ITC 751 MULTIMEDIA TECHNOLOGY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Digital is the lingua franca for electronic device / media. digital information is the lingua franca of the information industry ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • Chapter 1
  • - Intro - History
  • - Media Classification - Definition
  • - MM Properties - Characteristics

  • Multimedia, from the users perspective means
  • Computer information can be represented through
    audio and/or video, in addition to text,
    graphics, image and animation
  • e.g. using audio and video, a variety of dynamic
    situations in different areas can be presented
    better than just using image and text alone

  • The integration of these media into the computer
    provides extra possibilities for the use of
    computational power available presently to
    interactively present huge information.
  • These data can be transmitted through computer
    and telecommunication network.

  • Multimedia provides the possibility for a
    spectrum of new applications e.g. personal
    newspaper, holography and simulation.
  • Another point to note the migration process in
    different industrial branches e.g.
    telecommunication, consumer electronics,
    recording studios, publishing house etc..

  • Another challenge in Multimedia is the
    integration requirement of different types of
    media in a multimedia application.
  • e.g. Traditional media vs. Continuous media
  • Analog vs. Digital

  • Related terminologies begin with a clarification
    of the notion MULTIMEDIA, followed by a
    description of media and the important properties
    of Multimedia systems.
  • Definition
  • Multi many much multiple
  • Medium an intervening substance through which
    something is transmitted or carried on a means
    of mass communication such as newspaper,
    magazine, or television

  • Definition not very exact, therefore calls for
    the notion medium to be adapted with respect to
    computer processing.
  • Medium in general describes a means for
    distribution and presentation of information.
    e.g. Text, graphics, speech, music
  • Media can be classified into different criteria
    according to
  • Perception, Representation, Presentation,
    Storage, Transmission and Information Exchange.

Media classification
  • Perception Medium help humans to sense their
    environment through seeing or hearing. (How do
    humans perceive information in a computer
  • One primary difference between the two with
    regard to computer
  • seeing text, image, video
  • - hearing music, noise, speech

  • Representation Medium characterized by internal
    computer representations of information.
  • (How is the computer information coded?) -
    various formats are used to represent media
    information in a computer
  • Text are coded by ASCII or EBCDIC, graphics by
    CEPT or CAPTAIN, audio (Pulse Coding Method),
    image JPEG or GIF, combined audio/video sequence
    can be coded in different TV standard PAL, SECAM,
    NTSC and stored in the computer using an MPEG

  • Presentation Medium refers to the tools and
    devices for the input and output of information.
  • (Through which medium is information delivered by
    the computer or introduced into the computer?)
  • Paper, screen, speaker output media
  • Mouse, keyboard, camera, mic. input media

  • Storage Medium refer to data carrier which
    enables storage of information
  • (Where will the information be stored?)
  • Not limited to available components of computer
    e.g. paper, microfilm, floppy, hard disk, CD-ROM

  • Transmission Medium characterizes different
    information carriers that enable continuous data
    transmission (storage media are excluded)
  • (Over what will the information be transmitted?)
    - over networks which uses wire and cable
    transmission, free air space
  • Wired vs. Wireless

  • Information Exchange Medium includes all
    information carriers for transmission i.e. all
    storage and transmission media.
  • (Which information carrier will be used for
    information exchange between different places?)
  • Information can flow through intermediate storage
    media and transported outside of computer
  • OR direct transmission using computer networks
  • OR through combined usage of storage and
    transmission media e.g. electronic mailing system)

Representation Values and Representation Spaces
  • This classification of media can also be used as
    a basis for characterizing the notion medium.
    Each medium defines Representation Values and
    Representation Spaces.
  • Representation Spaces presentation media
  • e.g. paper or screen

Representation Values and Representation Spaces
  • Representation Values determine the information
    representation of different media
  • e.g. text medium visually represents a sentence
    through a sequence of characters, this sentence
    is represented by the speech medium in the form
    of a pressurized wave.
  • Some representation values are self-contained by
    their media (properly interpret by recipient)
    temperature, taste, smell
  • Other media require a pre-defined symbol set
    which users must agree upon text, speech,

  • Representation values can be considered either as
    a continuum or a sequence of discrete values.
  • Pressure wave fluctuations ?
  • Text ?

Representation Dimension
  • Media can be divided into two types with respect
    to time in their representation space
  • Time-independent
  • Time-dependent

  • Text and Graphics are time-independent as these
    media consist exclusively of a sequence of
    individual elements or of a continuum without a
    time component.
  • Therefore the notion discrete is used. The
    processing of the discrete media should happen as
    fast as possible but the processing is not time
    critical as the validity (correctness) of the
    data does not depend on any time condition.

  • Sound, full-motion video change over time and
    therefore time-dependent. Information is
    expressed in both its individual value and the
    time of occurrence.
  • The semantic depends on the level of the relative
    change of the discrete values or of the
    continuum. Processing is time critical because
    the validity (correctness) of the data depends on
    a time condition.

Properties of a Multimedia System
  • Deriving a Multimedia definition from a
    dictionary any system which supports more than
    a single kind of media.
  • This characterization is insufficient as it deals
    with a quantitative evaluation of the system.
  • e.g. combination of text and graphic ?

  • Multimedia should be understood in a more
    qualitative manner.
  • A multimedia system can be distinguish from other
    systems through several properties.
  • Combination of media
  • Independence
  • Computer-supported Integration
  • Communication Systems

a. Combination of media
  • Not any arbitrary combination of media justifies
    the usage of the term Multimedia.
  • Multimedia should be mentioned only when both
    continuous and discrete media are present and

b. Independence
  • An aspect of different media is their level of
    independence from each other. Multimedia may
    require several levels of independence.

c. Computer-supported Integration
  • Computers are the ideal tool to provide the
    possibility of combining media in arbitrary
  • Simple input or output of different media
    through one system does not satisfy the
    requirement for a computer-controlled solution.
  • Computer-controlled data should be integrated to
    perform certain functions.

