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OSS Essentials

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Title: OSS Essentials


1
OSS Essentials
  • TTY, Automaatioverkkojen erityiskysymyksiä
  • Leo Sutinen

2
3SS
  • OSS Operating support system
  • BSS Business support system
  • MSS Marketing support system

3
Contents
  • Classification of Service Providers
  • Industry issues of Support systems
  • Market Drivers for Support Systems
  • The Service Delivery Cycle

4
Classification of Service Providers
  • Due to the opportunities given by deregulation in
    many countries. there are a number of new
    entrants in the telecommunications services
    industry.
  • Product and service portfolios need some fine
    tuning in most cases because customers are faced
    with overlapping offers from various service
    providers.
  • Service creation and provisioning are becoming
    more dynamic and provider-customer-interconnection
    s are getting simpler by using Internet
    technology.

5
Classification of Service Providers ASP
(applications service provider)
  • Emerging service provider who must combine
  • Application
  • Systems
  • Network management
  • Service level expectations are extremely high
    the whole business of a customer may rely on this
    provider.

6
Classification of Service ProvidersCAP
(competitive access provider)
  • Facilities-based or non-facilities-based
  • Similar to the ILEC, but bas carefully selected
    local loops for high-profit commercial customers

7
Classification of Service ProvidersCLEC
(competitive local-exchange carrier)
  • Smaller, flexible provider who owns little or no
    telecommunications facilities (facilityless).
  • By offering excellent customer care and new
    services, they try to build the support structure
    step-by-step.
  • Their support systems are state-of-the-art,
    lightweight, and less expensive to operate.
  • In certain cases, they use service bureaus for
    billing and provisioning.

8
Classification of Service ProvidersCSP (cable
service provider)
  • Emerging service providers with offers for access
    networks.
  • They still face technological challenges, which
    can be overcome.
  • Support systems are practically nonexistent.
  • In terms of support systems, they buy instead of
    build occasionally, they use service bureaus for
    billing and provisioning.

9
Classification of Service ProvidersCSP (content
service provider)
  • Emerging service providers who concentrate on the
    value, Quality, and timeliness of content in
    eCommerce environments.
  • They strongly co-operate with ISPs and ASPs.

10
Classification of Service ProviderESP
(enterprise service provider)
  • Emerging service provider from the enterprise
    environment.
  • They offer services for a limited user community
    with similar attributes to the provider.
  • They use and customize their existing support
    systems that may not scale well.

11
Classification of Service ProvidersICP
(integrated communications provider)
  • Emerging provider with integrated services offer,
    concentrating on next generation, high-speed data
    and wireless services, in particular for
    profitable business users.
  • Their acceptance in the market space is expected
    to be high.
  • In terms of support systems, they buy instead of
    build occasionally, they use service bureaus for
    billing and provisioning. gtgtgt

12
Classification of Service ProvidersICP
(integrated communications provider)
  • gtgtgt They take advantage of the fact that
    intranet, extranet, virtual private networks,
    eCommerce, and multimedia applications require
    more bandwidth than is available over traditional
    circuit-switched voice networks

13
Classification of Service ProvidersIEX
(interexchange carrier)
  • Primarily responsible for long-distance services
    with stepwise penetration of the local-exchange
    area.
  • They can be both incumbent and competitive
    providers with the result of the need for very
    heterogeneous support systems.

14
Classification of Service ProvidersILEC
(incumbent local-exchange carrier)
  • Strong provider who owns a considerable amount of
    telecommunications facilities and doesn't want to
    give away this position easily.
  • Most likely, has a number of legacy support
    systems with little interoperability and
    integration in use.
  • The result is high operating costs.

15
Classification of Service ProvidersISP (Internet
service provider)
  • Wide variety of sizes of these providers.
  • Their main goal is to provide Internet access to
    business and private customers.
  • Major challenges include peering to each other
    and to other carriers, managing quality, and
    offering acceptable performance.

16
Classification of Service ProvidersNSP (network
service provider)
  • They are responsible for providing a highly
    reliable networking infrastructure, consisting of
    equipment and facilities.
  • Their responsibilities are usually limited to the
    physical network, but element management systems
    are usually included in their offers.

