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The Ecological Effects of Endocrine Disruption Dr' David Walker University of Arizona

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Title: The Ecological Effects of Endocrine Disruption Dr' David Walker University of Arizona


1
The Ecological Effects of Endocrine
DisruptionDr. David WalkerUniversity of Arizona
David Walker1, Nick Paretti2, Gail Cordy2,
Timothy S. Gross3, Edward T. Furlong4, Dana W.
Kolpin5, and Dennis McIntosh6 1 University of
Arizona, Environmental Research Laboratory, 2601
E. Airport Dr., Tucson, AZ 85706
dwalker_at_ag.arizona.edu 2 USGS., WRD, 520 N. Park
Ave, Suite 221, Tucson, AZ 85719
nvp_at_email.arizona.edu 3 USGS-Florida Caribbean
Science Center, 7920 NW 71st St., Gainesville
Florida, 32653 tim_s_gross_at_usgs.gov 4 USGS,
National Water Quality Laboratory, Denver Federal
Center, P.O. Box 25046, MS 407, Lakewood, CO
80225-0046 efurlong_at_usgs.gov 5 USGS, WRD, P.O.
Box 1230, Iowa City, IA 52240 dwkolpin_at_usgs.gov 6
Delaware State University, 1200 N. DuPont Highway
Dover, DE 19901 dmcintosh_at_desu.edu
2
For Our Purposes
  • An endocrine disruptor is a synthetic
    (anthropogenic) chemical that when absorbed into
    the body mimics, blocks, or otherwise alters
    hormone level, function, or binding and
    subsequently disrupts normal bodily functions
    including behavioral and/or strictly physiologic
    responses.

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4
Aquatic Ecology and Endocrine Disruption
  • An individual organisms ability to better-exploit
    a resource (or group of resources) in the face of
    environmental stress and inter-specific
    competition, coupled with conservation of the
    genetic material enabling this exploitation, is
    what drives speciation.

5
  • Genetic conservation of traits is initiated, and
    sustained by, subtle behavioral cues for mating,
    spawning, aggression, territoriality, avoidance,
    etc.
  • Any impairment of these behavioral cues or
    manifestation into physiological or morphological
    changes has the capability to stunt speciation by
    lowering fertility and fecundity.

6
Endocrine Disrupting Compounds
  • FAR more than what can be included in this
    presentation.
  • By the time breakdown products and metabolites
    are added to the mix, iterations become
    astronomical.

7
Just a Few Examples by Use Category
  • Detergent Metabolites
  • Fire/Flame Retardants
  • Fragrances/Flavors
  • Fuels/PAHs
  • Herbicides/Insecticides
  • Household Wastewater Compounds
  • Non-Prescription Drugs
  • Plasticizers/Antioxidants
  • Prescription Drugs
  • Steroids

8
  • At the landscape scale, those compounds known to
    be powerful EDCs, but are not
    environmentally-persistent, exert less of an
    effect than those persistent, but relatively
    weaker, compounds.

9
Quantification and Research Design Issues One
Size Does Not Fit All
Genetic
Mechanistic Understanding
Biochemical
Physiological
Histopathological
Behavioral
Immunological
Reproductive
Bioenergetic
Assemblages
Populations
Ecological Significance
10
Observational versus Controlled Studies
  • True control and replication is not possible in
    the field.
  • Laboratory studies with control and replication
    give up some ecological significance.

11
Exposure and Causation
  • Several studies have examined the effect of one
    or a very few EDCs on the physiological response
    of an organism.
  • The vast magnitude of compounds in a matrix makes
    assumptions about individual compounds difficult
    to ascertain.
  • Non-monotonic dose-response curves

12
  • With new and emerging contaminants found almost
    on a daily basis, making assumptions about
    exposure and physiologic response must always
    carry the caveat of the compounds we analyzed
    for

13
Grab, Composite, or Integrated Samples?
  • Problems associated with not knowing long-term
    exposure to fish or other organisms.

