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Indoor Air and Molds

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REGULATORY AGENCIES AND 'WANNA BE'S' REGULATOR WANNA BE. OSHA/MOSHA NIOSH ... 'TYPICAL' AIR QUALITY ISSUES. POOR INDOOR AIR QUALITY (SICK BUILDING SYNDROME) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Indoor Air and Molds


1
Indoor Air and Molds
  • PRESENTED BY
  • STEVEN C. STRAYER, CIH, CSP, REHS, RS
  • COCCIARDI AND ASSOCIATES, INC.
  • (717) 766-4500
  • sstrayer_at_cocciardi.com

2
REGULATORY AGENCIES AND WANNA BES
  • REGULATOR WANNA BE
  • OSHA/MOSHA NIOSH
  • HEALTH DEPARTMENTS ATSDR
  • EPA/DEP ASHRAE
  • TREND ? RISK ASSESSMENTS

3
INDOOR AIR QUALITY
4
TYPICAL AIR QUALITY ISSUES
  • POOR INDOOR AIR QUALITY (SICK BUILDING SYNDROME)
  • MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION
  • HAZARDOUS MATERIAL EXPOSURE (CO, DIESEL EXHAUST,
    ALCOHOLS, ETC.)
  • ASBESTOS
  • LEAD BASED PAINT

5
UNDERSTANDING IAQ
  • HEALTH EFFECTS vs. COMFORT
  • CAUSITIVE AGENTS
  • SOURCES
  • CONTROL METHODOLOGIES

6
HEALTH EFFECTS
SICK BUILDING SYNDROME (SBS) VS BUILDING
RELATED ILLNESS (BRI)
7
HEALTH EFFECTS
  • SICK BUILDING SYNDROME (SBS)
  • A PERSISTENT SET OF SYMPTOMS IN gt 20
  • CAUSE(S) NOT READILY RECOGNIZABLE
  • COMPLAINTS/SYMPTOMS RELIEVED AFTER EXITING
    BUILDING

8
HEALTH EFFECTS
  • SICK BUILDING SYNDROME (SBS)
  • EYE, NOSE, OR THROAT IRRITATION
  • HEADACHES
  • FATIGUE
  • REDUCED MENTATION
  • IRRITABILITY

9
HEALTH EFFECTS
  • SICK BUILDING SYNDROME (SBS)
  • DRY SKIN
  • NASAL CONGESTION
  • DIFFICULTY BREATHING
  • NOSE BLEEDS
  • NAUSEA

10
HEALTH EFFECTS
  • BUILDING RELATED ILLNESS (BRI)
  • MORE SERIOUS THEN SBS
  • AGENT DIRECTLY RESPONSIBLE FOR A DIAGNOSABLE
    ILLNESS
  • Ex. ASBESTOS, LEGIONELLA

11
COMFORT ISSUES
  • ASHRAE Criteria
  • CO2
  • Humidity
  • Temperature (summer vs. winter)
  • Others CO, dust, etc. (NAAQS)

12
CAUSITIVE AGENTS
  • INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANT TYPES
  • COMBUSTION PRODUCTS (heating, cigarettes, etc.)
  • VOLATILE CHEMICALS MIXTURES
  • RESPIRABLE PARTICULATES
  • RESPIRATORY PRODUCTS
  • BIOLOGICS BIOAEROSOLS
  • RADIONUCLIDES (Radon)
  • ODORS (TOXIN OR NUISENCE)

13
CAUSITIVE AGENTS
  • COMBUSTION PRODUCTS
  • CARBON MONOXIDE (CO)
  • OXIDES OF NITROGEN (NOX)
  • OXIDES OF SULFUR (SOX)
  • CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2)
  • POLYAROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH)
  • TOBACCO SMOKE COMPONENTS

14
CAUSITIVE AGENTS
  • RESPIRABLE PARTICULATES
  • METALLIC DUSTS
  • LEAD
  • ORGANIC DUSTS
  • PAPER DUSTS
  • POLLEN

15
Causitive Agents
  • ODORS
  • ODORS ASSOCIATED WITH ANY INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANT
    TYPE
  • INDEPENDENTLY
  • IN COMBINATION

16
CONTROL METHODOLOGIES
  • PREVENTING IAQ PROBLEMS
  • SOURCES OUTSIDE THE BUILDING
  • HUMAN ACTIVITIES
  • BUILDING COMPONENTS FURNISHINGS
  • OTHER SOURCES
  • VENTILATION SYSTEMS
  • BIOLOGICAL/WATER

17
CONTROL METHODOLOGIES
  • SOURCES OUTSIDE THE BUILDING
  • POLLEN, DUST, FUNGI
  • INDUSTRIAL POLLUTANTS (NOX, O3, etc.)
  • GENERAL VEHICLE EXHAUST
  • EXHAUST RE-ENTRAINMENT
  • SEWER GAS

18
Control Methodologies
  • HUMAN ACTIVITIES
  • HVAC Modification
  • Odor Masking
  • Food Storage
  • Amazon Decor
  • Smoking
  • Open Chemicals
  • (janitorial staff)
  • Pesticide Application
  • Dirty Conditions
  • Copying
  • Respiration
  • Construction/Renovation
  • Storage
  • Air Cleaners

