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Sustainable Design in Engineering


A Definition of Sustainable Development. Have Fun Get to know your interests... Often (I think) the assigned work was more perfunctory than thought-provoking. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sustainable Design in Engineering

Sustainable Design in Engineering
  • ECE 0909.403 ECE 0909.504.02
  • Lecture 1
  • What is Sustainable Design and Why Should I Care?
  • 3 September 2003
  • Dr. Peter Mark Jansson PP PE

  • My Background
  • Course Introduction Overview
  • Grading and Logistics
  • A Definition of Sustainable Development
  • Have Fun Get to know your interests
  • If Time Permits..
  • Broaden Understanding of the Primary Debates
    Surrounding Exploitation of Natural Capital
  • Understand the Increasingly Important Role the
    Environment Plays in Sustainable Enterprise

Research Interests
  • Innovation in electricity 
  • Renewable energy technologies 
  • Mach's principle
  • Industrial sustainability
  • Environmental management systems and technologies
  • Business transformation 
  • Innovation and new product development 

Course Overview
  • International perspective
  • Applied vs. theoretical engineering
  • Issues and Real Life Orientation
  • Managerial Consultant Skills
  • Congratulations

Course Evaluation
  • The Good
  • This was an excellent course and I found it very
    interesting. It should help me further my
    employment when I get out of school
  • Dr. Jansson is a great professor who teaches
    pertinent information about global issues. This
    course is a prime example of how Rowan
    differentiates itself from other learning
  • Excellent job of stimulating critical thinking
    and discussion of the issues in class.
  • I really enjoyed and learned a lot from this
    class. Prof. Jansson did a very good job making
    the material very understandable.
  • It is a good class. The work load is set
    properly for the number of credits. I personally
    thought the energy part of this course was very
    interesting and very enjoyable.
  • Great job!!! Prof. Jansson shows a level of
    enthusiasm rarely seen in the classroom.
  • Prof. Jansson has taught me a lot about
    sustainability and environmental engineering.
    This course was a refreshing look at other ways
    to think of engineering.
  • Prof. Jansson is really cool. Overall, very
    enthusiastic about subject and knowledgeable.
  • Very enthusiastic and intelligent about the
    subject. Work load was excellent.
  • Prof. Jansson has done a very good job at
    blending many aspects of Sustainable Design and
    presenting each of them in a very clear manner.
    As future engineers and designers, we now have
    the practical and analytical tools to contribute,
    in some way, to the field of sustainability.
  • Prof. Jansson takes an interest in the students
    and their progress. He demands a high degree of
    commitment from students
  • Very enthusiastic!

Course Evaluation
  • The Bad
  • The LCA portion needs some work to make it a
    little more interesting.
  • The tests are too hard.He could attempt to
    involve students a little more in class - for
    example, group discussions, fun quizzes, etc.
  • Often (I think) the assigned work was more
    perfunctory than thought-provoking. Give
    students more in-class group exercises, it helps
    particularly in this sort of subject
  • The Ugly.
  • Homework and tests were graded harshly.
  • Assignments required intuitive thinking and were
    graded harshly.

  • Sustainable Development and Engineering
  • Energy Engineering Fundamentals
  • Electricity and Energy Use Impacts
  • Life Cycle Assessment Techniques / Tools
  • ISO 14000 series industry implementation
  • Engineering Economics

Learning Objectives
  • By the end of this course, the student should be
    able to  
  • Intelligently discuss the international and
    global issues that make sustainable design
  • Understand the technology options for providing
    electricity to society and the features of energy
  • Know the analytical and economic techniques
    underpinning Energy Conservation Investments
  • Operate one Life Cycle Assessment computer model
    through simple examples
  • Understand the LCA Method, Inventory and Impact

Course Syllabus
  • Online / updated weekly or daily
  • http//
  • Lectures
  • What is Sustainability? Why Should You Care?
  • The Case for Sustainable Design
  • Energy Fundamentals

