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Geography and Early Greek Civilization

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Greece's mountainous terrain separated the ancient Greek cities. ... The Greeks were exposed to the Phoenician alphabet and Egyptian geometry. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Geography and Early Greek Civilization


1
Geography and Early Greek Civilization
  • In this lesson, students will identify
    characteristics of Greeces geography and its
    impact on the development of ancient cultures.
  • Students will be able to identify and/or define
    the following terms and concepts
  • The Geography of Greece
  • Geographic Effects on Greek cultures
  • Polis

2
Greece is mountainous.
3
Greece is a mountainous peninsula with islands.
4
The Geography of Greece
  • Ancient Greece consisted of a large mountainous
    peninsula and islands in the Aegean Sea.
  • Its hilly terrain made farming difficult
  • Its location encouraged trade.

5
Mountains separated Greek cities.
6
The Effects of Mountains
  • Greeces mountainous terrain separated the
    ancient Greek cities.
  • As such, the ancient Greeks never developed a
    unified system of government.
  • The ancient Greeks developed the polis or
    city-state.

7
The Greeks lived in separate city-states.
8
The Polis
  • Polis was the Greek word for city-state.
  • A polis was an independent city and its
    surrounding farmland.
  • Every polis had its own government and laws but
    the Greeks shared a common language and religion.

9
The ancient Greeks farmed but it was difficult.
Hills are not suited for farming.
10
However, there is always the sea.
11
Even today, the Greeks have access to the
Mediterranean Sea and the Aegean Sea.
12
The Seas
  • Greece is a peninsula and islands.
  • Seas surround parts of Greece.
  • The Seas allowed the Greeks to travel and trade.
  • Trade encouraged cultural diffusion.

13
Trade and Cultural Diffusion
  • The seas allowed the Greeks to depend heavily on
    trade.
  • Trade encouraged cultural diffusion.
  • The Greeks were exposed to the Phoenician
    alphabet and Egyptian geometry.

14
Questions for Reflection
  • Why was it difficult to farm in ancient Greece?
  • Why did the Greeks depend heavily on trade?
  • List two geographic features and their effects on
    the Greeks.
  • Why did the ancient Greeks never develop a
    unified system of government?
  • Define polis.

15
The Greek City-States
  • In this lesson, students will identify
    characteristics of the Greek city-states.
  • Students will be able to identify and/ or
    define the following terms
  • Polis
  • Golden Age
  • Democracy
  • Helots

16
It is important to remember that
mountains separated the Greek city-states.
17
The Polis
  • The hilly terrain separated the Greeks. Though
    the Greeks shared a common language and religion,
    they never developed a unified system of
    government.
  • The Greeks lived in separate, independent
    city-states.
  • The Greek word for a city-state was a polis.

18
This magnificent building is the Parthenon. The
Parthenon was a temple in Athens, a Greek polis.
19
Athens
  • Athens was an important polis in ancient Greece.
  • The people of Athens developed democracy.
  • Democracy is a system of government where
    citizens vote or participate in government.

20
In Athenian democracy, only free men born in
Athens could vote. Women, slaves, and
foreigners could not vote.
21
This is a painting of the famous
Athenian philosopher, Socrates. He
encouraged his followers to ask questions.
22
The Golden Age of Athens
  • Athens experienced a golden age.
  • A golden age is a time of peace, prosperity, and
    great achievements.
  • The Athenians produced great works of literature,
    philosophy, and art.

23
Sparta was another important Greek polis.
24
Sparta
  • Sparta was a militaristic polis.
  • In Sparta, all men had to serve in the military.
  • Weak or disabled babies were left to die.

25
A Spartans life revolved around the military.
A Spartan man was a soldier for most of his life.
26
Helots
  • The Spartans had helots or slaves.
  • The helots farmed for the Spartans.
  • While the helots farmed, the Spartans focused on
    military affairs.
  • Life in Sparta differed greatly from life in
    Athens.

27
The Spartans had enslaved the helots.
28
Questions for Reflection
  • What was a polis and why did the Greeks develop
    the polis?
  • Define a golden age and name a Greek polis that
    experienced a golden age.
  • List three differences between the ancient Greek
    polis of Athens and Sparta.
  • Who were the helots and how were they treated?
  • Describe Athenian democracy.

