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New Perspectives on The Internet, Fifth EditionComprehensive, 2005 Update


Security flaws in Internet Explorer increasingly exploited by worm and virus writers. ... Internet Explorer is closed source software. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: New Perspectives on The Internet, Fifth EditionComprehensive, 2005 Update

Emerging Technologies
Internet Growth, Use and Connectivity
  • Rapid growth rates will continue due to more
    non-computer devices being connected to the
    Internet every day.
  • Rapid growth in parts of the world experiencing
    high rates of economic development.
  • Asian governments are encouraging businesses in
    their countries to develop new Internet enabled
  • Sony will begin selling variety of IPv6-enabled
    devices in U.S. technology markets in early 2006.

Connecting to the InternetMore Choices, More
  • Increasing need for faster connections.
  • Broadband home connections expected to increase
    approximately 30 by 2006.
  • Increased competition between cable companies,
    DSL providers, and satellite providers have kept
    prices constant or lowered them.
  • Some governments subsidize broadband home
    connections, attempting to grow productive
    participants in the technology-based businesses
    of the future.

Connecting to the InternetMore Choices, More
  • More people using the Internet for entertainment
    purposes which requires a broadband connection.
  • Downloading music and video files
  • Playing online video games in real time
  • Broadband providers offering variety of
    connection speeds and prices.
  • Faster speeds being marketed as gamers
    connections or power user specials.

Ricochet Service
  • Cellular data network combined with radio
    transmission and wired connections.
  • Gives customers continuous connection as they
    move around a metropolitan area.
  • Provides connection speeds in 150-200 Kbps range.
  • Lower operating frequency signals travel through
    walls and building structures better.
  • More reliable and longer distance connections
    than Wi-Fi.

The Buzz on Browsers
  • Other Internet browsers began to make a dent in
    Microsofts dominant position in 2004.
  • Security flaws in Internet Explorer increasingly
    exploited by worm and virus writers.
  • Organizations and individuals began to doubt
    reliability of a single browser.

Mozilla Open Source Project
  • The Mozilla project is the open source browser
    software project that manages development of
    software used in Netscape Navigator.
  • Browser rendering engine a complete rebuild of
    the internal workings of the browser.
  • Gecko engine browser rendering engine used in
    Netscape Navigator, the Mozilla browser and the
    Mozilla Firefox browser.

Mozilla Open Source Project
  • Bugzilla a bug tracking system that helps teams
    manage large software development projects of all
  • Operated on a volunteer basis by programmers
    working in their spare time since 1999.
  • Mozilla Foundation created in 2003 with
    contribution of 2 million from Time Warners AOL

Security of Open Source SoftwareAn Open Question
  • Many experts believe the open source approach to
    software development reduces hidden security
  • Source program code is posted online and is
    publicly available.
  • Wide variety of programmers worldwide identify
    and resolve potential problems in the software.
  • Closed source software can only be debugged by
    the programmers working for the company that owns
    the source code.
  • Internet Explorer is closed source software.

Mozilla Suite
  • A combination of software applications developed
    by the Mozilla open source project.
  • Web browser
  • E-mail client and newsreader Mozilla Messenger
  • HTML editor Mozilla Composer
  • Instant messaging chat client ChatZilla
  • Time Warners AOL division distributes most of
    the Mozilla Suite under the Netscape brand name.

Mozilla Firefox
  • Mozilla Firefox standalone browser released by
    Mozilla open source project in 2004.
  • Takes up less disk space and runs faster than
    other browsers.
  • Designed to easily customize appearance or
    functionality by giving programmers an easy way
    to write program extensions.
  • Program extension a small program that works
    with an existing program to give it extra
  • Program extensions may add new buttons to
    toolbars, alter the way existing buttons work, or
    make it easier to create and add other program

Browsers for HireOpera and iRider
  • Internet Explorer, Navigator, Mozilla, and
    Firefox are all available at no cost.
  • Some browsers, such as Opera and iRider, charge a
    license fee

  • Started out as research project at Telenor,
    Norways state telecommunication company.
  • Program code written independently and is not
    affected by security flaws exploited by those
    attacking Gecko-based browsers or IE.
  • First Web browser to offer tabbed browsing, a
    button to toggle on and off the download of
    images with a Web page, and a search window that
    the user could configure to run searches in
    specific search engines automatically.

