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June 2, 2007 Special Library Association Annual Conference

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Average Annual Reading by Scientists Served by Special Libraries by Source of Articles Read ... Over twice that amount now. Library Journal Collection Investment ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: June 2, 2007 Special Library Association Annual Conference


1
June 2, 2007Special Library Association Annual
Conference
Calculating ROI in Special Libraries and
Information Centers Consequences of NOT Having
an Information Center
José-Marie Griffiths, Ph.D.Sarah E.
Aerni University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
2
Topics Covered in Workshop
  • Return-on-Investment (ROI) defined
  • Two examples of ROI projects
  • ROI of entire special library
  • ROI of access to journal collections print and
    electronic
  • ROI methods
  • Communicating results

3
Role of Evaluation
  • Planning
  • Resource allocation and management
  • Justification of new or existing resources
  • Advocacy, marketing and public relations

4
Conceptual Framework for Evaluation
5
Object of Evaluation
  • Library
  • Function
  • Service
  • Activity
  • Resource

6
Conceptual Framework for Library Economic Measures
Measurement Perspectives
Library
Industry/ Sector
User
Organization
Society
7
Conceptual Framework for Library Economic Measures
Measurement Perspectives
Industry/ Sector
Specific Measures
Inputs (Resources) Amount Cost
Attributes
8
Conceptual Framework for Library Economic Measures
Measurement Perspectives
Specific Measures
Inputs (Resources) Amount Cost
Attributes
Outputs (Products/Services) Amount
Attributes Quality Timeliness
Availability Accessibility
9
Conceptual Framework for Library Economic Measures
Measurement Perspectives
Specific Measures
Inputs (Resources)
Usage (Use Nonuse) Amount Factors
affecting use/nonuse Ease/cost of use
(price paid) Available alternatives
Purpose of use Importance of and
satisfaction with attributes of
output Awareness
Outputs (Products/Services)
10
Conceptual Framework for Library Economic Measures
Measurement Perspectives
Specific Measures
Inputs (Resources)
Usage (Use Nonuse)
Outcomes (Consequences of Use and Nonuse)
Time saved Improved learning Improved
productivity Improved quality of work
Improved timeliness of work Value derived
Effects on organization goals Higher order
effects
Outputs (Products/Services)
11
Conceptual Framework for Library Economic Measures
Measurement Perspectives
Specific Measures
Inputs (Resources)
Usage (Use Nonuse)
Outcomes (Consequences of Information)
Domain(Environmental Characteristics) Target
population User/nonuser population
characteristics User/nonuser
needs/requirements Externalities
Outputs (Products/Services)
12
Conceptual Framework for Library Economic Measures
Measurement Perspectives
Specific Measures
Derived Measures
Performance
13
Conceptual Framework for Library Economic Measures
Measurement Perspectives
Specific Measures
Derived Measures
Effectiveness
Performance
14
Conceptual Framework for Library Economic Measures
Measurement Perspectives
Specific Measures
Derived Measures
Effectiveness
Performance
Cost-Effectiveness
15
Conceptual Framework for Library Economic Measures
Measurement Perspectives
Specific Measures
Derived Measures
Effectiveness
Performance
Cost-Effectiveness
Impact
16
Conceptual Framework for Library Economic Measures
Measurement Perspectives
Specific Measures
Derived Measures
Effectiveness
Performance
Cost-Effectiveness
Impact
Cost/Benefit Return-on-Investment
17
Evaluation Involves Comparison
  • Over time
  • Between services
  • Between the current and the anticipated
  • Between inputs and outputs/outcomes

18
ROI is a Comparison
  • Compare Returns and Investments
  • Investments or Costs
  • - to the library (or service within)
  • - to the library user
  • - to the organization
  • Returns
  • - to the library
  • - to the library user
  • - to the organization

19
ROI is a Comparison
  • Investments or Costs
  • to the library (or service within)
  • spent
  • to the library user
  • time and spent
  • to the organization
  • total time and spent

20
ROI is a Comparison
  • Returns
  • Important to distinguish between
  • outputs - produced as result of expenditure,
    e.g., larger collection
  • use - extent to which outputs are used, e.g.,
    increased use of library materials
  • outcomes - consequences of use, e.g., learned
    something new, saved time, etc.
  • Use contingent evaluation

21
Return-on-Investment Defined
  • Investment
  • Library expenditures and organization overhead
  • User time in wages and overhead
  • Cost of other relevant resources
  • Return
  • Contingent valuation of the additional cost to
    users if there were no library services
  • Changes in user outcomes e.g., productivity,
    information needs satisfied, and other relevant
    indicators