17
Classification of Service ProvidersPTT (Post,
Telegraph, and Telephone)
  • strong provider who owns a considerable amount of
    telecommunications facilities and doesn't want to
    give away this position easily.
  • Most likely, has a number of legacy support
    systems with little interoperability and
    integration in use.
  • The result is high operating costs. gtgtgt

18
Classification of Service ProvidersPTT (Post,
Telegraph, and Telephone)
  • gtgtgt It represents service providers prior to
    liberalization of telecommunications services.

19
Classification of Service ProvidersWSP (wireless
service provider)
  • Carrier who provides
  • cellular,
  • personal, and
  • mobile communications services.

20
Industry issues of Support systemsConvergence
and telecom consolidation
  • It accelerates the use of advanced support
    systems.
  • Creates advantage for support systems targeting
    multiple end markets.
  • It increases the complexity of telecom networks
    and the demand for the integration of support
    systems.

21
Industry issues of Support systemsDeveloping
support systems markets
  • Growth is dominated by new carrier adoptions and
    incumbent upgrades.
  • Developing markets, such as data solutions, and
    carrier interconnections, are likely to justify
    the next wave of support systems spendings.

22
Industry issues of Support systemsEmergence of
complex, multiplatform environments
  • Reliability and scalability of large centralized
    systems remain excellent.
  • Service providers incorporate a multiplatform
    strategy augmenting existing investments in
    legacy solutions with newer technologies targeted
    at profitable customer market sectors.

23
Industry issues of Support systemsEmphasis on
telecom systems integration
  • Complex multiplatform, multivendor telecom
    networks require substantial systems integration
    for interoperability.
  • With multiple client server and legacy support
    systems in place, integration capabilities of
    vendors are in high demand.

24
Industry issues of Support systemsGrowth of
support systems is tied to share-shift among
telecom end markets andcarriers
  • The strongest near-term growth bas been achieved
    by vendors targeting the
  • fast-growing telecom end markets,
  • emerging local-exchange carriers (LECs),
  • wireless carriers.

25
Industry issues of Support systemsOutsourcing.
  • Ongoing structural changes in the telecom
    industry will place new requirements on support
    systems.
  • In order to concentrate on customer management,
    some back-office functions may be outsourced to
    service bureaus.
  • These service bureaus might use support systems
    from the same vendors, but they use them in a
    shared fashion among multiple service providers.

26
Industry issues of Support systemsProduct-based
vendor-driven solutions
  • Carriers increasingly demand solutions rather
    than raw technology and development kits for
    custom-developed support systems solutions.
  • The advent of technology standards encourages the
    use of best-of-breed vendor solutions.

27
Industry issues of Support systemsUpgrade cycles
in support systems
  • As a result of global deregulation, carrier
    competition is driving the demand for new, more
    efficient back-office solutions.
  • In addition to reducing operating expenses,
    advanced support systems improve time-to-market
    and often facilitate the introduction of new,
    revenue-producing solutions.

28
Market Drivers for Support Systems
  • The market is changing very rapidly.
  • Support systems should be positioned well and
    should meet providers' expectations in a timely
    fashion.
  • Principal market drivers are addressed in this
    segment.

29
Market Drivers for Support SystemsGrowth of the
GlobalTelecommunications Market
  • Explosive telecom expansion driven by internal
    growth and acquisition is forcing
    telecommunications providers to assess the
    productivity of their current support systems
  • Number of subscribers grows for existing
    services new services are provisioned on
    existing infrastructures and completely new
    services on new infrastructures are deployed or
    acquired. gtgtgt

30
Market Drivers for Support SystemsGrowth of the
GlobalTelecommunications Market
  • Several support system vendors have striven to
    capitalize on this opportunity with solutions
    that reduce complexity
  • These vendors do not usually replace existing
    systems, but add functionality to accommodate new
    services, such as...