19
Control Methodologies
  • Building Components
  • Asbestos
  • Lead-Based Paint
  • New Material/Paint
  • Off-gassing (formaldehyde, acetic acid, VOCs,
    etc.)
  • Exhaust/Intake Locations
  • Lighting
  • Fibrous Glass
  • Mercury Switches

20
Control Methodologies
  • OTHER SOURCES
  • ACCIDENTAL EVENTS
  • SPILLS
  • FLOODING
  • FIRE DAMAGE (PCBS)
  • SUBSURFACE CONDUITS (i.e. sewers)
  • RADON VENTILATION

21
Control Methodologies
  • HVAC
  • Maintenance (filters, condensate pans, etc.)
  • Balance
  • Energy conservation compromise
  • Additional diffusers/returns
  • dead air
  • Humidification / dehumidification

22
CONTROL METHODOLOGIES
  • Biological/Water
  • Animals/Insects/Plants
  • Minimize water infiltration
  • Microbials

23
MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS
  • NO REGULATORY CRITERIA
  • DECISION MAKING/CHARACTERIZATION
  • REMEDIATION
  • NYC DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
  • U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

24
I. DESCRIPTION
  • Kingdom Mycota (Mold, mildew, yeast, mushrooms,
    etc.)
  • Produce sexually and asexually
  • Physical Appearance black, green, brown, gray,
    white, etc. fuzzy, slimey Spores, Hyphae,
    Mycelium
  • Likes organic material (your building) and
    water/moisture Poor construction, HVAC
    management and maintenance

25
DESCRIPTION
  • Dislikes lack of moisture and ventilation
  • e.g. Water Activity Constant lt 0.8 Primary
  • Colonizers (i.e. Penicillium)
  • Colonizers 0.8 0.9 - Secondary
  • Colonizers (i.e. Cladosporium)
  • Colonizers gt 0.9 - Tertiary
  • Colonizers (i.e. Stachybotrys)

26
WANTED FOR CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY, HEALTH, AND
PROPERTY
  • Mycotoxins Defense mechanism (endo or exo-)
  • Irritation, respiratory disease, cancer, and
    immune disorders (i.e. Aspergillus, Aflatoxins
    Penicillium, Stachy and Fusarium Macrocyclic
    trichothecenes)
  • VOCs Metabolites (Musty smell)
  • Chemical sensitivities and effects associated
    with alcohols, ketones, hydrocarbons, and
    aromatics
  • Spores and Fragments Allergies/
    Hypersensitivity
  • Organic Dust Toxic Syndrome (ODTS)
  • (i.e. Aspergillus/Penicillium)
  • Symptoms Fatigue, fever, flu-like symptoms,
    eye/skin irritation,
  • red blotches, cough, runny
    nose, congestion, etc.
  • possibly even death

27
III. Causes
  • A. Spores
  • B. Food (your building)
  • C. Moisture in materials/air (gt 60 rlt)
  • Leaks (wet greater than 48 hours)
  • No HVAC make-up air
  • HVAC humidifiers
  • Lack of vapor barriers
  • Tight construction and interference with natural
    circulation (i.e. mulch, etc.)
  • Poor drainage
  • Improper kitchen/bathroom ventilation
  • Building trauma

28
IV. IDENTIFICATION
  • Visible (often hidden in interstitial spaces)
  • Air Sampling (spores, metabolites, PCR, etc.)
  • Bulk (similar to air)
  • Wipe/surface (similar to air)
  • Medical evaluation
  • Recommend Industrial Hygienist (certified),
  • Mycologist, Biologist, Microbiologist, etc.

29
APPROACH POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS
  • Professional Remediator Proper
  • Professional Evaluator (See Above)
  • Specifications Clean-up Criteria
  • Remediation by removal, dispose, and clean (HEPA
    Vacuum)
  • Suggest segregation of area, if possible
  • Find and repair source of moisture first
  • PA Dept. of Health suggests following
  • New York City protocols

30
VI. LITIGATION AND INSURANCE ISSUES
  • Limited coverage
  • Construction Issues Primarily negligence
  • 1. Property Damage Typically repair costs or
    value
  • 2. Personal Injury pain, suffering, medical
    care, lost
  • wages, loss of earning capacity
  • 3. Death Loss of love, companionship,
    comfort,
  • affection, society, solace, sex, moral
    support,
  • physical assistance, financial
    support, etc.

31
VI. LITIGATION AND INSURANCE ISSUES
  • Examples
  • 350,000 against homeowners association (chronic
  • water damage)
  • 2. 900,000 against residential builder (leaking
    roof)
  • 3. 545,000 against homeowners association
    (leaking pipes)
  • 1,353,000 against seller (disclosure)
  • 5. 6,000,000 against general/sub-contractors (4
    year-old courthouse w/leaks)
  • 6. 14,200,00 against contractor and surety
    companies (Sick Building Syndrome in three
    courthouse buildings)

32
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