Store small solid-state electronics having Field Effec - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Store small solid-state electronics having Field Effec PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 14570-OTU1M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Store small solid-state electronics having Field Effec

Description:

Store small solid-state electronics having Field Effect Transistors (FET) or ... Moderate cost, about $30 at Home Depot. ... 90% in just the first 7 hours. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:95
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 53
Provided by: arlin3
Learn more at: http://www.w4ava.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Store small solid-state electronics having Field Effec


1
Arlington County ACS-RACESOperator Type III
Annual RecertificationUnit 1
  • Disaster Survival Skills
  • for the Urban
  • Environment
  • 1

2
OBJECTIVES
  • Why teach survival in the city?
  • Catastrophes vs. disasters
  • This is about your SURVIVAL, not volunteering
  • Priorities for human survival
  • Break-out sessions
  • Shelter construction
  • Fire making
  • Signaling
  • Equipment and supplies
  • Social implications of disasters
  • Personal security concerns

2
3
Disaster versus Catastrophe
  • Disasters are short term
  • Make do for 3-4 days until help arrives
  • Catastrophic events are long term
  • Katrina-scale hurricane, tsunami, earthquake
  • Major terror attack, nuclear detonation, dirty
    bomb
  • No help is coming soon, you are on your own
  • Why?
  • Complete loss of civil infrastructure
  • Minimal or no police, fire or EMS response
  • No electricity, municipal water, communications
  • Transport of fuel / food is severely impaired
  • Public safety agencies will be overwhelmed
  • Recovery is long term (over 30 days)

3
4
What the military survival schools teachSeven
Priorities For Survival Hope for the best, but
prepare for the worst
  • Positive mental attitude
  • First Aid / Sanitation
  • Shelter
  • Signaling
  • Fire
  • Water
  • Food

http//www.equipped.com/fm21-76.htm
4
5
Positive Mental AttitudeSituational awareness,
basic knowledge and a survivors mindset
enable you to cope effectively
  • STOP
  • Calm down, and size up your situation
  • THINK
  • Anticipate which hazards are most likely
  • Take stock of materials and resources around you
  • OBSERVE
  • Orient yourself to your surroundings
  • PLAN
  • Select equipment and supplies appropriately
  • ACT!
  • Execute the plan, evaluate progress, adjust, go
    on.

5
6
DISASTER PREPAREDNESS
  • Have an evacuation kit ready at all times
  • Don't presume that a disaster will be short-term
  • Pack essentials first, then consider comfort
    items
  • In real emergences, forget last-minute purchases
  • Plan for more supplies than you think you may
    need
  • Inspect / renew your supplies each spring and
    fall
  • Provide entertainment for young children.

6
7
WHEN IT HITS THE FAN Use these six steps in
problem solving
  • Size Up ...your Situation
  • Determine... Objectives (stay or evacuate?)
  • Identify ...Resources (either stored supplies or
    salvaged materials from your surroundings)
  • Evaluate Options (use the safest way)
  • Build ...an action Plan (use your head)
  • Take ...Action
  • re-evaluate your action plan, adapt, improvise
    and overcome!

7
8
FIRST AID AND SANITATION
  • Maintain personal and family health
  • Prompt treatment reduces infection risk
  • Sanitation reduces risk of disease vectors
  • Water borne illnesses, diarrhea
  • Major cause of dehydration
  • Increases your survivability!

8
9
Disaster Injury Risk Factors
  • Tool / equipment hazards, risk of hand, eye,
    head injuries, electric shock, chemical burns
  • Human factors, stress / fatigue
  • Structural instability
  • Trauma risk, falls, building collapse potential
  • Terrain, loose rock, fallen limbs, wet or
    insecure footing, risk of falls, puncture wounds
    and lacerations from debris.