29
War Tests the Greeks
  • In this lesson, students will identify
    characteristics of the Persian Wars and the
    Peloponnesian War.
  • Students will be able to identify and/or define
    the following terms
  • Causes of the Persian Wars
  • Effects of the Persian Wars
  • Causes of the Peloponnesian War
  • Effects of the Peloponnesian War

30
The Persians had built a vast empire.
31
The Persians and the Greeks
  • In 519 B.C., the Persians conquered a group of
    people called the Ionian Greeks who lived in Asia
    Minor.
  • The Ionian Greeks asked the mainland Greeks for
    help.
  • The Greeks did help and the Persian king was
    furious.

32
The Persians invaded the Greeks.
33
The Persian Wars
  • The Persian army outnumbered the Athenian army.
  • However, the smaller Greek ships could move
    easily in the water. The Greek ships destroyed
    the Persian ships.
  • Many Greek city-states also united to defeat the
    Persians.

34
Look at the map! Can you see why the smaller
Greek ships had an advantage?
35
The Alliance
  • After the Persian Wars, the Greek city-states
    united.
  • Each city-state agreed to give money or ships to
    be used to defend all of them. Athens led the
    alliance. The alliance was called the Delian
    League.
  • However, Athens used the alliance money to
    rebuild Athens.

36
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37
The Peloponnesian War
  • Athens betrayed the trust of the alliance.
  • The other Greek city-states declared war on
    Athens.
  • This war was called the Peloponnesian War.

38
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39
Summation of Wars
  • The Persian Wars strengthened the Greek
    city-states.
  • However, the Peloponnesian War weakened the Greek
    city-states.
  • Sparta led the alliance against Athens.

40
The Spartans were skilled soldiers.
41
War strengthened the Greeks and war weakened the
Greeks.
42
Questions for Reflection
  • Why did the Persians invade Greece?
  • Why did the Persian Wars strengthen the Greeks?
  • Define the Delian League.
  • Why did the Peloponnesian War begin?
  • Why did the Peloponnesian War weaken the Greeks?

43
The Legacy of Classical Greece
  • In this lesson, students will be able to
    identify accomplishments of classical Greek
    civilization.
  • Students will be able to identify and/or define
    the following terms
  • Democracy
  • Parthenon
  • Socrates
  • Pythagoras

44
A classical civilization is a civilization
that has given the world important ideas and
inventions that people still use today.
45
Ancient Greek civilization is considered a
classical civilization.
46
Athenian Democracy
  • The ancient Greek city-state of Athens developed
    the first democratic government.
  • A democracy is a system of government where
    citizens participate in government.
  • Only free men born in Athens could be citizens.
    Women, slaves, and foreigners could not vote.

47
The ancient Athenians were the first people to
use voting as a form of participation in
government.
48
Architecture
  • The Greeks built temples with beautiful columns.
  • Greek architecture still influences people today.
  • Many government buildings in the United States
    are modeled after Greek temples.

49
The Parthenon was a Greek temple to the goddess,
Athena. Notice the use of columns.
50
The U.S. Supreme Court building is clearly
influenced by the Parthenon.
51
Classical Greek Philosophy
  • The ancient Greeks were the first students of
    philosophy. They wanted to know the meaning of
    life and how people should live.
  • Greek philosophers like Socrates, Plato, and
    Aristotle still influence people today.
  • Socrates encouraged people to think for
    themselves and to ask questions.

52
Socrates was a great Greek philosopher. He was
tried and found guilty of corrupting the youth of
Athens. For encouraging people to ask questions,
he was forced to commit suicide.
53
The Greek Mathematicians
  • The ancient Greeks also made advances in
    mathematics.
  • Pythagoras, Euclid, and Archimedes were important
    Greek mathematicians.
  • The Pythagorean theorem examines the relationship
    between the three sides of a right triangle.

54
The ancient Greeks gave us many important
mathematical theorems.
55
The Legacy of Classical Greece
  • A legacy is defined as something handed down from
    the past.
  • The ancient Greeks have passed down many
    important ideas and inventions to our modern
    world.
  • Democracy, the use of columns, mathematical
    ideas, and philosophies are just a few of the
    ideas passed down to modern people from the
    ancient Greeks..

56
The ancient Greeks were the first people to
perform plays and write comedies and dramas.
57
Questions for Reflection
  • Define legacy.
  • List two important contributions of the ancient
    Greeks to the modern world.
  • How do Greek ideas concerning government still
    influence us today?
  • How do Greek ideas concerning architecture still
    influence us today?
  • Why is ancient Greece considered a classical
    civilization?
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