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Physics potential of a luminosity upgraded LHC

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1. D. Denegri, SLHC talk, CMS-France, March 2006. Physics potential of ... Journees CMS France, 29 - 31 Mars 2006. Mont Sainte Odile, Alsace. aspects discussed: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Physics potential of a luminosity upgraded LHC


1
Journees CMS France, 29 - 31 Mars 2006 Mont
Sainte Odile, Alsace
Physics potential of a luminosity upgraded LHC
(SLHC at 1035 cm-2 s-1)
D. Denegri,
CE Saclay/DAPNIA/SPP
aspects discussed - machine -
detectors - physics
2
LHC - first years
3
Probable/possible LHC luminosity profile - longer
term
L 1033
L 1034
SLHC L 1035
4
Physics potential of the LHC at 1035 cm-2 s-1
(SLHC)
What improvements in the physics reach operating
the LHC at a luminosity of 1035 cm-2 s-1 with
an integrated luminosity 1000 fb-1per year at
vs 14 TeV i.e. retaining present LHC
magnets/dipoles - an upgrade at a
relatively modest cost for machine experiments
(lt 0.5 GSF) for 2013-15
a more ambitious upgrade (but 2-3 GSF!) would
be to go for a vs 30 TeV machine changing LHC
dipoles (16T, Nb3Sn?) - not discussed here
- expected modifications/adaptations of LHC and
experiments/CMS, - improvements in some basic SM
measurements and in SM/MSSM Higgs reach -
improvements in reach at high mass scales, main
motivations for an upgrade i.e exploit
maximally the existing machine and detectors
5
Nominal LHC and possible upgrades
Nominal LHC 7 TeV beams, - injection energy
450 GeV, 2800 bunches, spacing 7.5 m (25ns) -
1.1 1011 protons per bunch, b at IP 0.5 m
? 1034 cm-2 s-1 (lumi-lifetime 10h)
Possible upgrades/steps considered -increase up
to 1.7 1011 protons per bunch (beam-beam limit)
? 21034 cm-2 s-1 - increase operating field
from 8.3T to 9T (ultimate field) ? vs 15
TeV minor hardware changes to LHC insertions
or injectors - modify insertion quadrupoles
(larger aperture) for b 0.5 ? 0.25 m -
increase crossing angle 300 mrad ? 424 mrad -
halving bunch spacing (12.5 nsec), with new RF
system

? L 5 1034 cm-2 s-1 major hardware
changes in arcs or injectors - SPS equipped
with superconducting magnets to inject at 1 TeV
? L 1035 cm-2 s-1 - new superconducting
dipoles at B 16 Tesla for beam energy 14TeV
i.e. vs 28 TeV
6
Nominal LHC and possible upgrades (II)
  • increase operating field from 8.3T to 9T
  • (ultimate field)
  • ? vs
    15 TeV