9
10
Disaster Contamination
  • Stagnant surface water
  • Mosquito breeding
  • Contaminated flood waters
  • Sewage treatment system overflow
  • Petroleum, industrial, agricultural chemical
    contamination
  • Airborne contaminant plumes
  • Smoke, dust, toxic gases,
  • or radioactive fallout.

10
11
SHELTER
  • Protection from the elements
  • Wind and rain resistant
  • Insulation from cold

11
12
The Stay or Evacuate DecisionIf evacuation is
not mandatory, the same safety rules for entering
a structure apply to using your home as shelter
  • DO NOT OCCUPY IF
  • There is structural damage
    (6 sides of the box are not plumb)
  • Utilities cannot be controlled
  • Structure was damaged in a fire

DO NOT occupy a floor that has been flooded, mold
grows fast!
12
13
EVACUATION PLANNING
  • Its usually best to relocate with friends or
    relatives who live outside of the affected area
  • Don't rely on government-run shelters
  • They are an option of last resort for those
    unable to evacuate
  • Evacuation route selection is important
  • Make sure your vehicle can carry essentials
  • A huge bug-out vehicle is a handicap on crowded
    roads
  • It uses more fuel, which may be expensive /
    scarce in an emergency.
  • Don't plan on fuel being available en route
  • In normal times always keep your gas tank at
    least half full
  • Upon warning an event is imminent, conserve fuel,
    keep tank ¾ full
  • Carry extra fuel containers outside the vehicle

13
14
FROM NATIONAL THREAT SCENARIO Nuclear Detonation
10-Kiloton Improvised Nuclear
Devicehttp//iis-db.stanford.edu/pubs/21872/DayA
fterWorkshopReport.pdf
  • An attack may
  • be single or up to a dozen detonations
  • - on specific or random targets.
  • be an act of a non-state
  • -, i.e. a terrorist group such as Al Qaeda.
  • be threatened to trigger a political result,
  • - bend will of the people.
  • involve either a detonation (fission/fusion)
  • - or release via a Radiological Dispersal Device
    (RDD)
  • occur all in one attack
  • or recur over a period of weeks, months, years.

15
LOW YIELD WEAPON EFECTS
  • Contamination from a Radiological Dispersal
    Device (RDD) would cover up to a few hundred
    acres with low-level radioactive material
  • http//www.bt.cdc.gov/radiation/pdf/dirtyb
    ombs.pdf
  • A nuclear detonation would affect large areas
    (10-100 sq. miles) damaged by direct effects and
    100s to 1,000s of sq. miles with radioactive
    fallout.
  • http//www.nti.org/e_research/cnwm/overview/techn
    ical3.asp?printtrue
  • Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) a terrorist attack
    would most likely be a small device lt10 kilotons
    yield, EMP effect of a ground burst would be
    mostly within the Moderate Damage Radius, but
    also propagated by conductors such as power and
    telephone lines, railroad tracks, pipelines, etc.
    http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_pu
    lse

16
EMP Precautions
  • Disconnect electronics from conductors (AC mains
    and antennas)
  • Store small solid-state electronics having Field
    Effect Transistors (FET) or other integrated
    circuits (IC) in a Faraday Cage (an unplugged
    microwave oven)
  • Construct EMP-resistant containers constructed
    with a continuously sealed metal barrier (foil
    covered cardboard boxes)
  • Most susceptible to EMP damage are automobiles
    with onboard "computers" which control essential
    functions.

17
EVACUATION
  • Feasible only if all personnel can evacuate
    before fallout contamination arrives and
  • Essential functions for Continuity of Operations
    are transferred to an alternate facility
  • Affected area would have to be small and warning
    time adequate to execute the evacuation
  • Detonation effects (blast/thermal/EMP) will
    likely impede evacuation
  • Evacuees may be exposed and/or contaminated.

18
Evacuate or Stay Decision?Conclusion from FEMA
Urban-Rural Evacuation State Planners Workshop
Sept. 2006
  • Given
  • ? Population of the DC Metro area
  • ? Propensity to self-evacuate, overwhelmingly
  • by automobile
  • ? Wide distribution of evacuation destinations,
  • ? Perceived vulnerability to terror attack,
  • and anticipation of multiple attacks
  • Result
  • ? A large-scale, chaotic mass self-evacuation
    should be anticipated.