31
Market Drivers for Support SystemsGrowth of the
GlobalTelecommunications Market
  • gtgtgt new services, such as
  • - Internet, intranets, and extranet
  • - Special data services on top of voice networks
  • - Wireless services
  • - Cable and video services
  • - Voice and fax services on top of IP
  • - Storage area networks
  • - Web hosting
  • - Content management
  • - Support of ASPs
  • - eCommerce services

32
Market Drivers for Support SystemsIncreasing
Network Complexity
  • As a result of customer expectations, the
    time-to-market of new services is extremely
    short.
  • New telecommunicatious services providers do not
    have the time to build anew, but instead combine
    existing and new infrastructures, such as copper,
    fiber, and wireless.
  • They are deploying new services on the basis of a
    mixture of infrastructures.

33
Market Drivers for Support SystemsIncreasing
Network Complexity
  • - Emerged technologies
  • Voice networks, Integrated Services Digital
    Network (ISDN), circuit switching, packet
    switching, message switching, frame relay, Fast
    Ethernet, Fast Token Ring, and Fiber Distributed
    Data Interface/Copper Distributed Data Interface
    (FDDI/ CDDI)
  • - Emerging technologies
  • (Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), mobile and
    wireless, SMDS, SONET /SDH, cable, xDSL, and
    Broadband ISDN (B-ISDN).

34
Market Drivers for Support SystemsIncreasing
Network Complexity
  • Each of these technologies bas its own support
    system solutions. In a PSTN, the element that
    should be managed are the switches themselves.
  • Multiple elements per subscriber in digital loop
    carrier systems, digital cellular networks, or
    hybrid fiber-coax systems may cause an explosion
    in terms of managed elements. As a result, the
    size of configuration databases have grown
    exponentially over last 20 years.

35
Market Drivers for Support SystemsIncreasing
Network Complexity
  • Growth in the number of network elements bas been
    accompanied by an increase in the complexity of
    items to be managed. SONET /SDH, ATM, and digital
    wireless are highly complex, with a high degree
    of interdependence among network elements.
  • This makes service activation and fault isolation
    a challenge.
  • Support systems must adapt to this new situation.

36
Market Drivers for Support SystemsEmerging
standardsfor Telecommunications Providers
  • When services are offered in combination, support
    systems should be modified and connected to each
    other.
  • This opens new business opportunities for support
    systems vendors
  • The introduction of standards for support systems
    is accelerating the demand for third-party
    support systems.

37
Market Drivers for Support SystemsEmerging
standards TMN
  • The introduction of technology standards,
  • Telecommunication Management Network (TMN)
  • Distributed Common Object Model (DCOM
  • Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)
  • Telecommunication Information Network
    Architecture (TINA)
  • Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM)
  • have begun to gain critical support by new
    support systems vendors.

38
Market Drivers for Support SystemsEmerging
standards TMN
  • Telecommunication Management Network (TMN) is a
    special network that is implemented to help
    manage the telecommunication network of the
    service provider.
  • It interfaces to one or more individual networks
    at several points in order to exchange
    information. It is logically separate from the
    networks it manages, and may be physically
    separate as well.

39
Market Drivers for Support SystemsEmerging
standards TMN
  • Telecommunication Management Network is an
    extension of the Open Systems Interconnection
    (OSI) standardization process.
  • It attempts to standardize some of the
    functionality and many of the interfaces of the
    managed networks.
  • When fully implemented, the result will be a
    higher level of integration.
  • TMN is usually described by three architectures

40
Market Drivers for Support SystemsEmerging
standards TMN
  • 1 The functional architecture
  • describes the appropriate distribution of
    functionality within TMN.
  • 2 The information architecture
  • gives the rationale for the application of OSI
    systems management principles to the TMN
    principles.
  • 3 The physical architecture
  • describes interfaces that can actually be
    implemented together with examples of physical
    components that make up the TMN.

41
Market Drivers for Support SystemsEmerging
standards TMN
  • Telecommunication Management Network distributes
    management responsibilities into several layers,
    such as
  • business management layer (BML),
  • service management layer (SML),
  • network management layer (NML),
  • element management layer (EML),
  • and into the actual network element layer (NEL).

