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Influences on antisocial behaviour in adolescence

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Offenders as a percentage of the population: England & Wales 2004 ... marked rise in ASB in adolescence. sex differences. males typically more AS than females ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Influences on antisocial behaviour in adolescence


1
Influences on antisocial behaviour in adolescence
  • Barbara Maughan
  • MRC SGDP Centre
  • Institute of Psychiatry
  • Kings College London

2
I would there were no age between 10 and 23, for
theres nothing in between but getting wenches
with child, wronging the ancestry, stealing,
fighting
  • Shakespeare
  • The Winters Tale

3
Offenders as a percentage of the
population England Wales 2004
Age 17
population
Males
Females
Age (years)
Social Trends 2006
4
Conduct Disorder diagnostic criteria
  • Aggression
  • bullying
  • fighting
  • weapon use
  • cruel to people, animals
  • stealing with confrontation
  • forced sex
  • Destruction of property
  • fire-setting
  • other destruction, vandalism
  • Deceitfulness / theft
  • breaking in (house, car)
  • lying
  • stealing
  • Serious rule violations
  • staying out late (before 13)
  • frequent truancy (before 13)
  • running away overnight

5
Rates of CD by age and gender(1999 ONS national
survey, n10,450)
Maughan et al, 2004
6
Which types of conduct problems increase?Great
Smoky Mountains Study
Non-aggressive
Aggressive
Rowe et al, 2004
7
Time trendsRutter Smith 1995
  • Evidence for
  • ..substantial increases in psychosocial
    disorders of youth since World War II
  • sudden increases, not continuation of earlier
    trends
  • juvenile crime, depression, alcohol drug use

8
National studies of adolescents
  • 1974 National Child Development Study
  • n10600
  • 1986 1970 British Birth Cohort
  • n7800
  • 1999 ONS Child Mental Health Survey
  • n870

9
Adolescent conduct problems high scores by
cohort
Adolescent cohort
Collishaw et al, 2004
10
What needs to be explained?
  • age trends
  • marked rise in ASB in adolescence
  • sex differences
  • males typically more AS than females
  • time trends
  • rates of adolescent ASB have risen
  • individual differences
  • only a minority of individuals involved

11
Moffitts developmental taxonomy
Adolescent onset
childhood onset / life course persistent
Age
Moffitt, 1993
12
Moffitts developmental taxonomy
  • Early-onset, persistent ASB
  • individually-based risks
  • neuro-cognitive deficits
  • undercontrolled temperament
  • personality weak constraint
  • hyperactivity
  • in interaction with
  • adverse family / parenting / environment
  • Adolescent onset ASB
  • individually-based risks less salient
  • ? normal rebelliousness
  • social factors more salient
  • influence of deviant peers
  • adolescent maturity gap

13
Age at menarche and achievement of psychosocial
maturity
Gluckman Hanson, 2006
14
Adolescent onset ASB
  • individually-based risks
  • genetic, neurocognitive - less salient
  • personality profile
  • lack of conventionality
  • social potency / dominance
  • excitement-seeking
  • peer influences
  • highly salient (NB treatment implications)
  • ? puberty and adolescent brain development
  • adult outcomes
  • less benign than anticipated
  • often some persistence in ASB
  • other traps / restricted opportunities

15
Puberty
  • Developmental domains with evidence of
    puberty-specific change
  • romantic motivation
  • sexual interest
  • changes in sleep / arousal regulation
  • appetite
  • risk for affective disorders in females
  • increase in risk-taking, novelty-seeking,
    sensation seeking (reward orientation)

Dahl, 2004
16
Adolescent brain development
  • steady increase in white matter, less regular
    decreases in grey matter
  • frontal and parietal cortices
  • areas and systems subserving executive functions
  • selective attention
  • decision making
  • planning
  • inhibiting impulses
  • ? perturbations in social perspective taking
  • ? brain more sensitive to experiential input

Blakemore Choudry, 2006
17
Affective and cognitive development in
adolescence
Early adolescence
Middle adolescence
Late adolescence
puberty heightens emotional arousability, sensatio
n seeking, reward orientation
heightened vulnerability to risk taking
problems in regulation of affect and behaviour
maturation of frontal lobes facilitates
regulatory competence
Steinberg 2005
18
Risk taking in adolescence and adulthood
Gardner Steinberg, 2005
19
Risk taking in adolescence and adulthood
Gardner Steinberg, 2005
20
Biosocial models of risk for antisocial behaviour
  • Evidence for biosocial interactions in relation
    to
  • genetic markers
  • psychophysiology
  • obstetric factors
  • brain imaging
  • neuropsychology
  • hormones

Raine, 2002
21
Biosocial interactions 1pubertal development
and hormones
22
Testosterone-behaviour links in boys
  • past studies mixed results
  • rise in circulating T during puberty
  • rise in male antisocial behaviour in adolescence
  • But
  • physical aggression decreases with age
  • is T associated with
  • non-aggressive conduct problems?
  • social dominance?
  • do effects vary by social context
  • family relationships?
  • peers?