  • Timing, spatial and semantic synchronization
    relations should be included.
  • e.g. text processing program that supports text,
    table calculation and video does not satisfy the
    demand of integration if program supporting the
    connection between the data could not be
  • A high integration level is accomplished if one
    change causes another corresponding change.
  • Integrated Multimedia System

d. Communication Systems
  • Communication-capable multimedia systems must be
  • Considering the network world a local processing
    multimedia function is a restriction.
  • Distributed environments promotes interesting
    multimedia applications.

Multimedia History
  • Multimedia started back about 40 years ago in the
    form of teaching and learning kits used by the
    teacher and the students. It consists of a
    combination of various media such as drawings,
    pictures, slide, microfilm, chalk, blackboard,
    text book and exercise book.

Multimedia History
  • The characteristics of the previous Multimedia
    teaching learning kits
  • a. each media is prepared and developed in
  • b. each media is used as a single entity in its
    own package environment
  • c. difficulty in integrating each media to become
    a package in delivery in class or exercise
  • The Multimedia kits failed. Why ?

Multimedia Definition
  • Steinmetz and Nahrstedt (1997)
  • A Multimedia System is characterized by a
    computer-controlled, integrated production,
    manipulation, presentation, storage and
    communication of independent information, which
    is encoded at least through a continuous
    (time-dependent) and a discrete
    (time-independent) medium.

  • Halimah (1996)
  • Multimedia merupakan kesepaduan di antara
    pelbagai media spt teks, numerik, grafik, imej,
    video, animasi dan suara dalam satu persekitaran
    digital, disamping mempunyai keupayaan
    interaktiviti bagi membolehkan pengguna mencapai
    maklumat keperluannya tanpa mengikut urutan.

  • Oblinger (1993)
  • Multimedia merupakan penyatuan dua _at_ lebih media
    komunikasi spt teks, grafik, imej, animasi, video
    dan suara dengan ciri-ciri interaktiviti komputer
    untuk menghasilkan satu persembahan yang menarik.

  • Peck (1998)
  • Multimedia ialah kombinasi dua _at_ lebih jenis
    media, utk mewujudkan satu jujukan aturcara yg
    berkesan dlm menyampaikan sesuatu idea, lazimnya
    dgn bantuan kedua-dua bunyi dan visual. Secara
    tipikal, penerbitan multimedia dibangun dan
    dikawal oleh komputer.

  • Vaughan, Tay
  • multimedia is woven combinations of text,
    graphic art, sound, animation and video elements
  • Feldman
  • multimedia is the seamless integration of data,
    text, image of all kinds and sound within a
    single digital environment
  • Galbreath
  • integrasi di antara audio, video, teks, animasi,
    numerik dan grafik dalam satu persekitaran digital

Common traits
  • Objects/Elements/Building blocks
  • ? ? ?
  • Common environment

Multimedia Characteristics
  • The vast usage of Multimedia has brought about
    the common traits of the package
  • 1. Seamless integration
  • Very close interweaving that a discrete
    character of a different type of individual media
    is submerged in the experience of the multimedia
  • The integration of all the various media /
    elements are so smooth that it cannot be detected
    by the naked eye. End users can view the
    animation or video presentation while music is
    played at the background.

Multimedia Characteristics
  • 2. Digital environment
  • Each and every media should be transformed into
    digital form so as to initiate the ease of use of
    the media in the computer. The reasons are
  • Digital is the lingua franca for electronic
    device / media
  • digital information is the lingua franca of the
    information industry
  • no serious future in multimedia unless it is also

Multimedia Characteristics
  • 3. Interactive
  • Interactivity empowers the end users of your
    project by letting them control the content and
    flow of information. (Tay Vaughan 1998)
  • Multimedia emphasizes using multiple media. The
    most important feature of multimedia is the
    ability it affords you to interact with media,
    both actively controlling what you see and hear
    and creating your own media.

Multimedia Characteristics
  • 4. Non-linear / Non-sequential
  • A good Multimedia application is non-linear in
    transferring information and presentation
    delivery. End users can explore quickly while
    building their own pathway without being
    restricted by the linear format. This method is
    effective as compared to the traditional method.
  • Setbacks ? ? ?

Multimedia Building blocks
  • TEXT
  • Traditionally used to convey information and one
    of the most widely used. The intensity of the
    text usage depends on the purpose of the program.
  • Possible usage titles, buttons, bullets,
    paragraphs and scrolling text

Multimedia Building blocks
  • An ancient Chinese saying, A picture is worth a
    thousand words,. People often learn and retain
    more information than from other forms of
    information. Learning styles are the various
    methods individuals have for perceiving and
    processing information while reacting to their
  • The integration of graphics into a Multimedia
    application includes Background, photos,
    three-dimensional pictures, charts (graphs),
    flowcharts etc

Multimedia Building blocks
  • One can employ various ways to integrate video
    into an interactive Multimedia application such
    as digitized video, a video window displaying
    the output of a laser disc or a videotape player,
    a video window displaying a live TV signal or a
    broadcast signal using PC-TV

Multimedia Building blocks
  • The integration of sounds and special effects
    provides an additional dimension.
  • Some forms of sounds that can be used special
    sound effects, narration, audio tracks from
    analog or digital source, background music or
    musical performances, background or ambient sounds

Multimedia Building blocks
  • Plays a huge role in entertainment (providing
    action and realism) and education (providing
    visualization and demonstration). The animation
    made up of many still images each in its own
    frame. Movies on video run at about 30 fps, but
    computer animations at 12 15 fps. Any less than
    this results in a jerky motion.