introduction
Process
Introduction 2
Process 2
History
Practical Rocketry
History 2
Practical rocketry 2
Timeline
Modern uses
Principals
Modern uses 2
NASA Launches
Principals 2
How rockets work
NASA Launches 2
Graph
How rockets work 2
Scientific process
Positives Negatives
Nature of Science
Concluding thoughts
Nature of Science 2
Index
Problem solving
Glossary
Problem solving 2
Resources
Resources 2
4
An Introduction To Rockets
  • Scientists believed that the Chinese invented
    rockets and was the first to build a working
    rocket which was describe as "Arrows of flying
    fire" By 1300 the use of rockets has spread
    through out much of Asia and Europe.
  • During the early 1800"s.
  • In 1800"s an English inventor William Hale
    improved accuracy in Military rockets.

5
An Introduction To Rockets 2
  • By substituted three fins for the long wooden
    tail which was used to guide the rocket, these
    rocket was used in the Mexican war and the
    American Civil war (1861-1865).

6
Historical account
  • For centuries, rockets have provided ceremonial
    and warfare uses starting with the ancient
    Chinese, the first to create rockets.
  • The lineage to the immensely larger rockets now
    used as space launch vehicles is unmistakable.

7
Historical account 2
  • Thus, as far as spaceflight and space science are
    concerned, the story of rockets up to the
    beginning of the 20th century was largely
    prologue.
  • These first rockets burned a substance called
    black powder which consisted of charcoal salt
    paper and sulfur which used as a fireworks and as
    a weapon.

8
Rocketry timeline

Congreve rockets 19th century
Chinese fire arrows 13th century
Invention of Gunpowder 1st century
Step rocket 16th century
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
Century
1900
Liquid propellant rocket -1926
V2 Rocket -1944
Jupiter C launch of explorers -1958
Mercury Redstone -1961
Delta, Scout -1960
2000
Atlas -1963
Delta Clipper -1995
X Rockets -20??
Gemini titan -1965
Space Shuttle -1981
Apollo-Soyuz Saturn 1B -1975
Pegasus -1990
2000
Apollo Saturn 1B -1968
Apollo Saturn V -1968
Skylab Saturn V -1973
Apollo Saturn 1B -1968
Titan III -1974
9
Principals
  • A rocket in its simplest form is a chamber
    enclosing a gas under pressure.
  • A small opening at one end of the chamber allows
    the gas to escape, and in doing so provides a
    thrust that propels in the opposite direction.
  • A good example of this is a balloon.

10
Principals 2
  • Air inside a balloon is compressed by the
    balloon's rubber walls.
  • The air pushes back so that the inward and
    outward pressing forces are balanced.
  • When the nozzle is released, air escapes through
    it and the balloon is propelled in the opposite
    direction.

11
How rockets work
  • Thrust is the force that propels a rocket or
    spacecraft and is measured in pounds, kilograms
    or Newtons.
  • Physically speaking, it is the result of
    pressure which is exerted on the wall of the
    combustion chamber.

12
How rockets work 2
  • To create high speed exhaust gases, the necessary
    high temperatures and pressures of combustion are
    obtained by using a very energetic fuel and by
    having the molecular weight of the exhaust gases
    as low as possible.
  • It is also necessary to reduce the pressure of
    the gas as much as possible inside the nozzle by
    creating a large section ratio.

13
Scientific Process
  • On January 2nd 2004 the NASA space mission,
    STARDUST, will fly through comet Wild 2,
    capturing interstellar particles and dust and
    returning them to Earth in 2006.
  • Space scientists from the Open University and
    University of Kent have developed one of the
    instruments which will help tell us more about
    comets and the evolution of our own solar system .

14
Nature of Science
  • Over the course of human history, people have
    developed many interconnected and validated ideas
    about the physical, biological, psychological,
    and social worlds.
  • Those ideas have enabled successive generations
    to achieve an increasingly comprehensive and
    reliable understanding of the human species and
    its environment.

15
Nature of Science 2
  • The means used to develop these ideas are
    particular ways of observing, thinking,
    experimenting, and validating.
  • These ways represent a fundamental aspect of the
    nature of science and reflect how science tends
    to differ from other modes of knowing.