major hardware changes in arcs or injectors -
SPS equipped with superconducting magnets to
inject at 1 TeV ?
Luminosity increase by factor 2 - new
superconducting dipoles at B 16 Tesla
(Nb3Sn?) for beam energy 14TeV i.e.
vs 28
TeV Last step would be very expensive2 - 3 GSF.
7
CMS areas affected by luminosity upgrade
8
Shielding between machine and HF
Basic functions of the shielding elements between
the machine area and HF are -reduce the neutron
flux in the cavern by 3 orders of
magnitude -reduce the background rate in the
outer muon spectrometer (MB4, ME3,ME4) by 3
orders of magnitude -reduce the radiation level
at the HF readout boxes to a tolerable level .
Rotating system is near the limits of mechanical
strength,new concept or supplementary system
around existing RS needed for SLHC
running, time needed to open and close CMS would
increase significantly (1 week per shutdown)
9
CMS longitudinal view/ modifications considered
for SLHC - yoke and forward
End cap yoke for SLHC, muon acceptance up to h?
2
Reinforced shielding inside forward muons,
replacement of inner CSC and RPCs Supplement
YE4 wall with borated polythene
Improve shielding of HF PMTs
Possibly increase YE1-YE2 separation to insert
another detector layer?
10
Experimental conditions at 1035 cm-2 s-1 (12.5ns)
- considerations for tracker and calorimetry
100 pile-up events per bunch crossing - if 12.5
nsec bunch spacing (with adequate/faster
electronics, reduced integration time) -
compared to 20 for operation at 1034cm-2s-1
and 25 nsec (nominal LHC regime),
dnch/dh/crossing 600 and 3000
tracks in tracker acceptance
H ? ZZ ? eemm, mH 300 GeV, in CMS
Generated tracks, pt gt 1 GeV/c cut, i.e. all
soft tracks removed!
I. Osborne
1035cm-2s-1
1032cm-2s-1
If same granularity and integration time as now
tracker occupancy and radiation dose in central
detectors increases by factor 10, pile-up noise
in calorimeters by 3 relative to 1034
11
Inner CMStracking for SLHC
From R.Horisberger
  • Pixels to much larger radius
  • Technology and Pixel size vary with radius
  • Not too large an extrapolation in sensor
    technology
  • Cost/Geometry optimization

12
Foreseeable changes (overview)to detectors for
1035cm-2s-1
  • changes to CMS and ATLAS
  • Trackers, to be replaced due to increased
    occupancy
  • to maintain performance, need improved
    radiation
  • hardness for sensors and electronics
  • - present Si-strip technology is OK at R gt 60
    cm
  • - present pixel technology is OK for the
    region 20 lt R lt 60 cm
  • - at smaller radii(lt10cm) new techniques
    required
  • Calorimeters OK
  • - endcap HCAL scintillators in CMS to be
    changed
  • - endcap ECAL VPTs and electronics may not
    be
  • enough radiation hard
  • - desirable to improve granularity of very
  • forward calorimeters - for jet tagging
  • Muon systems OK
  • - acceptance reduced to h lt 2.0
  • to reinforce forward shielding
  • Trigger(L1), largely to be replaced,
  • L1(trig.elec. and processor)
  • for 80 MHz data sampling

VF calorimeter for jet tagging
13
Compact NbTi quadrupoles, 70 mm aperture To be
inserted in CMS and ATLAS to reduce L
With iron 160 T/m F 250 mm F 340 mm including
cryostat No stray field outside cold mass
Saturated iron 145 T/m F 160 mm F 250 mm
including cryostat Stray field outside cold mass
80 mm cold mass
125 mm cold mass
For higher gradients (200 T/m with NbTi 275 T/m
with Nb3Sn) cryostat dimensions will increase
beyond 400 mm
14
Forward jet tagging at 1035 cm-2 s-1
Forward jet tagging needed to improve S/B in VB
fusion/scattering processes pp ? qqH, qqVV
.if still of interest/relevant in 2015!
Cone size 0.2
SLHC regime
tagging jet
LHC regime
with present ATLAS granularity
cut at gt 400 GeV
? Method should still work at 1035 increase
forward calo granularity, reduce jet
reconstruction cone from 0.4 to 0.2, optimise
jet algorithms to minimize false jets
15
Cost Summary/CMS/SLHC
from J.Nash
These costs do not include CERN staff required
for upgrade work
16
Expectations for detector performances at 1035
cm-2 s-1 - overview
  • Electron identification and rejections against
    jets, Et 40 GeV, ATLAS full simulation
  • Electron resolution degradation due to pile-up,
    at 30 GeV 2.5 (LHC) ? 3.5 (SLHC)
  • b-jet tagging performance rejection against
    u-jets for a 50 b-tagging efficiency

Preliminary study, ATLAS
  • performance degradation at 1035 factor of 8 -
    2 depending on Et
  • increase (pixel) granularity!
  • Forward jet tagging and central jet vetoing
    still possible - albeit at reduced efficiencies
    reducing the cone size to 0.2
    probability of fake double forward tag is 1
    for Ejet gt 300 GeV (h gt 2)
    probability of 5 for additional central jet
    for Et gt 50 GeV (h lt 2)