19
SHELTER IN PLACE
  • Critical facilities that cannot evacuate
    (hospitals, EOCs) must continue to operate
  • Necessary if fallout/contamination would arrive
    before evacuation can be completed
  • Fallout Shelters will be needed to protect
    against high level radiation/detonation
  • Shelter-in-place (not necessarily Fallout
    Shelter) near RDD/very low level
  • Shelter stay may range from a few days to 2
    weeks.
  • Authorities outside affected area can organize
    rescue/evacuation effort
  • Shelter occupants may be exposed and/or
    contaminated.

20
SHELTER IN PLACE
  • Necessary if operations can not be transferred or
    if staff, patients or clients cannot evacuate
  • Necessary if needed to support operations of
    other response agencies
  • Must have Radiological Monitoring Exposure
    Control capabilities
  • Critical Facilities may be used to shelter
    families of the staff
  • Critical Facilities will not be used to shelter
    the general public.

21
DECONTAMINATION after a flood or attackStart
immediately, even if you dont know what the
agent is.
  • Sandia decontamination foam (US Patent 6,566,574
    B1) sold
  • as Scott's Liquid Gold Mold Control 500 in
    hardware stores.
  • Is effective against most chemical and
  • biological agents, including nerve, blister,
  • anthrax, SARS, Norwalk, avian and common
    flu.
  • Widely used for hospital /hotel sanitization
  • mold remediation in commercial buildings,
  • cleaning / neutralizing agricultural
    sprayers.
  • Moderate cost, about 30 at Home Depot.
  • http//www.sandia.gov/news/resources/releases/200
    7/moldcontrol.html

22
EXPEDIENT FIELD DECONTAMINATIONif you are
contaminated
  • Remove everything, including jewelry
  • Cut off clothing normally removed over the head
  • Place contaminated clothing in plastic bag, tie
    closed
  • Wash your hands before using them to shower
  • Flush entire body with cool water
  • Blot dry with absorbent cloth
  • Put on clean clothes
  • Avoid use of affected areas, to prevent
    re-exposure
  • If professional help arrives, report to
    responders for thorough decontamination and
    medical assessment.

23
NUCLEAR ATTACK ISSUES
  • Structural damage to shelter from nearby
    detonation
  • Fire in the shelter
  • Dangerously high radiation levels
  • Severely high temperatures and humidity
  • Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide imbalance in the
    shelter
  • Depletion of essential supplies
  • Disease and injury
  • Unrest, anxiety, crime or defiance of order or
    authority

24
Substantial barriers offer best protection
Time - Fallout radiation intensity decays
rapidly 90 in just the first 7 hours. The less
time you spend in a radiation field, the less
dose received. Distance - The farther you are
from a source, the less dose you
receive. Shielding - Denser (heavier, massive)
materials absorb more radiation. Greater
thickness of any given material absorbs more
radiation.
25
Protection Factors Mass of Materials
PF Protection Factor refers to the ratio
between the radiation dose rate of the OUTSIDE to
that INSIDE the shelter, for instance a PF 10
means that the inside dose rate is 1/10th the
outside rate.
How Much
Protection? PF Lead Steel Concrete
Earth Water Wood 2 .3"" .7" 2.0"
3.3" 5" 9" 4 .5" 1.5" 5.0"
7.0" 10" 15" 8 1.0" 2.0" 6.5"
10.0" 15" 27" 16 1.2" 3.0" 9.0"
14.0" 20" 3 ft 32 1.5" 4.0" 12.0" 15.0" 2
ft 4 ft 64 2.0" 4.2" 13.2" 19.8" 2.5ft
4.5 ft 128 2.1" 5.0" 15.0" 2 ft 3 ft
5 ft 1000 3.0" 7.0" 22.0" 33.0" 4 ft
- 2000 3.3" 7.7" 2 ft 3 ft 4.5 ft
- Outside radiation, divided by the Protection
Factor, is reduced in proportion. For example,
if the outside radiation rate is 1,000 R/hr, a
person shielded by 3 ft. of earth would receive a
dose rate of .5 R/hr. but a person shielded by 1
ft of earth would receive about 10 R/hr.
26
IMPROVE HOME FALLOUT PROTECTIONIncrease
shielding by
  • 1) Plan / improvise vents, ventilation 2
    entrances.
  • 2) Add wooden shoring supports below each story.
  • 3) Add up to 12 maximum dirt on upper
    floors/roof.
  • 4) Cover window opening with plywood sheeting.
  • 5) Pile dirt to ceiling height along outside
    walls windows.