16
Problem Solving
  • In the early days of rocketry many aircraft
    features were adapted to the new vehicles.
  • Dr. Robert Goddard placed vanes, similar to the
    tail surfaces of an airplane, on the nozzle
    section of his early rockets.
  • Turning these one way or the other deflected a
    portion of the exhaust gases, pushing the
    rockets tail in the opposite direction.

17
Problem Solving 2
  • The mere presence of the vanes, however, reduces
    the efficiency of the rocket.
  • Whatever amount of downward thrust pushes
    against the vanes cancels out an equal amount of
    the thrusts upward push inside the rocket.
  • The solution developed for large rockets and
    space boosters was to gimbal the nozzle.

18
Process
  • A solid rocket is a class of rocket in which the
    fuel and oxidizer are mixed together and cast
    into a solid material.
  • This solid material is typically formed into
    cylindrical blocks with a void along the
    centerline.
  • Once exposed to an ignition source, a flame
    travels through this empty central region and
    consumes the propellant grain radially until the
    fuel supply is exhausted.

19
Process 2
  • A liquid rocket, on the other hand, has separate
    fuel and oxidizer tanks in which the two
    substances are stored as fluids until they are
    combined and burned in the rocket's combustion
    chamber.
  • Although liquid rockets are typically more
    powerful and efficient, solid rockets are usually
    less complex and safer to store.

20
Practical Rocketry
  • The first rockets ever built, the fire-arrows of
    the Chinese, were not very reliable.
  • Many just exploded on launching. Others flew on
    erratic courses and landed in the wrong place.
  • Being a rocketer in the days of the fire-arrows
    must have been an exciting, but also a highly
    dangerous activity.

21
Practical Rocketry 2
  • Today, rockets are much more reliable.
  • They fly on precise courses and are capable of
    going fast enough to escape the gravitational
    pull of Earth.
  • Modern rockets are also more efficient today
    because we have an understanding of the
    scientific principles behind rocketry.
  • Our understanding has led us to develop a wide
    variety of advanced rocket hardware and devise
    new propellants that can be used for longer trips
    and more powerful takeoffs.

22
Modern Uses
  • A rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which
    obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of
    fast moving exhaust gas from within a rocket
    engine. In military terminology, a rocket
    generally uses solid propellant and is unguided.
  • These rockets can be fired by ground-attack
    aircraft at fixed targets such as buildings, or
    can be launched by ground forces at other ground
    targets.

23
Modern Uses 2
  • A missile, by contrast, can use either solid or
    liquid propellant, and has a guidance system.
  • This distinction generally applies only in the
    case of weapons, though, and not to civilian or
    orbital launch vehicles.

24
NASA Launches
  • NASA launched Saturday its Swift satellite, which
    will track huge explosions of gamma rays, the US
    space agency said.
  • The Delta rocket launches lifted of from Cape
    Canaveral at 1216 pm, according to NASA, which
    televised the launch live.

25
NASA Launches 2
  • It was slated to enter Earth orbit one hour and
    20 minutes later at an altitude of 600 kilometers
    (370 miles).
  • Swift is a 250 million dollars mission, with
    British and Italian participation.
  • Scientist hope it will provide insights into
    black holes.

26
Graph
27
Negative Aspect
  • The negative aspects of rocketry are that it
    pollutes the air and the earth with.
  • they waste a lot of fuel on the rockets just
    for they could get launched into space.

28
Positive Aspects
  • The positive aspects of rocketry are that you get
    to explore other planet .
  • You could go to another planet and discover new
    things.

29
Concluding thoughts
  • What I think about rocketry is that its good
    because if it wasnt for rockets people would
    have never gone to the moon and outer space

30
Index
  • Arrows of flying fire
  • vehicles
  • nozzle
  • combustion chamber
  • psychological
  • ignition
  • aircraft
  • NASA
  • rocketry
  • jet

31
Resources
  • When you watch a Space Shuttle launch and see
    that enormous vehicle rise up into the air, it's
    thrust that makes it all happen.
  • Thrust is the force produced by a rocket in
    reaction to a high-speed jet of exhaust gas.
  • Newton's Third Law talks about action and
    reaction, and it's evident here.

32
Resources 2
  • The action is the high-speed jet of gas, and the
    reaction is the energy produced the thrust .
  • But Space Shuttle engines have a problem they
    waste a lot of the energy used to create that
    thrust.
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