42
Market Drivers for Support SystemsEmerging
standards DCOM
  • Distributed Common Object Model (OCOM) is the
    heart of Microsoft's ActiveOSS suite.
  • DCOM is an integration framework infrastructure
    designed to facilitate communication between
    software components operating on the same host or
    with DCOM on multiple-networked hosts.
  • It was originally developed to create
    interoperability between components.

43
Market Drivers for Support SystemsEmerging
standards DCOM
  • ActiveOSS acts as a centralized management and
    translation point for an OSS network.
  • Conceptually, applications ride on top of the
    framework, but communicate through it.
  • The common model allows the various applications
    to communicate in a uniform manner within the
    framework or across multiple-networked frameworks

44
Market Drivers for Support SystemsEmerging
standards
  • The framework is intended to create uniformity
    among application services without any
    modifications to source code.
  • Application services are built into and managed
    by the framework. The overall architecture also
    incorporates the Smart TMN business process model
    and related work by TINA.

45
Market Drivers for Support SystemsEmerging
standards CORBA
  • Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)
    is a generic communication framework to connect
    various network management applications.
  • The object request broker (ORB) is the
    coordinator between distributed objects. The
    broker receives messages, inquiries, and results
    from objects, and routes them to the right
    destination.

46
Market Drivers for Support SystemsEmerging
standards CORBA
  • If the objects are in a heterogeneous
    environment, multiple brokers are required.
  • They will talk to each other in the future by a
    new protocol based on Transmission Control
    Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).

47
Market Drivers for Support SystemsEmerging
standards CORBA
  • There is no information model available no
    operations are predefined for objects.
  • But an object does exist containing all the
    necessary interfaces to the object request
    broker. For the description, the Interface
    Definition Language (IDL) is being used.
  • There are no detailed management information
    bases (MIBs) for objects.

48
Market Drivers for Support SystemsEmerging
standards CORBA
  • The functional model consists of the Object
    Services Architecture.
  • It delivers the framework for defining objects,
    services, and functions.
  • Examples of services are instantiation, naming,
    storing objects' attributes, and the
    distribution/receipt of events and notification.

49
Market Drivers for Support SystemsEmerging
standards TINA
  • Telecommunications Information Networking
    Architecture (TINA) is is actually a concept
    integrator from intelligent network (IN), TMN,
    open distributed processing (ODP) from ISO and
    CORBA from object management group (OMG).

50
Market Drivers for Support SystemsEmerging
standards TINA
  • The core is OSI-based network management,
    expanded by the layered structure of TMN.
  • The emphasis with TINA is not on the management
    of network elements, but on the network and
    services layers.
  • TINA is going to be standardized by a consortium
    consisting of telecommunications suppliers and
    computer and software vendors.

51
Market Drivers for Support SystemsEmerging
standards WBEM
  • Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM) is a joint
    initiative of many manufacturers led by Compaq,
    Microsoft, and Cisco.
  • The initial announcement called for defining the
    following specifications

52
Market Drivers for Support SystemsEmerging
standards WBEM
  • HyperMedia Management Schema (HMMS). It was to be
    further defined by the Desktop Management Task
    Force (DMTF).
  • HyperMedia Object Manager (HMOM). C reference
    implementation and specification, defined by
    Microsoft and Compaq, to be placed in the public
    domain.

53
Market Drivers for Support SystemsEmerging
standards WBEM
  • HyperMedia Management Protocol (HMMP) A
    communication protocol embodying HMMS. running
    over HTTP, and with interfaces to SNMP and DMI.
  • Common Information Model (CIM). It is the basis
    of the information exchange between various
    management applications.

54
Market Drivers for Support SystemsEmerging
standards WBEM
  • Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM) is helpful
    to unify and simplify network management.
  • The combination of CIM and eXtensible Markup
    Language (XML) is going to set the basics of a
    new standard that significantly facilitates the
    interoperability between various support,
    documentation, and management systems.

55
Market Drivers for Support SystemsDeregulation
and Privatization
  • Telecommunications service competition began in
    the 1980s in the USA led by MCI with 3SSs playing
    a key role.
  • Under the pressure of the European Commission
    (EC), Europe is in the process of deregulation
    and privatization.

