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SOFTWARE PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION

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Software project tracking and oversight. Software project planning. Requirements management ... but you can't fool all of the people all the time' - Abraham Lincoln ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SOFTWARE PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION


1
SOFTWARE PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION
IMPROVEMENTbyMitta RoutCapgemini -
India
2
SETTING EXPECTATION
  • Understand the definition and need of process
    quality
  • Understand the concepts of process
    frameworks/models like ISO, CMM, Six Sigma
  • Apply the rationale of process models to the
    business scenario

3
FINDING THE STARTING..
  • PARTICIPANTS
  • Name
  • Experience
  • Knowledge of Quality / Process / Models
  • Your expectations
  • FACULTY

4
FINDING THE STARTING..
  • FACULTY
  • Mita Rout (Head QA, Capgemini India)
  • 17 yrs. of s/w industry experience
  • SCQA, SEI trained Lead Assessor
  • Project execution, management, process
    implementation
  • Experience of over 10 CMM/CMMI assessments
  • Conducted tutorials and presented papers in
    international seminars in India, Asia Pacific
    Europe
  • Help you to appreciate the benefits of process
    framework like CMM learn from your sharing

5
  • Movie clip on processes

6
What is Quality - A few definitions
  • Fitness for use or purpose (Juran)
  • Conformance to customers requirements (Philip
    Crosby)
  • A product possesses quality if it helps somebody
    and enjoys a good and sustainable market (Deming)
  • Quality is what your customer perceives it to be!
    (Anonymous)

7
Needs - A Moving Target!
  • Needs are not constant they depend on
  • products ability to meet the expectations
  • Availability of alternative products
  • changes in technology, life-style, etc...

8
What suits one customer might not suit the next
9
  • Role play of SDLC process

10
Definition of Process
PROCEDURES TASK RELATIONSHIPS
INTEGRATE TO PRODUCE DESIRED END RESULTS
TOOLS
PEOPLE
11
High Level Process Architecture
12
Evolution of Quality Approaches
  • Product oriented - inspect after production
  • Process oriented - inspect during production
  • System oriented - cross-functional process design
    and inspection
  • Human oriented - training in depth
  • Development oriented - new product development
    capability
  • Customer oriented - new customer understanding
    capability development

13
Process Models
  • Software process development maintenance
    methodologies are guided by
  • ISO (International Standard Organization)
  • CMM / CMMI (Capability Maturity Model
    Integrated)
  • Six Sigma
  • ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure
    Library)
  • BS7799 (British Standard for Information
    security)
  • SAS70 (Statement of Audit standard)
  • Etc. etc.

14
ISO Quality Mgmt. System / Continual Improvement
Management Responsibility
Measurement, analysis, improvement.
Resource Mgmt.
CUSTOMER NEEDS
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
Product realization
15
Business Drivers
BUSINESS RESULTS
Customer Tracking
Capability Development
Listening to customers Preserving through
operations what was heard
Surveying capability building activities around
the world and by competitors Building
capabilities through process change, training
16
Capability Maturity Model -Integrated (CMMI) V1.1
  • Developed by
  • Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon
    University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
  • Provides
  • How to gain control of their processes for
    developing and maintaining software and how to
    evolve towards a culture of software engineering
    and management excellence

17
Maturity Framework
  • Based on CPI
  • Based on many small, evolutionary steps rather
    than revolutionary innovations.
  • Foundation
  • Each maturity level provides a layer in the
    foundation for continuous process improvement.
  • Priority Order
  • The levels also help an organization prioritize
    its improvement efforts.
  • Guidelines
  • A guide for evolving toward a culture of
    engineering excellence
  • Basis for Measurement
  • The underlying structure for reliable and
    consistent software process assessments, software
    capability evaluations, and interim profiles

18
CMMI 5 Maturity Levels
LEVEL 5 Optimizing
Continuously improving process
LEVEL 4 Qnt.Managed
Predictable process
Focus on process improvement
LEVEL 3 Defined
Consistent process
Process measured controlled
LEVEL 2 Managed
Disciplined process
Process characterized understood
LEVEL 1 Initial
Can repeat previous task

19
Management View at Level 1
  • Requirements flow in - little control over inputs
  • A software product is (usually) produced.
    Visibility into the process is missing
  • The product flows out and (hopefully)works -
    little control over outputs

IN
OUT
20
Level 1 Environment
  • Performance driven by competence heroics of the
    people doing the work
  • Consistency compliance to standards driven by
    management priorities - usually schedule is top
    priority
  • High quality and exceptional performance possible
    so long as the best people can be hired
  • Unpredictability - for good or ill -
    characterizes the initial level organisation
  • Jobs may get done - but the costs in financial
    and human terms for both producers and users is
    too high