Opera Web Browser Main Screen
  • Designed for power users.
  • Can open and manage multiple Web pages at once.
  • Can view thumbnail images of all open Web pages
    displayed in a hierarchical map called a Page
  • Keeps all open Web pages in memory until the user
    deletes them.
  • User can run several searches simultaneously and
    compare the results.
  • Security flaws have not been identified. It does
    use some parts of the IE code when it runs so
    weaknesses may be found.

Multiple Searches in the iRider Web Browser
New Options, Improvements, and Problems for
E-mail Users
  • A default e-mail client is usually installed when
    you install a browser on your computer.
  • An e-mail client manages your incoming and
    outgoing e-mail messages and any newsgroups to
    which you have subscribed.
  • You can use any e-mail program to manage your
    e-mail messages.
  • Web-based e-mail addresses must be accessed
    through the sponsors Web site unless it has an
    option to manage it using a program such as
    Outlook Express.

New Options, Improvements, and Problems for
E-mail Users
  • Most people have more than one e-mail address.
  • Primary e-mail address for personal and/or
    business correspondence.
  • Secondary e-mail addressed for online
    subscriptions, online purchases, and mailing
  • Being careful about distribution of primary
    e-mail address may lessen amount of spam and junk
    email that you receive.
  • You should become familiar with the different
    e-mail programs available before you decide which
    one to use.

Mozilla Thunderbird
  • Part of the Mozilla open source project.
  • Must be downloaded separately from the Mozilla
    Web site.
  • Can import items from other e-mail programs on
    your computer such as the address book entries.
  • Has a spell checker and allows you to encrypt or
    digitally sign messages.
  • A powerful feature of Thunderbird is its adaptive
    spam and junk mail filters.
  • Saved search folders make it easy to find
    messages based on criteria that you specify.

Mozilla Thunderbird
  • Has the ability to subscribe to and receive
    newsfeeds automatically using Really Simple
    Syndication (RSS).
  • Really Simple Syndication (RSS) an XML file
    format that makes it possible to share updates
    such as headlines and other Web site content via
    a newsfeed.
  • Most RSS newsfeeds must be read through a program
    called an aggregator that lets you receive
    newsfeed content.
  • When you subscribe to a newsfeed, you can choose
    a frequency on which to download messages.
  • Can be used to manage your Usenet newsgroup

Thunderbird Inbox Window
Opera M2Client
  • Installed with the Opera Web browser.
  • Can import information from Outlook Express,
    Netscape Mail, Eudora, and earlier versions of
    Opera into Opera or create a chat account for
    Internet relay chat.
  • Messages are stored in a single database (instead
    of folders) so that messages are easy to search
    and retrieve.
  • Has the ability to subscribe to RSS newsfeeds
  • You can use Operas M2e-mail client to manage
    messages from newsgroups.

Opera Mail Tag
Gmail from Google
  • Google received a lot of publicity when the test
    program for Gmail was released.
  • Gmail promises one gigabyte of storage space for
    every user, causing other online Web-based e-mail
    services to increase their free storage space.
  • Paid for by adding advertisements to e-mail
    messages based on searches of those messages
    causing concerns about the privacy of e-mail
  • Because Google performs routine maintenance on
    its servers, such as backups and archives, your
    messages might be stored forever in these files,
    making your private messages part of a permanent

Google Gmail Inbox Window
Web Logs
  • Web logs, blogs, have been around for awhile, but
    were catapulted into mainstream media during the
    2004 presidential campaigns.
  • Used as a way for candidates to discuss campaign
    issues in an unfiltered way.
  • Howard Dean, Senator John Kerry, and President
    George W. Bush used blogs to communicate with
    supporters and respond to stories in the media.
  • Blogs are not subject to the same ethical
    guidelines of professional reporters, so
    information contained in them should be
    considered personal opinion, not hard news.