17
ew physics, triple gauge boson couplings
Correlations among parameters
In the SM TGC uniquely fixed, extensions to SM
induce deviations
  • At LHC the best channels are Wg ? Ing
  • and WZ ? lnll

Wg
WZ
5 parameters describe these TGCsg1Z (1 in SM),
Dkz, Dkg, ?g, ?z (all 0 in SM)Wg final state
probes Dkg, ?g??and WZ probes g1Z, Dkz, ?z
WZ
  • TGCs a case where a luminosity increase by a
    factor 10 is better than a center-of-mass energy
    increase by a factor 2

WZ
SLHC can bring sensitivity to ?g, ?z and g1Z to
the 0.001 level (of SM rad.corrections)
18
Higgs physics - new modes/larger reach
  • Increased statistics would allow
  • to look for modes not observable at the LHC for
    example
  • HSM? Zg (BR 10-3), HSM ? mm- (BR 10-4) -
    the muon collider mode!
  • H? ? mn
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????????
  • in channels like
  • A/H ? m??? A/H ? ??? ? m??? A/H ? ??? ?
    ???????????
  • A/H ? ???????? ? 4 ?????????

to check couplings HSM, H ? etc masses well
known by this time!
Specific example for a new mode ? HSM ?
mm-?????? 120 lt MH lt 140 GeV, LHC (600
fb-1) significance lt 3.5s,

SLHC (two exps, 3000 fb-1each) 7s
19
H ? mn? ??a ????MSSM ????????????
? under study
not observable at LHC with 300 fb-1
gives m(H)
Comparison of these two rates should give
gHtn/gHmn mt/mm?? ? ????????f??????????????? ?
mfermion
  • Preliminary results (R. Kinnunen)
  • for m(H) 400 GeV, tgb 40, 1000 fb-1
  • s(H) 219 fb (T. Plehn), BR 0.00049, sBR
    0.073fb
  • for ptm gt 100 GeV, Etmiss gt 150 GeV, muon
    isolation,
  • W mass,
  • one b-jet tag, veto on 4th central jet
  • 5 events left, no bkgd from tt and Wjets -
    hopeful!
  • (more studies of bkgd needed)

20
SLHC improved reach for heavy MSSM Higgs bosons
The order of magnitude increase in statistics
with the SLHC should allow to extend the
discovery domain for massive MSSM Higgs bosons
A,H,H
example A/H ? tt ? lepton t-jet, produced in
bbA/H
Peak at the 5s limit of observability at the LHC
greatly improved at SLHC, fast simulation,
preliminary

  • LHC
  • 60 fb-1

S. Lehti
?SLHC 1000 fb-1
? SLHC 1000 fb-1
gain in reach
b-tagging performance comparable to present one
required!
21
Higgs pair production and Higgs self coupling
Higgs pair production can proceed through two
Higgs bosons radiated independently (from VB,
top) and from trilinear self-coupling terms
proportional to ?HHHSM
?HHHSM
.
triple H coupling ?HHHSM 3mH2/v
cross sections for Higgs boson pair production in
various production mechanisms and sensitivity to
lHHH variations
very small cross sections, hopeless at LHC
(1034), some hope at SLHC channel investigated,
170 lt mH lt 200 GeV (ATLAS)
gg ? HH ? W W W W ? lnjj lnjj with
same-sign dileptons - very difficult!
total cross section and ?HHH determined with
25 statistical error for 6000 fb-1 provided
detector performances are comparable to present
LHC detectors
?
arrows correspond to variations of ?HHH from 1/2
to 3/2 of its SM value
22
WZ vector resonance in VB scattering
If no Higgs found, possibly a new strong
interaction regime in VLVL scattering, resonant
or not this could become the central issue at
the SLHCexample with a resonant model
Vector resonance (r-like) in WLZL scattering from
Chiral Lagrangian model M 1.5 TeV, leptonic
final states, 300 fb-1 (LHC) vs 3000 fb-1 (SLHC)
lepton cuts pt1 gt 150 GeV, pt2 gt 100 GeV, pt3 gt
50 GeV Etmiss gt 75 GeV
These studies require both forward jet tagging
and central jet vetoing! Expected (degraded)
SLHC performance is included
Note event numbers!
at SLHC S/?B 10
at LHC S 6.6 events, B 2.2 events
23
SUSY at SLHC/VLHC - mass reach
  • Higher integrated luminosity brings an obvious
    increase in mass reach in squark, gluino
    searches, i.e. in SUSY discovery potential
  • not too demanding on detectors as very high Et
    jets, Etmiss are involved, large pile-up not so
    detrimental