21
Transitioning L1 L2
  • _at_ L1 (Little Control Over Inputs Outputs) -
    hence fix
  • Requirements Management
  • Software Quality Assurance
  • Software Configuration Management
  • Institute Project Management
  • sets expectation via policies
  • enable discipline project processes such that
    successful projects in terms of costs, schedule
    and meeting requirements are norm

22
Transitioning L1 L2
  • Management walk the talk
  • To initiate movement to L2
  • Management processes establish role models for
    SPI
  • Management Processes discipline - empowers the
    engineering processes and the development staffs
  • Problems are NOT always technical - many projects
    failed for management reasons.

23
Level 2 6 KPAs
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Software configuration managementSoftware
quality assuranceSoftware subcontract
managementSoftware project tracking and
oversightSoftware project planningRequirements
management
AD HOC
24
Management View of L2
  • Requirements and resources flow in
  • The production of the software product is visible
    at defined points
  • Artifacts of the process are controlled

25
Moving From Level 2 To Level 3
  • At Level 2, focus is on systematic management of
    projects
  • At Level 3, focus shifts to the organization
  • common processes and measurements are
    established
  • best practices are recorded and used across the
    organization
  • processes are tailored, as appropriate from
    organizational procedures

26
Level 3 - 7 KPAs
INTEGRATED SOFTWARE MANAGEMENT
Peer reviews Intergroup coordination Software
product engineering Integrated software
management Training program Organization process
definition Organization process focus
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
27
Management View of L3
OUT
IN
  • Roles and responsibilities in the software
    processes are understood
  • Production of software product is visible
    throughout the software process

28
Moving From Level 3 To Level 4
  • At Level 3, all the measurement parameters are
    defined and data are collected
  • At Level 4,
  • data are analyzed
  • decisions taken based
  • on data analysis


Quantitatively Managed
Defined
29
Level 4 2 KPAs
CONTROLLED PROCESS
Software Quality Management Quantitative Process
Management
CONSISTENT PROCESS
30
Quantitative Process Management
  • PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM MODEL WITH FEEDBACK

31
Software Quality Management
  • QUALITY ITS IMPORTANCE AND MEASUREMENT

You may fool all the people some of the time
you can even fool some of the people all the
time, but you cant fool all of the people all
the time - Abraham
Lincoln
What you can not measure, you can not control
32
Moving from Level 4 to Level 5
  • At Level 4, processes are quantitatively
    controlled
  • At Level 5,
  • process capability is improved in a controlled
  • way
  • everyone is involved in process improvement
  • continuous improvement is way of life

Optimizing

Quantitatively Managed
33
Dealing with Common causes of variation
  • Control chart of process improvement

New zone of efficiency
Original zone of efficiency
34
Level 5 3 KPAs
CONTINUOUSLYIMPROVING PROCESS
Process Change Management Technology Change
Management Defect Prevention
CONTROLLED PROCESS
35
Technology Change an Investment
Desired state
Productivity..
Present state
Transition state
Time
36
Process Change management (PCM)
  • Steps for Disciplined changes
  • Planning
  • Evaluating suggestion and taking action
  • Establishing process improvement teams
  • Conducting pilot run
  • Updating process and training

PLAN
DO
ACT
CHECK
37
Level 5 Not an End, But is a Foundation
  • FOR BUILDING EVER-IMPROVING CAPABILITY
  • Join Hands in Process Improvement
  • Understand Purpose of Quality Procedure before
    following it
  • Procedures are owned by you
  • Procedures will improve quality of your work if
    they are defined for you,
  • Suggest improvements !!

38
Demonstrating 5 Levels
Preparation
Input to
To Forecast

To produce
Standards
Results
Activity
Input to
Input to
To improve
To improve
Evaluation
39

Continuous Improvement - Six Sigma
  • What is Sigma?

40
Continuous Improvement - Six Sigma
  • Sigma is a statistical measure used to help
    measure, analyze, control and improve our project
    execution, processes and products.
  • A measure of goodness that shows the degree to
    which a product or project deliverable is free
    from defects.
  • Six Sigma quality represents very few defects
    given the complexity of the service or product.