Course Syllabus (cont.)
  • Lectures
  • Energy Economics
  • Electricity Generation
  • Fuel Sources
  • Renewable Energy Technologies
  • Energy Efficiency
  • Transportation

Course Syllabus (cont.)
  • Lectures
  • Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Method
  • LCA Inventories
  • LCA Impact Assessment
  • An LCA Method Tool - EDIP
  • Learning from LCAs Refrigerator,
  • Television, Electrohydraulic Activator
  • Student Research Projects

Course Syllabus (cont.)
  • Readings
  • Text Ristinen and Kraushaar 1999
  • Text Wenzel, Hauschild and Alting 1997
  • Other Reading Assignments
  • First 2 Weeks of Class RK (9-10), WHA (1-5)
  • Be Prepared to Discuss Reading Assignments
  • Participation Grade Depends on Readiness

  • Class Participation and Attendance 10
  • Homework Assignments 10
  • Quizzes 15
  • Technical Reports 15
  • Mid Term Examination 25
  • Final Project and Presentation 25

  • One Weekly Lecture 90-120 min.
  • Seminar / Debate Format 20-25 min.
  • Labs / Occasional 3 planned now
  • Homework / Reports, etc. due at beginning of
  • Multidisciplinary Team Assignments

U.S. Energy Use by Sector
SOURCE Ristinen and Kraushaar 1999
U.S. per capita Average
  • Annual Energy Use / Year Oil Equivalent
  • 8 Barrels (336 U.S. Gallons)
  • 12 Barrels (504 U.S. Gallons)
  • 36 Barrels (1,512 U.S. Gallons)
  • 61 Barrels (2,562 U.S. Gallons)
  • 119 Barrels (5,000 U.S. Gallons)

U.S. vs. World
U.S. consumes 25 of the Worlds Energy and 28
of the Worlds Electricity
What is Sustainable Development?
  • Development that provides economic, social and
    environmental benefits in the long term, having
    regard to the needs of living and future
  • Defined by Brundtland Commisssion - WORLD

The Search for Factual Information
  • News Media
  • Governmental Agencies
  • Special Interest Groups
  • Academic Experts
  • Industry Experts

Why Is Sustainability an Issue?
  • Peak-oil, global warming concerns opening new
    window of opportunity for alternative energy
  • Oil Gas Journal 6 Aug 2003
  • Censorship on Global Warming
  • NY Times 20 Jun 2003
  • White House Deletes Concerns Over Warming From
    EPA Report
  • Wall Street Journal Jun 20, 2003
  • Natural Disasters on the Rise
  • The Futurist Mar/Apr 2003

Can This Be True?
  • Changing Climate New Market Shows Industry
    Moving On Global Warming --- Even as Bush Opposes
    Kyoto, Firms Are Trading Rights To Emit
    Greenhouse Gases --- DuPont Tries to Get Out
    Front Wall Street Journal Jan 16, 2003
  • Arctic Ice Is Melting at Record Level, Scientists
    Say New York Times Dec 8, 2002
  • Scientists Say a Quest for Clean Energy Must
    Begin Now New York Times Nov 1, 2002
  • Forecast for a Warmer World Deluge and Drought.
    New York Times Aug 28, 2002

More Headlines
  • Climate Talks Fail to Close Rift With US
  • The Guardian 20 Nov 2000 -
  • US Highlights Growing Global Warming Danger
  • The TIMES 17 Mar 2000 -
  • UK Unveils Tough Climate Change Targets
  • The TIMES 10 Mar 2000 -
  • Govt May Regulate Company Data on Environment -
    The TIMES 3 Mar 2000 -

Weve been thinking this since
  • National Research Council in US Finds Global
    Warming is Undoubtedly Real - 14 Jan 2000
  • Experts Warn Of Ozone Hole Over Qingha-Tibet
    Plateau, China - 12 Aug 99
  • Global Warming Advances Spring
  • The TIMES 25 Feb 1999 -
  • Europe Faces Ice Age as World Warms
  • The TIMES 17 Jan 1999