22
Definition of Contingent Valuation
  • Contingent valuation is an economic method used
    to assess the benefits of non-priced goods and
    services (e.g., libraries or specific library
    services) by examining the implications of not
    having the product or service

23
Case Study 1Library ROI (Availability Use)
24
Investment - Total
  • Library expenditures
  • User expenditures
  • Total organization investment

25
Special Library Investments
  • Library expenditure
  • 610 per professional
  • User cost to use library services
  • 1,090 per professional
  • Total organization investment
  • 1,700 per professional

26
Contingent Valuation - Library Availability
  • User cost to use library services
  • User cost to use alternative source for service
    or information
  • Net benefit or return (availability) is
    difference between current cost to use library
    and anticipated cost to use alternatives

27
Special Library ROI
  • Net benefit or return
  • User additional cost to use alternatives
  • 5,010 per professional
  • Library ROI (availability)
  • (5,0101,700) or 2.9 to 1

28
Returns from Library Use
  • Amount of use of information resource or service
  • Benefits derived from that use (time saved,
    saved, etc.)
  • Assume a fixed willingness to invest
  • When using costlier alternatives, some uses would
    be lost

29
Library ROI
  • Benefits derived
  • 310 per journal article reading
  • 650 per book reading
  • 1,090 per internal report reading
  • Total savings across all readings
  • 31,300 per professional for reading journal
    articles
  • 28,000 per professional for reading books
  • 42,500 for reading internal reports

30
Library ROI
  • Labor ROI
  • Labor savings divided by time spent reading
  • 8.3 to 1 for reading journals articles
  • 7.9 to 1 for reading books
  • 14.2 to 1 for reading internal reports.
  • Overall ROI (Labor) is 8.3 to 1
  • Lost Benefits
  • 12,240 per professional
  • Library ROI (Use)
  • Ranges from 5 to 1 . 16 to 1

31
Outcomes of Special Library Use
  • Special libraries help increase productivity
  • User time and/or other expenditures are saved in
    over one-third of library uses
  • User time and/or other expenditures are saved in
    about 40 percent of readings of library documents
  • Five indicators of user productivity are
    correlated with amount of library

32
Outcomes of Special Library Use
  • Special libraries contribute to users quality of
    work
  • Users indicate that that the library services are
    absolutely essential to their work for nearly 40
    percent of uses
  • Users indicate that the library services improves
    their quality of work in nearly 60 percent of
    uses
  • Users whose work has been recognized through
    awards, etc. use libraries more than cohorts and
    non-award winners

33
Case Study 2 Library Journal Collection ROI
34
Trends in Special Library Journal Collection Use
  • Examine patterns of information seeking
  • Examples of scientists and engineers
  • Amount of journal reading by scientists is up
  • Reading from special library journal collections
    is up
  • Increases due in part to electronic journals

35
Patterns of Information Seeking
  • Focus on article reading
  • Time spent reading
  • How read articles are identified
  • How the articles are obtained
  • Format of the articles
  • A trend in the influence of libraries
  • Effect of e-journals on library cost

36
Many Ways to Identify Articles
  • Browsing through print or electronic journals
    (mostly for current awareness)
  • Searching in search engines in bibliographic and
    e-journal databases (mostly for research and
    writing)
  • Follow-up of citations in journals and other
    publications
  • Recommendations from colleagues, etc.
  • Other (e.g., alerts, preprint services, etc.)

37
Many Sources of Articles
  • Personal subscriptions
  • Library collections
  • Authors, colleagues, etc.
  • Other

38
Where Do Readers Obtain Articles?
Trends
39
Amount of Reading Depends on Where Readers Works
  • University scientists average reading more than
    non-university scientists served by special
    libraries
  • University scientists 252 readings/year
  • Non-university scientists 113 readings/year
  • HOWEVER
  • Non-University scientists account for 75 percent
    of all reading in U.S.
  • AND
  • University scientists write nearly 75 percent of
    articles published by U.S. authors

40
Trends in Reading Patterns of Scientists Served
by Special Libraries
  • The appear to be reading more
  • They rely on libraries more
  • Reasons for increased library use

41
Average Annual Reading by Scientists Served by
Special Libraries
42
Average Annual Reading by Scientists Served by
Special Libraries by Source of Articles Read
43
Reasons for Shift to Reading from Special Library
Collections
  • Decrease in personal subscriptions
  • More reading of articles identified by online
    bibliographic searches
  • Electronic collections have broadened access to
    articles