41
What is Six Sigma?
  • Philosophy and a Goal
  • Methodology
  • Symbol of quality
  • Usage of statistics to reduce variation
  • Excellence
  • For problem solving for improving
    organizations bottom line and business goals

42
Implementing Six Sigma (DMAIC)
  • D Define projects, goals
  • M Measure process (current performance)
  • A Analyze process (to determine root causes)
  • I Improve the process to eliminate defects
  • C Control the performance
  • Integrates Juran, Deming and TQM principles

43
Implementing Six Sigma DFSS, DMADV
  • D Define VOC / CTQ
  • M Measure (Quantify CTQ, establish measurement
    systems)
  • A Analyze (CTQ to Sub systems, derive targets,
    tolerances, Risk assessment)
  • D Design process / product
  • V Verify process / product
  • Integrates Juran, Deming and TQM principles
  • Analogous to Engineering Life cycles

44
Mean and Standard Deviation
  • Mean (µ)
  • Average of Values (frequencies)
  • Standard Deviation (?)
  • Standard Deviation (how far values lie from the
    mean or average)

45
Formulas for Mean and Sigma
  • Mean (µ)
  • Sigma (?)

?
?(Xi-?)2
?
N
46
  • Value of Process Improvement

47
Expectations
48
Software Process Improvement
  • SPI occurs within the context of
  • the organization's strategic plans
  • its business objectives
  • its social and work culture
  • its organizational structure
  • the technologies in use
  • its management value system
  • SPI is a systematic, collaborative method to
    evolve the way software work is organised and
    performed

49

Management---------------Project

Probability
Levels
Target
5
N-z
Time//...
4
N-y
3
N-x
2
Na
1
In
Out
N
50
EVA 1 Cost to do Work
5
4
COST TO DO WORK
3
MATURITY
2
1
TIME
51
EVA 2 Defects Level
5
4
DEFECTS RATES / LEVEL
3
MATURITY
2
1
TIME
52
EVA 3 Cycle Time
5
4
CYCLE TIME
MATURITY
3
2
1
TIME
53
EVA 4 Customer Satisfaction
5
4
3
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
2
1
TIME
54
IVA 1 CMM Job Satisfaction
5
4
3
JOB SATISFACTION
2
1
TIME
55
IVA 2 CMM Change Adoption
5
4
3
WILLINGNESS TO EMBRACE CHANGE
2
1
TIME
56
IVA 3 CMM Collective Learning
5
4
3
COLLECTIVE LEARNING SHARING
2
1
TIME
57
Benefits to different stakeholders
58
ORIENTATION PROGRAM
  • Why Quality Management
  • is important to our organization

59
Emphasis on Early Detection
x100
Exponential cost of not conducting upfront
Peer Review (prior to Testing)
Relative Cost To Correct Defects (exponential
growth)
Roll-Out
Stress Testing
x10
Functional Testing
User
Build
User Acceptance
x1
Code
Acceptance
Development and Implementation
Operations
When Defect is discovered
Review Focus Areas
Strategy, Process, Estimation, Plans,
Environment, Standards, Requirements,
Architectures, Designs, Test Plans, Test Scripts,
Code Components, Migration Plans etc.
Metrics Collection Activities
Process Tailoring, Project Tracking, Management
Reviews, Peer Review, Testing, and Client
Satisfaction Survey
60
Some ripple effect facts of low-sigma performance
  • A dissatisfied customer will tell nine to ten
    people about an unhappy experience, even more
    people if the problem is not serious
  • The same customer will only tell five people if a
    problem is handled satisfactorily
  • Thirty-one percent of customers who experience
    service problems never register complaints,
    because it is too much trouble, there is no
    easy channel of communication, or because they
    believe that no one cares
  • Of that 31 percentage, as few as 9 percent will
    do additional business with company
  • As customers get more and more demanding and
    impatient, these high levels of defects put a
    company in serious risk

61
Higher Maturity.Benefits to Customer
  • Value for money
  • Consistency predictability of service
  • On time delivery
  • Improved metrics driven Project planning
    tracking
  • Estimation process stabilized
  • Productivity increased
  • Lower defects
  • Lower reworks
  • Ability to adapt to newer technology
  • Ability to adapt to shorter duration projects
  • Ability to manage the impact of attrition

62
The Benefits to the organization
  • Improved customer satisfaction
  • Through consistent predictable delivery
  • Ability to help customers in planning
  • Ability to motivate people to perform better
  • Able to confront/support views with data
  • Defect prevention
  • productivity improvement
  • Sleepless nights have reduced for technical
    persons
  • Quality has moved from preaching to practicing in
    major part of the organization

Basics are not questioned anymore
63
Benefits to individual
  • Enhances team working conditions as each member
    becomes more reliable
  • Shorter learning curves as experiences are
    recorded and lessons learnt taught to newcomers
  • Personal satisfaction in improved performance
    and relationships with other team members

G
64
  • Thank You
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