Issue Complexity
  • Politics
  • National Economics
  • Business Profitability
  • Environmental Issues
  • Personal Decisions
  • Social, Environmental and Economic

Sustainable Development
  • Although the idea is simple, the task is
    substantial. It means meeting four objectives at
    the same time, in the UK and the world as a
  • social progress which recognises the needs of
  • effective protection of the environment
  • prudent use of natural resources and
  • maintenance of high and stable levels of economic
    growth and employment.

Quotable Quotes
  • The pursuit of Sustainable Development is not an
    option - it is nothing more or less than a
    necessity for our economic survival Sir
    Iain Vallance - BT Chairman
  • Sustainable Development is a widely accepted
    unifying concept for policymaking and the major
    new business challenge for the next century
    Dr. Colin Hicks - Director, Environment
    Directorate DTI
  • The sustainability agenda is developing faster
    than any other part of the business agenda
    Livio Desimone - Chairman 3M
  • We are about to go through a sustainability
    revolution which will rival the agricultural and
    industrial revolutions in its impact on society
    John Battle - DTI Minister of State

An Important Distinction
  • Development
  • application of resources human, physical,
    natural and financial to meet effective and
    prospective market and human needs. (improved
    quality not nec. quantity)
  • Growth
  • an increase in size or quantity by the accretion
    or assimilation of materials.

Key Issues of Sustainability
  • Are There Limits to Growth? Resource Constraints
    vs. Substitution, Catastrophe vs. Expanding
    Horizons with Technology, Population Constraints,
  • The Limits of Natural Capital
  • Atmospheric CO2, Global Warming via Greenhouse
    Gases, Ozone Depletion
  • Land Farming vs. Housing and Urbanization,
    Fertitility, Biodiversity
  • Water Runoff, Pollution,
  • Resource Limits Oil, Food, Minerals, Water

Some Important Concepts
  • Exponential Growth
  • Natural Capital
  • Atmosphere
  • The Oceans Hydrosphere
  • Forests, Land Use, Resources Lithosphere
  • Global Biosphere 3 Symbiotically Integrated
  • Sustainable Levels/Rates

Doubling Times with Exponential Growth
Examples of Exponential Growth
  • World Population
  • World Industrial Production
  • Atmospheric CO2 Concentration

Recent Growth Rates 1970-1990
  • Global Human Population 2.0
  • Number of Automobiles 4.1
  • Use of Petroleum 1.7
  • Coal Consumption 4.2
  • Electric Generation Capacity 4.4
  • Aluminum Used for Cans US 15.3
  • Generation of Rubbish OECD 1.7

The Biosphere -Earths Natural Capital
  • The integrated natural functioning atmosphere,
    lithosphere and hydrosphere working in cyclical
    patterns to sustain life on Earth. This includes
    the plant, animal and human species as well which
    all play a role at times in concert with and
    opposition to the apparently natural, sustainable
    cycles and rhythms.

Sustainable Levels/Rates for
  • Renewable Resources (soil, water, forests, food,
    etc.) can be no greater than the rate of
    regeneration by the Biosphere
  • Non-Renewable Resources can be no greater than
    the rate at which renewable resources can be
    substituted for them
  • Pollutants no greater emission than the rate at
    which pollutant can be recycled, absorbed or
    rendered harmless by the Biosphere.

Current Great Debates
  • Are there limits to growth?
  • Have we solved the Ozone crisis?
  • Is Oil running out any time soon?
  • Is Global Warming really a problem?

Limits to Growth Debate
  • THERE ARE LIMITS exponential growth is not
    sustainable when we must deal with a world of
    finite resources, therefore, policy-makers must
    intervene in the system and lead the way toward a
    sustainable future.
    that exist will be removed as technology advances.