Youve Got Spam!
  • Spam unsolicited commercial e-mail (UCE) or bulk
  • Includes unwanted solicitations, advertisements,
    or e-mail chain letters sent to an e-mail
  • Spam wastes peoples time and their computers
    disk space.
  • Spam can consume large amounts of Internet
  • It is estimated that the amount of spam received
    by the average company will increase from
    approximately 1 in 1995 to 80 in 2005.

Youve Got Spam!
  • Many grassroots and corporate organizations are
    fighting spam aggressively.
  • Most companies find it more effective and less
    costly to eliminate spam before it reaches users.
  • An increasing number of approaches have been
    devised or proposed to combat spam, such as the
    passing of laws and technical changes in the mail
    handling systems of the Internet.

Reducing Spam
  • Reduce the likelihood that a spammer can
    automatically generate your e-mail address
  • Control the exposure of your e-mail address so
    software robots searching the Internet for e-mail
    addresses cannot easily obtain them. (They search
    for strings containing _at_.)
  • Use multiple e-mail addresses such as one for
    your Web site, another to register for access to
    Web sites, another for shopping accounts, etc.

Reducing Spam
  • Other approaches use one or more techniques that
    filter e-messages based on their contents.
  • Many U.S. jurisdictions have passed laws that
    provide penalties for sending spam.
  • The CAN-SPAM Law is the first U.S. federal
    government effort to legislate controls on spam.

  • Regulates all e-mail messages sent for the
    primary purpose of advertising or promoting a
    commercial product or service.
  • Unsolicited e-mail messages must identify the
    sender, contain an accurate message subject and a
    notice that the message is an advertisement or
    solicitation, make it possible for the recipient
    to opt out of future mailings within 10 days of
    receipt of the request, include the senders
    physical postal address, and prohibit the sender
    from selling or transferring an e-mail address
    with an opt out request to any other entity.

  • Each violation is subject to a fine of up to
  • Additional fines are assessed for those who
    violate one of these provisions and also harvest
    e-mail addresses from Web sites, send messages to
    randomly generated addresses, use automated tools
    to register for e-mail accounts that are
    subsequently used to send spam, and relay e-mail
    messages through a computer or network without
    the permission of the computer's or networks
  • Enforcement is a problem because spammers can
    move their operations from one server to another
    in minutes.

The New Frontier for Wireless Networking WiMAX
  • New advancement in wireless networking is called
    WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave
  • 802.16e wireless network standard being developed
    for use in metropolitan areas.
  • Will have a range of up to 31 miles.
  • Will not require building cabled third-generation
    networks and purchasing expensive FCC licenses to
    send signals in the 3G radio spectrum.

The New Frontier for Wireless Networking WiMAX
  • First WiMAX network launched in England in
    January 2005. Other WiMAX networks will be
    launched in Europe, Japan, and the United States
    in 2005.
  • Technology manufacturers are working to develop
    standards and equipment being tested in different
    metropolitan areas.
  • WiMAX technology is expected to be in wide use in
    the United States in the year 2007.

New Developments in Virtual Communities
  • The Internet has become an important tool that
    enables communication among members of the
  • Online Social Networks
  • Online Business Networks
  • Online Political Networks
  • Software for Educational Communities

Online Social Networks
  • New virtual communities exist for the sole
    purpose of being a community.
  • Useful tools for persons who want to make new
    local friends, establish acquaintances before
    moving to a new location, or obtain advice of
    various kinds.
  • craigslist
  • Friendster
  • LinkedIn
  • MySpace
  • Ryze
  • ZeroDegrees

Online Business Networks
  • Focus on business networking.
  • Users log on to seek jobs, find potential
    business partners, recruit workers, and engage in
    other business development activities.
  • Users are looking for specific solutions to their
  • Online business networks tend to use categories
    that reflect specific interests and try to make
    it easy for business persons to find exactly the
    connections they need, quickly and efficiently.