14
Passive Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler
(POCIS) and/or Semi-Permeable Membrane Devices
(SPMDs aka fatbags)
15
  • Of all the tools at our disposal to study
    complex environmental issues in aquatic
    ecosystems, a sound understanding of ecological
    principles as they pertain to these ecosystems is
    the most essential.

16
Quantifying Endocrine Disruption in a Threatened
and Endangered Fish Species
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18
  • Unlike semi-arid or north-temperate regions,
    effluent-dependent waters (EDWs) in arid
    regions usually contain 100 effluent year-round.

19
The Santa Cruz River Near Tucson, Arizona
  • Flows from Mexico near Nogales, Sonora northward
    to Tucson, Arizona.
  • The only sections with flowing water are those
    due to discharge from WWTPs.

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21
Roger Road WWTP
  • Built in 1951.
  • Treated effluent is discharged into the Santa
    Cruz River or diverted into the citys reclaimed
    water system.
  • Treats the wastewater generated by a population
    of about 419,000.
  • A capacity of 41 mgd and treated an average of 38
    mgd from 2004 to 2005.
  • Produces secondarily-treated wastewater

22
Tucson
Santa Cruz River
Roger Road WWTP
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24
This Study
  • Laboratory study with controls, replicates, and
    randomization.
  • Use fish native to the region (largely
    pollution-tolerant).
  • Framework or foundation for refinement of future
    studies.
  • Varying doses of effluent (treatments).
  • Concentrate on long-term, persistent compounds.

25
Bonytail Chub (Gila elegans)
26
Control
Control
Treatment
Treatment
27
Water temperature maintained between 25-29o
C. Photoperiod was maintained at 12 hours of
light and dark
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30
Treatment/Dosages
  • Fish in raceways exposed for 3 months per
    treatment
  • 1st treatment 1/3 by volume treated ww and 2/3
    water treated by RO
  • 2nd treatment 2/3 by volume treated ww and 1/3
    water treated by RO
  • 3rd treatment full strength treated ww

31
Results
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34
Males - Overall
17ß-Estradiol Control (n 6) 217.3 Treatment (n
13) 547.4
11-ketotestosterone Control (n 6)
820.8 Treatment (n 13) 473.5
Vitellogenin Control (n 6) 0.09 Treatment (n
13) 0.32
35
Females - Overall
11-ketotestosterone Control (n 54)
591.3 Treatment (n 47) 530.4
17ß-Estradiol Control (n 54) 568.2 Treatment
(n 47) 403.7
Vitellogenin Control (n 54) 0.18 Treatment (n
47) 0.18
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38
Synergistic Effects
  • Ratios of primary male and female sex hormones,
    in undisturbed populations would be expected to
    have an inverse relationship i.e. as one
    increased, the other would decrease.
  • We could therefore assume that major deviations
    from this inverse relationship between male and
    female primary sex hormones, could be attributed
    to impairment.

39
Control Males
Treatment Males
40
Control Females
Treatment Females
41
  • Synergism, feedback mechanisms, and non-linearity
    of bio-markers makes data reduction necessary to
    determine trends.
  • Ordination is a good statistical tool but still
    assumes some degree of linear correlation as
    would occur with a typical dose-response curve.

42
Males
43
Females
44
Summary
  • Significant hormonal impairment of both sexes, as
    compared to controls, at very low concentration
    of compounds.
  • This impairment could never have been determined
    in a field study.
  • Commonly-used parametric analyses are often
    inadequate in determining impairment.

45
Summary (cont)
  • Determination of either hormonal impairment or
    endocrine disruption requires using phased
    biomarkers.
  • Phase 1 Aromatase/GnRH
  • Phase 2 GtH I, GtH II
  • Phase 3 Sex hormones
  • Phase 4 Protein development (vtg, oocyte,
    spermiation)
  • Phase 5 Intersex

46
Current and Future Research
  • Fertility/fecundity and sex ratio/development of
    F2 generation.
  • Behavior.
  • Treatments using streambed sediment from affected
    EDWs.

47
  • This study is highly representative of the
    biological effect of endocrine-disrupting
    compounds at the landscape scale.

48
Questions?
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