23
Age trends in testosterone levelsGreat Smoky
Mountains Study
24
Age trends in deviant peer relationships
25
Which types of conduct problems increase?Great
Smoky Mountains Study
Non-aggressive
Aggressive
26
  • Aggressive conduct problems
  • no increase with age
  • no association with testosterone
  • Non-aggressive conduct problems
  • increase with age
  • association with deviant peers
  • independent association with testosterone
  • Pro-social leadership
  • association with testosterone

27
Testosterone, leadership and deviant peers
Testosterone levels ? Low ? Medium ?
High
p.002
p.06
ns
Rowe et al, 2004
28
Testosterone, non-aggressive conduct problems and
deviant peers
Testosterone levels ? Low ? Medium ?
High
p.002
ns
ns
Rowe et al, 2004
29
CD and Tanner stage girls
30
CD, Tanner stage and pubertal timing
31
Possible mechanisms
  • social
  • association with older / more deviant peers
  • psychosocial
  • developmentally inappropriate demands
  • immature coping capacities
  • genetic
  • pubertal timing heritable
  • ? shared genetic influences

32
Influences on conduct symptoms vary with timing
of menarche
Burt et al, 2006
33
Biosocial interactions 2Gene- environment
interactions (G x E)
  • Genetically influenced individual differences
    control sensitivity to an environmental risk
  • How to detect them?
  • Adoption studies genes and environments
    separated
  • Candidate genes

34
Maltreatment and MAOA genotypeDunedin
longitudinal cohort
  • the environmental risk
  • maltreatment before age 11 low, mild, severe
  • the gene
  • MAOA gene on the X chromosome (Xp11.23-11.4)
  • metabolizes neurotransmitters norepinephrine
    (NE), serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA)
  • genetic deficiencies in MAOA activity linked with
    aggression in mouse and man
  • the behavioural outcomes
  • 3 separate measures of antisocial behaviour
  • Conduct disorder ages 11-18
  • Aggressive personality age 26
  • Violent convictions age 26

35
Conduct disorder
Child maltreatment interacts with
genotype
MAOA activity
Low MAOA activity High MAOA
activity
conduct disorder
Child Maltreatment
Caspi et al., 2002 (Science)
36
Biosocial interactions 3 G x E environments
moderate heritability
Button et al, 2005
37
Gene-environment interactionenvironments
moderate heritability
Heritability
Button et al, 2005
38
Gene-environment interactionenvironments
moderate heritability
Individual environment
Heritability
Shared environment
Button et al, 2005
39
Genetic and environmental influences Variations
by level of family dysfunction
High family dysfunction
No family dysfunction
Shared environment 0
Genes 0
Shared environment 25
Individual environment 20
Genes 80
Individual environment 75
Button et al, 2005
40
What promotes desistance from offending?
  • turning points in development
  • attachment to adult social bonds
  • marriage
  • employment

Sampson Laub, 1993
41
What promotes desistance from offending?
  • family
  • low physical punishment in adolescence
  • peers
  • low peer substance use
  • good relationships with peers
  • attitudes / cognitions
  • believes likely to be caught
  • job skills
  • social bonds
  • in employment / education

Stouthamer-Loeber et al, 2005
42
Time trends what might contribute?
  • Changing economic social conditions
  • (largely improved)
  • Changes in relative inequalities
  • Changing family patterns
  • parental divorce, single parenthood
  • Changes in broader social influences
  • social attitudes / expectations
  • meaning of adolescence
  • moral beliefs
  • exposure to media violence, targeted
    advertising, etc

43
Domains of risk for adolescent antisocial
behaviour
  • genetic
  • including G-E interactions and correlations
  • biological
  • puberty and adolescent brain development
  • psychological
  • processing of experiences
  • social cognitions
  • social
  • social attitudes and values
  • poverty and social disadvantage
  • neighbourhood and school
  • family and parenting
  • peers
  • interactions among all of the above

44
Influences on antisocial behaviour in adolescence
  • Barbara Maughan
  • MRC SGDP Centre
  • Institute of Psychiatry
  • Kings College London

45
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