27
Sheltering at Home During an Emergency For using
a building without working utilities as shelter
  • Exhaust candles, camp stoves, lanterns,
    generators, heaters, charcoal grills, all
    generate carbon monoxide and must not be used
    indoors!
  • Open flame above ignition sources must never be
    left unattended!
  • Fuel most of the above require flammable fuels
    to operate, which must be stored outdoors.
  • Use Fire Marshal approved fuel containers

14
28
Generator Safety Tips From the U.S. Consumer
Product Safety Commission
http//www.cpsc.gov/cpscpub/pubs/portgen.pdf
  • Carbon monoxide hazard!
  • Never use indoors or in attached garages!
  • Set up OUTDOORS in well ventilated, dry area
  • Away from open windows or HVAC air intakes
  • Under a canopy, open shed or carport
  • Electrocution Hazard!
  • Ground both the generator and equipment!
  • Plug only individual devices into generator
  • DO NOT connect into household AC!
  • UL-rated cords of gage adequate for load
  • Explosion / fire hazard!
  • Fuel vapors traveling along the ground can be
    ignited by switching equipment or appliance pilot
    lights!

29
Improvised Emergency SheltersAs in all real
estate, most important is location
  • Avoid low spots with poor drainage
  • Seek a gently sloped area so that surface water
    drains away
  • Sheltered from prevailing winds
  • Away from bodies of water (attracts insects and
    animals)
  • Insulated from direct contact with ground, rock,
    or concrete, which conducts away body heat.

15
30
Avoid as shelter
  • Areas around downed utility lines
  • In or near culverts
  • Within the collapse zone of a damaged building
  • (maintain 21 ratio of distance away to building
    height)

16
31
Improvised Shelters
  • Sheds
  • Tents
  • Tarps
  • Vehicles

17
32
Dont disable a good car!
  • Remove car batteries to power communications and
    shelter lighting only from cars that do not start
  • If a car starts reserve it for emergency
    evacuation, or
  • Use it as a battery charger
  • Salvage lighting, remove dome lights, tail
    lights, trunk lights, etc. with at least 36 of
    wires.
  • Position batteries in shelter attach wires
    lights
  • As batteries discharge, replace with new
    batteries or recharge batteries.

33
Emergency Shelter MaterialsSalvage building
materials from debris or from damaged structures
only when it can be done safely
  • TYVEK building wrap
  • Plastic sheeting
  • Roofing paper and shingles
  • Siding, plywood
  • Chain link fence
  • Lumber
  • Carpeting
  • Wire, rope, and fasteners

18
34
Build Your Shelter In Layers
  • Structural framing, lumber, plywood, fencing,
    metal
  • Fasteners, reinforce structural connections with
    nails, wire or rope ties, wooden spikes
  • Water and wind proofing, TYVEK, plastic
    sheeting, tarp, shingles, roofing paper
  • Insulation, drywall, leaves, tree branches,
    carpeting, (may also be used as ballast to
    hold water/wind proofing layer in place)