56
Market Drivers for Support SystemsDeregulation
and Privatization
  • Key issues are
  • Local Number Portability (LNP) It allows
    customers to retain their telephone numbers even
    if they change service providers.
  • Customers also typically want to retain access to
    advanced features they have come to expect from
    an intelligent network.

57
Market Drivers for Support SystemsDeregulation
and Privatization
  • Key issues are
  • Extranets connecting support systems of ILECs and
    CLECs. ILECs are required to provide access to
    information on five classes of support systems.
    They are preordering, ordering, provisioning,
    repair, and maintenance. This is now the
    principal focus of local and access service
    providers.

58
Market Drivers for Support SystemsDeregulation
and Privatization
  • Key issues are
  • Directory services. Real-time service processing
    requires additional customer-related data. The
    expanded directory role includes end-user
    authorization and authentication.
  • Directory enabled networks (DENs) are tackling
    the standardization of directory information.

59
Market Drivers for Support SystemsDeregulation
and Privatization
  • Innovation and reengineering on behalf of the
    incumbent carriers show a trend toward
  • Better customer care. Based on call detail record
    (CDR) and other resource utilization-related
    data, unsophisticated customer analysis can be
    accomplished. It includes discovering trends in
    customer behavior and traffic patterns, etc.

60
Market Drivers for Support SystemsDeregulation
and Privatization
  • Convergent billing.
  • The customer may expect to receive one bill for
    all services, such as voice, data, video, and
    Internet. The minimal requirement is to receive
    multiple bills with electronic staples.

61
Market Drivers for Support SystemsDeregulation
and Privatization
  • Rapid provisioning of new services. Based on
    additional support systems, provisioning can be
    expedited by better interfaces and more accurate
    data.

62
Market Drivers for Support SystemsDeregulation
and Privatization
  • Service differentiation. Still using the same
    infrastructures, new services can be created and
    deployed. By carefully defining the value-added
    nature, they may be considered by customers as
    differentiators

63
Market Drivers for Support SystemsDeregulation
and Privatization
  • Offering new services, such as Internet access,
    xDSL, VPN, and VoIP. Also, incumbent service
    providers are expected to react rapidly to new
    communication needs, including offering Internet
    access for reasonable money, the deployment of
    xDSL, digital subscriber line, virtual private
    networks (VPNs), and voice over IPs (VoIP).

64
Market Drivers for Support SystemsCommunication
Convergence
  • Advanced technology, coupled with deregulation,
    is driving communications convergence.
  • Customers prefer to get all types of services,
    such as long-distance and local voice,
    data/Internet cable/video, and wireless access
    from the same service provider.
  • Deregulation meant to encourage competition
    through the proliferation of new entrants.

65
Market Drivers for Support SystemsCustomer
Orientation
  • Competition is driving telecommunications service
    providers to emphasize customer management.
  • Driven by global competition. carriers are likely
    to focus on improving the total value of their
    services-quality, support, and price-as a means
    to retain customers.

66
Market Drivers for Support SystemsCustomer
Orientation
  • Many of these improvements will come from
    advanced support systems
  • Besides improving the customer interface (e.g..
    offering Web access). granular data available
    with new support systems can be utilized to
    retain key customers and reduce the amount of
    customer churn.
  • Further differentiation is expected High-margin
    customers may receive special treatment.

67
Market Drivers for Support SystemsASP Model
  • There is an industry trend that shows a number of
    of companies teaming up in an attempt to meet the
    market demand for streamline OSS applications.
  • OSS APSs pull together applications rather than
    create their own, and more companies are entering
    this space.
  • Their success depends on their value to the
    network service providers and on how their
    solutions integrate across each OSS application.

68
Market Drivers for Support SystemsASP Model
  • BusinessNow from NetworkOSS is a good example of
    an ASP model.
  • An unbiased collection of OSS applications from a
    number of suppliers enables NetworkOSS to form
    partnerships with its customers.
  • The buy or build dilemma for service providers.