with SLHC the SUSY reach is increased by 500
GeV, up to 3 TeV in squark and gluino masses
(and up to 4 TeV for VLHC)
SLHC
  • the advantage of increased statistics
  • should be in the sparticle spectrum
    reconstruction
  • possibilities, larger fraction of spectrum,
  • requires detectors of comparable performance
  • to present ones

Notice advantage of a 28 TeV machine.
24
SUSY at SLHC - importance of statistics
Reach vs luminosity, jets Etmiss channel
Reach means a gt 5s excess of events over known
(SM)backgrounds discovering SUSY is one thing,
understanding what is seen requires much more
statistics!
Compare for ex. 100 fb-1 reach and sparticle
reconstruction stat limited at 100 fb-1 at point
G (tgb 20), as many topologies required,
leptons, b-tagging

This is domain where SLHC statistics may be
decisive! but LHC-type detector performance
needed
25
New gauge bosons, Z ? ???? reach at SLHC
Additional heavy gauge bosons (W, Z-like) are
expected in various extensions of the SM
symmetry group (LR, ALR, E6, SO(10)..),
LHC discovery potential for Z ?
mm?????????????????????
Examples of Z peaks in some models
? SLHC 1000 fb-1
? LHC 100 fb-1
LHC reach 4.0 TeV with 100 fb-1
full CMS simulation, nominal LHC luminosity
regime
1.0 TeV
gain in reach 1.0 TeV i.e. 25-30 in going from
LHC to SLHC
26
Extra dimensions, TeV-1 scale model
Theories with extra dimensions - with gravity
scale ew scale - lead to expect characteristic
new signatures/signals at LHC/SLHC various
models ADD, ABQ, RS
Example two-lepton invariant mass, TeV-1 scale
extra dim model (ABQ-type, one small extra dim.
Rc 1/Mc) with Mc 5 TeV, 3000 fb-1
peak due to first g, Z excitation at Mc note
interference between g, Z and KK excitations
g???, Z(n), thus sensitivity well beyond direct
peak observation from ds/dM (background control!)
and angular distributions
reach 6 TeV for 300 fb-1 (LHC), 7.7 TeV for
3000 fb-1 from direct observation
indirect reach (from interference) up to 10 TeV
at LHC, 100 fb-1
14 TeV for SLHC,
3000 fb-1, e m? 10s???????
27
Extra-dimensions, Randall-Sundrum model, LHC
regime
pp?? GRS ? ee? full simulation and
reconstruction chain in CMS, 2 electron clusters,
pt gt 100 GeV, h lt 2.5, el. isolation, H/E lt
0.1, corrected for saturation from ECAL
electronics (big effect on high mass resonances!)
signal
DY bkgd
C. Collard
c 0.01
c 0.01
Single experiment fluctuations!
LHC 100 fb-1
1.8 TeV
LHC stat limited! A factor 10 increase in
luminosity obviously beneficial (SLHC!) for mass
reach - increased by 30 - and to differentiate a
Z (spin 1) from GRS (spin 2)
28
Conclusions, physics, SLHC vs LHC (I)
  • - ew physics
  • - multiple VB production, TGC, QGC, SM
    Higgs.this becomes precision physics,
  • the most sure/assured one of being at the
    rendez-vous, TGC testable at level of SM
  • radiative corrections,
  • - ratios of SM Higgs BRs to bosons and
    fermions measurable at a 10 level,
  • - Higgs self-couplings, first observation
    possible only at SLHC, of fundamental
  • importance as a test of ew theory,
  • these measurements however
    require full performance detectors
  • - strongly coupled VB regime - central issue if
    no Higgs found!
  • getting within reach really only at SLHC
  • but requires full performance
    calorimetry, forward one in particular
  • - SUSY
  • - MSSM Higgs (A/H,H) parameter space
    coverage significantly improved (A/H ? tt, mm),
  • - new modes become accessible (H ? ?????
  • - SUSY discovery and sparticle mass reach
    augmented by 20-25, spectrum
  • coverage and parameter determination improved
  • some of these measurements (for ex.
    sparticle spectrum reconstruction ) require
  • full performance detectors,b-tagging
    ,tau-tagging.