Ozone Problem Solved?
  • YES Action taken to eliminate CFCs from
    manufacturing in Developed Nations should reduce
    trend of ozone depletion.
  • MAYBE CFCs are only banned in some countries.
    Also, other gases high in the atmosphere,
    aircraft exhaust as well as supersonic transport
    will continue to disrupt the natural formation of
    O3 .

Ozone O3
  • Absorbs harmful UV-B rays in stratosphere
  • 10-50km layer above the Earth
  • Very fine balance in its creation and destruction
    pattern O2 stripped via high radiation collides
    with available O2 -gt O3
  • Very little in atmosphere

Quiz Show
  • All the atmospheric Ozone if brought to sea level
    would have the volume of
  • A) Rowan Auditorium
  • B) A small refrigerator
  • C) Cover of a book
  • D) The head of a pin

Quotable Quote
  • It is astonishing and terrifying to contemplate
    the narrow margin of safety on which our lives
    thus depend. Were this trifling quantity of
    atmospheric ozone removed we should all perish
  • Dr. Charles Greeley Abbot of the SMITHSONIAN
    INSTITUTE quoted in NEW YORK TIMES - 30 October

Progress on Ozone Depletion
  • While levels of Ozone depletion will continue to
    rise until 2010, it is believed that the ban on
    CFCs phased out by developed countries in 1996
    will have the effect of ultimately reducing CFC
    concentrations in the stratosphere. Hopefully,
    subsequent Ozone destruction after 2010 will
    significantly decline bringing the atmosphere
    back to pre-1980 Ozone levels by mid next century

Oil is Running Out Debate
  • IT IS Our current supplies will last less than
    25 years at present growth rates and economic
    disruption is just around the corner (5yrs)
    unless we curtail use now
  • IT IS NOT Our economically extractable reserves
    are over 1 trillion barrels and they will last
    over 40 years at present use levels, let the free
    market forces work.

World Oil Supply
  • US Experience - Hubbert Projections
  • R. Duncan Projections - 2004 Peak
  • Petroconsultants, Ltd. - 2005 Peak
  • CJ Campbell - 2008 Peak
  • USDOE Projections - Stable through 2015
  • Intl Energy Agency 2010-2020 Peak
  • http//

World Oil Use to Present
  • Pre- 1988 610.1 BB
  • 1988-1998 220 BB
  • Current Rate 25 BB/year
  • Reserves 1-2.5 GB
  • Growth in Use 2.0
  • Depletion Years 20-40 years
  • Peak Year 2000 - 2015

Oil and the Economy
  • Supply vs. Demand
  • 1970s US Experience of Arab Oil Embargo
  • 1999-2000 Impact of OPECs 2.1M/day reduction in
    oil supply price tripled
  • Restricted Investment Capital
  • more to energy, more to food
  • less for growth, jobs, expansion, etc.
  • Increased Material Prices / Inflation

Global Warming Debate
  • THE EARTH IS HEATING UP A broad spectrum of
    scientists have agreed that human activity is
    having a deleterious impact on global
  • THE EARTH IS NOT HEATING UP All of the forces of
    nature make mans impact miniscule on the scale
    of things, we are observing normal fluctuations

Global Warming Is Real
  • Man-made pollution rate increases 10 times
    between 1890 and 1970 levels
  • CO2 levels are really rising in air
  • Other Greenhouse Gases are rising in
    concentration also NOx,CH4, CFCs,
  • H2O level in air will rise as well as temperature
    increases and compound the problem

Threat or Opportunity?
  • Business Responses
  • Ignore
  • Watch and Wait
  • Strategise and Experiment
  • Build Competitive Advantage

Areas of Activity
  • Eco-Innovation
  • Profiting from Pollution Prevention
  • Eco-Efficiency by Design
  • Innovation
  • Managing Change
  • Systems, Stakeholders and Reporting
  • Financial Sector

Methods Elements of Design
  • Manufactured Technology Translation of Ideas
    into Artefacts
  • New Products
  • Clean Slate Approach from scratch
  • Major new recombination of design elements
  • Minor modification of elements
  • Existing Products
  • Major or minor feature/element modifications

Engineering Design Elements
  • Motors Bearings
  • Materials Fasteners/Joiners
  • Mechanical Systems Electrical Systems
  • Fluid Power Electronic Syst.
  • Interconnects Motion Control
  • CAD/CAM Other Misc.