44
Average Number of Personal Subscriptions per
Scientist
45
Average Number of Articles Identified by Online
Search
46
Electronic Collections Contribution
  • Personal subscriptions - 90 print
  • Library collections
  • 80 electronic
  • Broadens journal availability
  • Saves readers about 20 hours per year
  • Breadth of reading has increased
  • Read from about 13 journals in 1977
  • Over twice that amount now

47
Library Journal Collection Investment
  • Library expenditure (amount allocated to faculty
    and staff use)
  • 1.87 million
  • Faculty and staff cost to use the library
    collection
  • 1.56 million
  • Total organization investment
  • 3.43 million

48
Library Journal Collection Return (Availability)
  • User cost to use alternative sources of article
    information (11.38 million in time, 2.1 million
    in purchases)
  • 13.48 million
  • Return/net benefit
  • (13.48 million - 3.43 million)
  • 10.05 million

49
Library Journal Collection ROI (Availability)
  • ROI (Availability)
  • (10.05 million 3.43 million)
  • 2.9 to 1
  • PLUS
  • Potential lost benefits in savings,
    productivity, etc.

50
Library Journal Collection Return (Use)
  • If the journal collection were not available,
    professionals said they
  • Did not know 37
  • Would use another library 28
  • Would use another source 21
  • Would purchase the item 6
  • Would take another course of action 8

51
Library Journal Collection Return (Use)
  • About 25 of readings of library-provided journal
    articles saved the user time and/or money
  • Average amount of savings
  • 310 per article reading (special library
    studies)
  • 385 per article reading (national studies of
    scientists and engineers)
  • ROI (Use)
  • 8.3 to 1

52
Library Journal Collection Return (Use)
  • Reasons for savings
  • Avoided having to do some work 49
  • Provided confirmation of work 27
  • Stopped unproductive line of work 10
  • Modified research or design 12
  • Modified analysis methods 16

53
Total Time Saved
  • Total time saved
  • 250,000 hours
  • 114 FTEs
  • Electronic remote access savings in time
  • 50,000 hours
  • 23 FTEs
  • Based on an average of 2,200 hours worked

54
ROI Methods
  • Library ROI Methods
  • Journal Collection ROI Methods

55
Library ROI Methods
  • Mailed survey to organization professionals
  • Letter from high level executive
  • Publicity by library
  • Promise results to users
  • Reminders by cards
  • Universe is visits (critical incidents)

56
Library ROI Methods
  • Observations include
  • Library use (including last use)
  • Amount of use
  • Services used
  • Time spent using library
  • Time and cost to use alternative sources if the
    library were not there

57
Library ROI Methods
  • Observations include
  • Section on purposes and consequences of using the
    library
  • Purposes (e.g., research, writing, etc.)
  • Ways information/services affect purposes
  • Savings in time and/or money from information
  • Importance of information/services

58
Library ROI Methods
  • Observations include
  • Section on demographics
  • Education level achieved, discipline
  • Awards received
  • Authorships

59
Methods Cost of Users Time
  • We use the average salary plus an amount for
    overhead
  • From other studies, we estimate that
    professionals average about 2,200 hours of work
    per year.
  • This allows us to calculate an hourly rate per
    hour for users.

60
Survey of Special Library Use
  • Your responses are confidential and data will be
    reported only in aggregated form. Because your
    answers are extremely important to the accuracy
    of our study, please submit the questionnaire
    even if you are unable to answer all the
    questions. We have tried to keep the
    questionnaire as short and simple as possible and
    yet achieve our study objectives. If you have
    any questions, please contact.

61
Survey of Special Library Use
  • Section 1 Library Use
  • In the past year (12 months) approximately how
    often have you used your (company, agency,
    laboratory) library? Uses include visiting the
    library in-person or remotely including access to
    the librarys bibliographic databases, electronic
    journal collections, to request services, etc.
  • Number of times the library was used the past
    year _______ times

62
Survey of Special Library Use
  • The following questions in this section refer to
    the last use of the library, whether in-person or
    remotely. Note that this last use may not be
    typical, but will help us establish the range of
    uses of your library.
  • 2. Was this last use in-person or remote?
  • In-person
  • Remote
  • By e-mail
  • By telephone
  • 3. How long ago was this last use?
  • 4. What services were used during this last use?