29
Conclusions SLHC vs LHC (II)
- search for massive objects - new heavy
gauge bosons, manifestations of extra dimensions
as KK-recurencies of g, W, Z, gluon, R-S
gravitons, LQs, q, reach improved by
20-30, but these are much more
speculative/unsure topics, probably only limits
to be set.. these
measurements are least demanding in terms of
detector performances - rare/forbidden decays
- top in t ? u/c g/Z, sensitivity down to
BR 10-6 tau in t ? 3m?, mm-e?, m?ee-
possibly to BR 10-8 (to be studied!), B-hadrons
etc requires full performance
detectors
30
Conclusions on SLHC
In conclusion the SLHC (vs 14 TeV, L 1035
cm-2 s-1) would allow to extend significantly
the LHC physics reach - whilst keeping the same
tunnel, machine dipoles and a large part of
existing detectors, however to exploit fully
its potential inner/forward parts of detectors
must be changed/hardened/upgraded, trackers in
particular, to maintain performances similar to
present ones forward calorimetry of higher
granularity would be highly desirable for jet
tagging,especially ifnoHiggs!
31
spares
32
Level 1 trigger at SLHC
The trigger/DAQ system of CMS will require
an upgrade to cope with the higher occupancies
and data rates at SLHC One of the key issues
for CMS is the requirement to include some
element of tracking in the Level 1 Trigger There
may not be enough rejection power using the muon
and calorimeter triggers to handle the higher
luminosity conditions at SLHC Using the studies
for HLT applications gives an idea of what could
be gained using elements of the tracker in the
Level 1
Muon rates in CMS at 1034
Note limited rejection power (slope) without
tracker information
33
Tracker upgrade strategy
  • Within 5 years of LHC start
  • New layers within the volume of the current Pixel
    tracker which incorporate some tracking
    information for Level 1 Trigger
  • Room within the current envelope for additional
    layers
  • Possibly replace existing layers
  • Pathfinder for full tracking trigger
  • Proof of principle, prototype for larger system
  • Elements of new Level 1 trigger
  • Utilize the new tracking information
  • Correlation between systems
  • Upgrade to full new tracker system by SLHC (8-10
    years from LHC Startup)
  • Includes full upgrade to trigger system

34
Issues with bunch crossing timing
  • Assume new tracker and trigger electronics can
    cope with the choice of bunch timing
  • Electronics for other detectors
  • ECAL - not easily accessible
  • HCAL - can be changed
  • MUONS - can be changed
  • Situation for 12.5ns or 25ns very different from
    10ns or 15 ns
  • Electronics clocked at 40 MHz
  • QPLL which synchronizes links to this clock has a
    very narrow frequency lock
  • Can clock system at 40 MHz and cope with 12.5ns
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