What Can Designers Do?
  • D f X
  • Design forX where X is
  • Environment
  • Re-Use
  • Re-Manufacture or Disassembly
  • Energy Efficiency
  • Extended Product Life (gtgtMTBF)
  • Combination(s) of the above

Business Case Studies
  • Scancem Energy Recovery
  • Wessex Water
  • BT
  • Interface

Scancem Energy Recovery http//
  • Subsidiary of SCANCEM international marketer/mfgr
    of mineral based building materials
  • gt2B in revenues, gt11,000 employees
  • reduced use of fossil fuels by 70,000 tons/yr
  • Progress 6 of all energy from rdf in 1996
  • 14 acheived by 1998
  • 70 goal for 2002

Wessex Water http//
  • reduced over 10 of its energy requirements from
    its own renewable sources 18.9 Million - kWh
  • biogas from sewage sludge
  • small scale hydropower
  • committed to outperform UK govt Kyoto targets
  • by achieving 20 by 2005 and 50 by 2020

British Telcomm http//
  • Cellular Phone - Product Take Back
  • ECTEL -group of European equipment manufacturers
  • BT Will Take Back ANY Manufacturers worn out
    cellular phone at any BT Shop
  • For either disassembly, re-use, plastic
    recycling, precious metal recover, or granulation
    and smelting

Interface http//
  • One of Worlds Leading Carpet Makers
  • Offers an innovative floor covering lease where
    customers do not own carpeting but rather lease
    it. Interface provides clean, maintained and new
    looking floor covering for a fixed annual lease.
    They recycle the fibres from worn out stock and
    keep the customer happy with a great looking

Other Case Studies - WBCSD
  • http//
  • another 21 companies such as
  • Xerox, Bristol Meyers Squibb, Electrolux and SC
    Johnson Wax

Dow-Jones Sustainability Index
  • to quantify the sustainability performance of an
    enterprise by focusing on a company's pursuit of
    sustainability opportunities
  • meeting market demand for sustainable products
    and services
  • the reduction, ideally avoidance, of
    sustainability risks and costs
  • This assessment is in line with the five
    corporate sustainability principles -
  • innovative technology
  • corporate governance
  • shareholder relations
  • industrial leadership
  • social well being
  • that are focused on the integration of economic,
    ecological and social factors into business

What Does it all Mean to Design Engineers?
  • Keep on top of Sustainability dialogue
  • Greater volatility in material and energy prices
    and supplies
  • Compounded by more volatile weather
  • Growth in Environmental Reporting and Indices
    (35 of top 250 report now)
  • Strategic Opportunity for Early Movers

Become Proactive in Your Future
  • Policy changes toward sustainability
  • Growth is not beneficial, development is.
  • Carbon Tax/Credit system likely
  • Biofuels Renewable development
  • Population stabilization, efficient resource use,
    minimize nonrenewable depletion, prevent soil
    depletion, slow all exponentials

Sources of Data and Further Study on
  • http//
  • http//
  • Beyond the Limits, Meadows,
  • World Oil, L.F. Ivanhoe
  • Coming Oil Crisis, C.J. Campbell

Additional Sources
  • http//
  • http//
  • The Atmosphere, Lutgens/Tarbuck
  • How Soon is Now?, N. Booth
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//

Homework Assignment 1
  • On Class website
  • http//
  • For Next Week
  • Proquest Database
  • Article in last two Years
  • Copy and Summarize in 1 Paragraph
  • Be Ready to Discuss
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