19
35
SIGNALLING
  • Day
  • Mirror flashes best daylight signal device
  • Smoke
  • Brightly colored cloth flag / panel (VS-17)
  • ICAO surface-to-air signals
  • Night
  • Flashing strobe light
  • Fire
  • Signal flares
  • Sound
  • Whistle, vehicle horn

http//www.bestglide.com/VS17_Signal_Panel.html ?
?
V Require assistance X Need medical
assistance Y Yes - affirmative N No -
negative ? I am proceeding in this
direction
20
36
Signal Mirror
  • Simple, inexpensive, effective
  • Doesnt rely on batteries or pyrotechnics
  • Visible from 5 to 10 miles in daylight

21
37
FIRE
  • Maintains body temperature
  • Great morale booster
  • Deters wild animals and insects
  • Boils water
  • Cooks food
  • Used as day (smoke)
  • or night (light) signal

22
38
Fire making methods
  • Matches or lighter
  • Flint and steel
  • Use cotton ball and petroleum jelly as tinder
  • Battery and steel wool
  • Burning lens

http//www.ehow.com/how_18193_make-fire-starters.h
tml
23
39
WATER
  • Minimum for drinking
  • 1 gallon per person, per day
  • More water is needed for
  • Cooking and food preparation
  • Personal hygiene, sanitation and decontamination
  • Store a two week supply as minimum
  • Food grade containers with screw caps
  • Away from direct sunlight

24
40
Emergency Water Sources
  • Captive water in household hot water tank and
    interior plumbing is OK
  • Filter cloudy water to remove particulates, using
    an EPA-rated filter with a pore size 1 micron,
    then
  • Disinfect with Clorox (6 sodium hypochlorite)
    add 8 drops of bleach per gallon if clear, 16
    drops if cloudy, let water stand 15 minutes
    before use
  • Or boil vigorously for 15 minutes
  • Store potable water in clean containers.

25
41
All surface water is contaminated!
  • All natural sources (from springs, ponds, rivers
    or streams) must be boiled or chemically
    disinfected.
  • Chemical disinfection or boiling
  • Kills bacteria and viruses
  • Doesnt remove particulates or chemical
    pollutants
  • Filtration
  • Coffee filters, etc. remove gross particulates
    only
  • EPA-rated filters (pore size is smaller than 1
    micron) are needed to remove bacteria, viruses
    and Giardia cysts, but dont remove chemical
    pollutants.
  • Distillation is the most effective method.

26
42
FOOD
  • Lowest of the seven survival priorities
  • Need is mostly mental, because we are used to
    eating regularly
  • Healthy people will do OK without food for a week
    or more, if they are well hydrated
  • Balanced nutrition is a more important health
    factor for elderly and infants.

27
43
Shelf life of foods stored in the home
  • Food in a refrigerator is safe for a day after
    the power goes off, either use it in 24 hours or
    throw it away
  • Frozen food is safe if there are still ice
    crystals, once thawed, cook and consume it within
    24 hours
  • Next use non-perishables and dry staples
  • Canned foods are best for long term storage (up
    to 4 years) but are heavy to transport and bulky
    to store
  • Dry packaged foods are easiest to transport
  • Choose foods requiring minimal preparation
  • Eat at least one balanced meal daily
  • Include nutritional supplements in supplies
  • Drink enough water.

28
44
Emergency Food supplies
  • MREs, or Heater Meals
  • Prepared survival rations
  • Primitive survival methods
  • Fishing
  • Hunting
  • Trapping
  • Foraging

29
45
TOOLS and EQUIPMENT
  • Folding utility knife or multi-tool
  • Scout type, Leatherman, Swiss Army or Mil-K-818
  • Manual can opener
  • Sturdy fixed blade
  • For chopping, digging, or as pry bar
  • Shovel
  • Hand saw
  • Axe