69
The Service Delivery Cycle
  • The telecommunications industry today is
    experiencing a number of changes and challenges.
    Deregulation, new services, new technologies.
    reengineering business processes and acquisitions
    are just a few that demand attention.
  • Also, multiple concepts such as service
    differentiation, quality of service,
    time-to-market, customer care. return on
    investment, and total cost of ownership request
    attention.

70
The Service Delivery Cycle
  • Quality of processes, automation of processes,
    and integration of support and management tools
    may mean the difference between business success
    and failure.
  • Business processes may be organized in several
    ways,such as
  • Customer care, service development, order
    processing, provisioning, network and systems
    management,and billing
  • Fulfillment, service assurance, and billing.

71
Customer Care and Billing ProcessThe customer
interface management process
  • These are the processes of directly interacting
    with customers and translating customer requests
    and inquiries into appropriate events.
  • Process logs customer contacts, and tracks the
    status to completion.

72
Customer Care and Billing ProcessThe sales
process
  • This process encompasses learning about the needs
    of each customer.
  • It includes working to create a match between the
    customer's expectations and the service
    provider's ability to deliver.
  • Depending on the service provider process, it can
    be purely selling or can include various levels
    of support.

73
Customer Care and Billing ProcessThe sales
process
  • The sales process may include preorder work and
    interfaces.
  • The aim is to sell the correct service to suit
    the customer's need and to set appropriate
    expectations with the customer.
  • Service level agreement (SLA) negotiation,
    request for proposal
  • (RFP) management, and negotiation are led from
    this process.

74
Customer Care and Billing ProcessThe problem
handling process
  • Responsible to receive service complaints from
    customers, resolve them to the customer's
    satisfaction, and provide meaningful status on
    repair or restoration activity.
  • Responsible to be aware of any service-affecting
    problems, including notifying customers in the
    event of a disruption.
  • The aim is to have problems proactively
    identified and communicated to the customer, and
    to resolve.

75
Customer Care and Billing ProcessThe customef
QoS management process
  • This process encompasses monitoring,
    managing,reporting quality of service (QoS) as
    defined in service descriptions, SLAs, and other
    service-related document.
  • It includes network performance, but also
    performance across all service parameters (e.g.,
    orders completion on time).
  • Outputs of this process are standard (predefined)
    and exception reports.

76
Customer Care and Billing ProcessThe call rating
and discounting process
  • The process encompasses the following functional
    areas
  • Applying the correct rating rules to usage data a
    customer-by-customer basis
  • Applying any discount agreed
  • Applying promotional discount and charges
  • Applying outage credits
  • Applying rebates ( SLAs were not met)
  • Resolving unidentified usage(predefined) and
    exception reports.

77
Customer Care and Billing ProcessThe invoicing
and collection process
  • This process encompasses sending invoices to
    customers and performing collections.
  • The aim is to provide a correct bill and, if
    there is a billing problem, resolve it quickly.

78
Customer Care and Billing ProcessThe consulting
and supporting process
  • The collaboration between providers and customers
    includes establishing a special team of
    consultants for the customer, arranging periodic
    status and planning meetings, and defining the
    interfaces between provider and customer.

79
Order Processing and provisioning ProcessThe
inventory management process
  • This process encompasses physical equipment and
    the administration of this equipment
  • installation and acceptance of equipment, with
    the physical configuration of the network, and
    handling of spare parts and the repair process.
  • Software upgrades, implementing IP-based
    services, the number of managed objects is going
    to grow.
  • Physical assets also include servers, access
    servers, gateways, gatekeepers, routers, and new
    connections.

80
Order Processing and provisioning ProcessThe
service creation, planning and development process
  • This process encompasses the following functional
    areas
  • Designing technical capability to meet specified
    market need at desired cost
  • Ensuring that the service (product) can be
    properly installed, monitored, controlled, and
    billed
  • Initiating appropriate process and methods
    modifications, as well as initiating changes to
    levels of operations personnel and training
    required

81
Order Processing and provisioning ProcessThe
service creation, planning and development process
  • Initiating any modifications to the underlying
    network or information systems to support the
    requirements
  • Performing preservice testing
  • Ensuring that sufficient capacity is available to
    meet forecasted sales
  • Developing IP-based services.

