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Ancient Civilizations: Greece and Rome


Settled around the Balkan Peninsula and the Aegean Sea around 2000 BC ... Aqueduct: sloped bridge-like structure that carries water. Buildings with domes and arches ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient Civilizations: Greece and Rome

Ancient Civilizations Greece and Rome
  • Chapter 6
  • Section 3

Early Greeks
  • Settled around the Balkan Peninsula and the
    Aegean Sea around 2000 BC
  • Geography and Greek Civilizations
  • Rugged country separated by narrow waters
  • Development of separate communities (city-states)
    rather than one large united kingdom.
  • Traveled by sea because of rugged terrain

  • Earliest Greek Civilization
  • Island of Crete
  • Had running water, developed a system of writing
  • Sailors and fishermen

  • Controlled Greek mainland from about 1600 BC
    1200 BC
  • Warlike people who lived in tribes
  • Conquered Minoans and adopted many aspects from
    their culture. E.g. system of writing
  • Homer Wrote the Iliad historical events, folk
    tales, and legends. Trojan War.

Greek City-States
  • City-State City or town that had its own
    government and laws and controlled the land
    surrounding it.
  • Sparta
  • Loyal
  • Little Personal Freedom
  • Powerful Army
  • Boys left home to train at age 7
  • Girls received intense training at home
  • Boys and girls were educated and encouraged to
    study music but left little time for the
    development of the arts, literature, philosophy
    and science.

Greek City-States
  • Athens
  • Developed form of government called a Direct
    Democracy citizens take part in making ALL
  • Juries
  • More freedoms than Spartans but women could not
    participate in government
  • Slavery was permitted
  • Made great contributions to the arts, literature,
    philosophy and science
  • First people to write drama (plays)
  • Scientists developed new laws of mathematics and
    a way to classify plants and animals

Alexander the Great
  • Son of King Phillip II King of Macedonia
  • Conquered much of the known world including
    Greek city-states
  • Built great centers for learning
  • After Alexander died, his kingdom was split into
    smaller kingdoms and eventually conquered by the

Early Romans
  • Around 750 BC, people called Latins started
    settling around the Tiber River in Italy
    eventually formed the city of Rome.
  • Later conquered by the Etruscans who brought
    written language to Rome
  • Culture was strongly influenced by Greeks who
    settled in Rome.
  • Roman religion was also partly based on Greek

Geography and Roman Civilization
  • Geography
  • Alps Located north of Italy
  • Mediterranean Sea Located west of Italy
  • Adriatic Sea Located east of Italy
  • Seas helped trade and travel, but left Italy
    open to attack
  • Passages through Alps left open to invasion
  • How did the geography of Italy help the Roman
    Civilization grow?

The Roman Republic
  • Etruscan rule overthrown by wealthy Romans and
    replaced with a Republic.
  • Republic a government in which voters elect
    leaders to run the state.
  • Growing
  • Wars
  • Building bridges and roads
  • Started to become a problem…How??

Julius Caesar
  • Popular speaker won support among poor
  • Became a general and conquered more and more
    territory for the republic
  • Was made Ruler for Life by Roman officials
  • Many leaders feared his power and he was
    assassinated March 15, 44 B.C.

The Roman Empire
  • Octavian Augustus (honored one)
  • Grandnephew of Julius Caesar
  • Became ruler after Caesars death
  • Helped empire grow even more
  • His reign started Pax Romana
  • Pax Romana Roman Peace
  • Pax Romana
  • Stable and peaceful empire
  • Laws became more fair
  • Strong economy due to widespread trade
  • Built many roads and bridges to help trade
  • Roman army kept peace by defending boarders

Romes Achievements
  • Temples
  • Palaces
  • Arenas
  • Bridges
  • Roads
  • Aqueduct sloped bridge-like structure that
    carries water
  • Buildings with domes and arches
  • Language Latin
  • Writers

Rise of Christianity
  • Jews were driven out of the city of Jerusalem,
    but continued to practice their faith in
    communities outside the city.
  • The teachings of Jesus
  • One true God
  • Love others as themselves
  • Defended the poor
  • Romans thought Jesus would lead an uprising so
    they arrested him and sentenced him to death
  • Romans outlawed Christianity but the religion
    still spread
  • After 300 years, Constantine, the Roman Emperor,
    declared his support of Christianity and it
    became the official religion of Rome.

Decline of Roman Empire
  • Army generals started to turn in the Empire to
    try and win power for themselves
  • Army lost loyalty to Rome
  • Dishonest leaders
  • Civil Wars
  • Taxes and cost of goods rose

Empire Splits
  • Roman Empire was too big to be ruled by one
  • Diocletian (emperor of Rome) selected a
    co-emperor Constantine to take over the
    eastern part of the empire
  • Empire in the east faired much better than the
    empire in the west

Fall of Rome
  • Over several years, groups began to invade the
    empire from the north and set up tribal kingdoms
  • Vandals
  • Visigoths
  • Huns
  • In 476 the last emperor in the west was
    overthrown by invaders
  • Empire in the east was able to fight off invaders
    and became known as the Byzantine Empire and
    lasted until 1453 until if fell to the Ottoman
  • How did weak leadership lead to the fall of Rome?

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