63
Survey of Special Library Use
  • 5. About how much time did you spend on this last
    use of the library?
  • 6. If you did not have the library, what would
    you have done to obtain the information or
    service obtained during this last use?
  • I would not bother getting the information (skip
    to question 7)
  • I need the information, but do not know where
    else to get it (skip to question 7)
  • I would obtain the information from another
    source. Please specify source here
    _____________________

64
Journal Collection ROI Methods
  • Survey of professionals
  • In-depth cost of library collection purchase and
    processing

65
Reader Survey Methods
  • Mailed survey
  • Universe is readings (critical incident)
  • See questionnaire sample in handout

66
Journal Collection Costs Include All Resources
Used
  • Collection purchases
  • Staff
  • Facilities
  • Equipment and systems
  • Photocopies, binding, etc.

67
Allocating Library Staff Costs
  • Prepare a list of relevant journal processing
    activities
  • Prepare a staff activity log
  • Instruct library staff for filling out the logs
  • Establish detailed calculation methods

68
Total Cost and Cost Per Use of Collection Access
Services
69
Life-Cycle Cost per Title
  • Electronic collection - 180 per title
  • Print collection - 580 per title
  • Current collection - 190 per title
  • Backfile collection - 390 per title

70
Annual Cost Per Reading
  • Compare the Unit Cost of Services
  • Electronic - 3.00 per reading
  • Current Periodicals - 13.60 per reading
  • Bound Backfiles - 15.60 per reading
  • ILL - 8.40 per item
  • ILB - 12.60 per item

Life-Cycle Cost Per Reading
  • Electronic - 7.30 per title
  • Print - 23.50 per title

71
Communicating Results
72
Target Audiences
  • Identify your target audiences who do you want
    to pay attention to your information?

73
Target Audience Characteristics
  • Summarize key characteristics of your target
    audience(s)
  • Current key issues and concerns
  • Language/educational level
  • Preferred communication media

74
Need Sound Bytes
  • Core messages
  • So therefore
  • Meaning and impact
  • Comprehensibility

75
Core Messages
  • List of 1-sentence statements of main points, NOT
    long paragraphs
  • Maximum of 4 to 5 statements
  • Sequenced from most important to least
  • Need to have a 1-sentence summary for all

76
So Therefore
  • Your core messages must include not only facts
    and figures but also what it means
  • This is true, so therefore
  • You should
  • We will
  • This proves
  • Etc.

77
Core Messages Meaning and Impact
  • Your core messages must answer the question for
    your target audience
  • What does it mean and why should I care??

78
Core Messages Comprehensibility
  • Simplify, simplify, simplify!
  • Just because you know big words doesnt mean you
    have to use them

79
Core Messages Comprehensibility
  • Insofar as the comprehensive research is too
    voluminous to delineate here, if you and/or your
    corporation, organization, etc. are apprehensive
    as to the pedagological or methodological
    veracity, authenticity or rationale supporting
    the aforesaid investigation please reference the
    relevant available electronic resource.
  • Compared to Please check our website for more
    information.

80
Core Messages Comprehensibility
  • Avoid being misquoted in the press (including the
    academic press!) by asking the reporter to
  • E-mail you his/her questions before the
    interview.
  • Repeat back to you what you have said
  • Call you back with any additional questions, as
    necessary.
  • Provide you with a copy of your quotes before the
    article is published. Quickly correct any
    inaccuracies that you find.  (Some reporters wil
    not provide you with pre-publication quotes, but
    some will.  And it won't hurt to ask.)

81
Craft Your Message
  • Identify the desired results of your
    communication

82
Craft Your Message
  • Attention and sequencing - pyramid approach
  • Find or create visuals
  • Humanize your message
  • Try out your message with your harshest critic
    and dont argue with their comments - listen and
    learn

83
Attention and Sequencing
  • Must have an opening line (headline, first line
    of interview,etc.) that is attention getting
    focuses on impacts rather than data
  • Need excellent headline/title
  • Visuals

84
Visuals Communicate
Time of One Information Professional
Saves the equivalent of FIVE professionals time
85
Follow Up
  • Every communication is the foundation for the
    next
  • Be clear about asking for what you want
  • Be appreciative

86
José-Marie Griffiths, PhDSarah E. Aerni
  • Email jmgriff_at_unc.edu
  • Email aerni_at_email.unc.edu
  • School of Information and Library
    ScienceUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel
    Hill
  • phone (919) 962-8363

87
Thanks for coming!
  • Please submit the evaluation forms to us so that
    we can send them back to SLA.
  • Enjoy the rest of the conference!
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