?
30
46
OTHER SUPPLIESEach person should have their own
backpack of personal essentials
  • Flashlight
  • Portable radio
  • Extra batteries
  • First Aid Kit, (containing a first aid manual)
  • Personal medications and sanitation supplies
  • Cooking and eating utensils
  • Wool blanket or sleeping bag for each person
  • Sturdy shoes and extra socks
  • Rain gear
  • Change of warm clothing and underwear
  • Items for special needs, care of infants

31
47
DISASTER FINANCIAL PLANNING
http//www.redcross.org/services/disaster/beprepar
ed/FinRecovery/FinPlan/
  • Electronic transactions, account verifications
    may be impossible
  • Evacuate with enough cash for at least two weeks
    of essentials
  • Carry account numbers, contact addresses and
    telephone numbers for all important persons and
    institutions
  • Helping one's unprepared friends and neighbors
    may prove expensive!

32
48
SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF DISASTERS Cumulative
psychological effects upon survivors
  • Evacuate or Stay? Do you have a plan?
  • Where will you go? Is it safe to travel? Can you
    REALLY get there? Do you have enough resources
    to make it work?
  • Warn friends not to invite others to come and
    evacuate with them
  • Theyll overwhelm your limited resources!
  • Never allow family members to be separated
  • Even if it means waiting for later rescue and/or
    evacuation
  • The well prepared may be threatened by those who
    weren't get to know your neighbors NOW for a
    safer community later in case of a disaster
  • Make plans to ensure neighborhood security/family
    protection
  • Post a guard in rotating shifts, to deter roving
    criminals or looters
  • Keep firearms and ammunition safely secured
  • Take a home firearms safety-protection course

33
49
Lessons from Hurricane KatrinaWhen help arrives,
you may get it .whether you want it or not.
  • Don't believe that all rescuers will respect your
    property
  • Relief workers from other States often don't know
    local laws
  • Relief organizations have their own bureaucratic
    requirements that may conflict with your needs
  • Expect frustration over lack of communication and
    empathy by rescuers and local/State government.

50
IN CONCLUSION
  • Positive attitude Stop Think Observe Plan
  • First Aid / Sanitation Maintain proper
    hygiene, preserve family health, and prevent
    illness or injury
  • Shelter Protection from environmental hazards
  • Signaling / Communication- be heard / seen
  • Fire Warmth, light, food prep, water
    sterilization
  • Water Prevent water-borne illnesses through
    filtration, chemical sterilization, boiling or
    distillation
  • Food Eat at least one balanced meal daily,
    drink enough water, include nutritional
    supplements
  • Equipment- Flashlight, knife, saw, axe, shovel
  • Planning Prepare a Kit, Make A Plan!
    www.Ready.gov

51
Sources for further information
  • http//www.fema.gov/txt/library/fweb.txt
  • http//www.vaemergency.com/prepare/planning/index.
    cfm
  • http//www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/housing/356-479/356-479
    .html
  • http//www.dhmh.state.md.us/psa/riskmgt/disastersu
    pplies.htm
  • http//solutionsforyourlife.ufl.edu/disaster_prep/
  • http//www.dougritter.com/home.htm
  • http//www.domprep.com/legacy/dpjournal/DPJournal0
    607.pdf
  • http//www.domprep.com/Resilience/Resilience_Tips/
  • http//www.cityofmemphis.org/pdf_forms/dirtyBlast.
    pdf
  • http//www.bt.cdc.gov/radiation/dirtybombs.asp
  • http//www.oism.org/nwss/s73p926.htm
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Survival_skills
  • http//www.nrahq.org/education/training/find.asp?S
    tateVATypeHFS

52
Acknowledgements
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Fairfax County Fire Rescue Department
  • Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
  • Huntsville-Madison County, Alabama, EMA
  • Doug Ritter
  • Derek Rowan
  • Steve Willey
  • University of Florida IFAS Extension
  • Virginia Cooperative Extension Service
  • Virginia Department of Emergency Management
  • Virginia Department of Health
  • Virginia RACES, Incorporated
About PowerShow.com