Online Political Networks
  • Used in the 2004 U.S. elections to rally
    supporters, raise funds, and get their messages
    out to voters.
  • Provide a place for people interested in a
    candidate or an issue to communicate with each
  • These sites allow people to discuss issues, plan
    strategies, and arrange in-person meetings called

Software for Educational Communities
  • Many colleges and universities use learning
    platforms such as Blackboard or WebCT to deliver
    instruction over the Internet.
  • Distance learning platforms include tools such as
    bulletin boards, chat rooms, and drawing boards
    that allow students to interact with their
    instructors and each other.
  • Blackboard and WebCT are commercial software
    packages that schools must pay for.

Software for Educational Communities
  • Many schools that have come to rely on
    distance-learning platforms to deliver a large
    part of their instruction have faced budget
    cutbacks in recent years.
  • Schools in developing countries struggle to find
    money to pay the licensing fees charged.
  • Several groups of universities and individuals
    have sponsored the development of open source
    distance-learning platforms.
  • Two of the most widely used open source
    distance-learning platforms are Moodle and
    JA-SIGs uPortal.

Moodle Home Page
New Challenges for Online Security
  • Security is broadly defined as the protection of
    assets from unauthorized access, use, alteration,
    or destruction.
  • The Internet brings certain risks to both users
    and their computers.
  • New threats emerge and old threats become more
    invasive as technology gets better and more users
    are connected to the Internet.

Viruses, Worms, and Spyware
  • Some of the biggest threats to online users come
    in the form of e-mail messages.
  • Two of the best ways to prevent your computer
    from becoming infected are having current
    antivirus software and a firewall.
  • Most major ISPs distribute free antivirus and
    firewall software to their subscribers because
    the lack of security by their subscribers results
    in problems for the providers.
  • More powerful antivirus and firewall programs
    with additional features can be purchased.

Viruses, Worms, and Spyware
  • Identity theft is an increasing threat on the
  • ISPs and credit agencies are creating new ways to
    deal with online identity theft.
  • Avoid giving sites information about yourself
    unless you are confident that the Web site is
    both legitimate and secure.
  • Many credit cards offer free services in which
    they alert their customers by e-mail when they
    exceed their credit limits or have more than a
    preset number of transactions in a single day.

Viruses, Worms, and Spyware
  • Another way to protect yourself from online
    attacks is your choice of operating system and
    Web browser.
  • Most browsers have security features that let you
    set options to prevent ActiveX controls and
    pop-up windows from running on your computer.
  • You should keep your Microsoft updates and
    service packs current.
  • Other Web browsers are considered safer because
    they have less market share than Internet
    Explorer, and hackers spend less time trying to
    find ways to uncover and exploit vulnerabilities
    in those programs.

Phishing Expeditions
  • A type of security attack in which people are
    sent e-mail messages that seem to originate from
    a legitimate sender in an effort to gain
    information about the recipient.
  • Phishing has become one of the biggest Internet
    e-mail problems in recent history.
  • Anti-Phishing Working Group (APWG) is an industry
    association that works to eliminate the identity
    theft and fraud that result from Internet

Phishing Expeditions
  • Phishing is such a large problem because some
    people do not verify the source of messages that
    they receive and then respond to them, assuming
    they are legitimate.
  • Some ISPs are providing software that alerts
    customers when they are about to enter a spoofed
  • DomainKeys create a digital signature that lets
    the recipient or recipients server authenticate
    the message to verify that it originated from the
    source that it claims it is from.

Defense Against Phishing
  • The best defense against phishing attacks is to
    make consumers aware of the problem and prevent
    them from visiting phishing sites.
  • Call and check the legitimacy of a message BEFORE
  • Never click the links in a message that you
    suspect is spoofed.
  • Check your bank statements and credit card
    statements carefully when you receive them.

Defense Against Phishing
  • Phishing attacks reduce consumer confidence in
    electronic commerce and the institutions and
    organizations that are victims of spoofing.
  • Many banks try to educate their customers about
  • The U.S. House of Representatives passed two
    bills related to spyware in October 2004
  • Internet Spyware Prevention Act (I-SPY)
  • SPY ACT (Securely Protect Yourself Against Cyber
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