82
Order Processing and provisioning ProcessThe
network planning and development process
  • This process encompasses development and
    acceptance of strategy, description of standard
    network configurations for operational use, and
    definition of rules for network planning,
    installation, and maintenance.
  • It is about the planning of boundary nodes,
    routes, and capacity.

83
Order Processing and provisioning ProcessThe
network planning and development process
  • Considering IP-based services, multiple
  • alternatives for the implementation are
    available.
  • Popular solutions are
  • IP over ATM
  • IP over frame relay
  • IP over SONET/SDH

84
Order Processing and provisioning ProcessThe
network planning and development process
  • Special modelling tools are very useful to
    predict future performance under various load
    conditions.
  • These tools utilize what-if scenarios to emulate
    performance under various load conditions.
  • These tools depend today on the protocols used.
    Many providers work with multiple tools there
    are practically different tools for each service.

85
Order Processing and provisioning ProcessThe
network planning and development process
  • This process also deals with designing the
    network capability to meet a specified service
    need at the desired cost and for ensuring that
    the network can be properly installed, monitored,
    controlled, and billed.
  • The process is also responsible for ensuring that
    enough network capacity will be available to meet
    the forecasted demand.

86
Order Processing and provisioning ProcessThe
network provisioning process
  • This process encompasses the configuration of the
    network to ensure that network capacity is ready
    for provisioning of services.
  • Provisioning IP-based services involves a large
    number of nodes and servers that are completely
    unknown in a voice environment.
  • Provisioning requires experienced subject matter
    experts.

87
Order Processing and provisioning ProcessThe
service ordering process
  • Includes all the functions accepting a customer's
    order for service, tracking the progress of the
    order, and notifyig the customer when the order
    is complete.
  • Orders can include new,change, and disconnect
    orders for all or part of a customer's service.
  • The aim is to order the service the customer
    requested, and keep the customer informed.

88
Order Processing and provisioning ProcessThe
service configuration process
  • This process encompasses the installation and/or
    configuration of services for specific customers,
    including the installation/ configuration of
    customer premises equipment.
  • Offering IP-based services, additional functions
    must be considered. In particular, firewalls,
    application services such as e-mail, Web hosting,
    and their configurations are important.

89
Order Processing and provisioning ProcessThe
service configuration process
  • Also the setting of parameters to support QoS and
    SLA requirements is important.
  • The more that can be automated, the better
    service providers do in the competitive market.

90
Order Processing and provisioning ProcessThe
security management process
  • Due to factors such as opening networks,
    connecting partners, and using a public domain
    such as the Internet security risks increase
    considerably.
  • Virtual private networks (VPNs) are one of the
    possible answers to combining existing
    infrastructure with acceptable protection.
  • Security management procedures are identical or
    at least very similar.

91
Order Processing and provisioning ProcessThe
security manamagement process
  • Security management is in charge of protecting
    all systems solutions.
  • Process includes a planning and controlling
    function - In particular, three basic threats are
    considered
  • (1) loss of availability of services,
  • (2) loss of integrity, and
  • (3) loss of privacy.

92
Network Operational Management ProcessesThe
service problem resolution process
  • Process encompasses isolating the root cause of
    service-affecting and non-service-affecting
    failures and acting to resolve them. Typically,
    failures affect multiple customers. Actions may
    include immediate reconfiguration or other
    corrective actions.
  • Aim is to understand the causes impacting service
    performance and to implement immediate fixes or
    initiate quality improvement efforts.

93
Network Operational Management ProcessesThe
service quality management process
  • This process supports monitoring service or
    product quality on a service class basis in order
    to determine whether
  • Service levels are being met consistently
  • There are any general problems with the service
    or product
  • The sale and use of the service is tracking to
    forecasts

94
Network Operational Management ProcessesThe
service quality management process
  • This process also encompasses taking appropriate
    action to keep service levels within agreed
    targets for each service class and to either keep
    ahead of demand or alert the sales process to
    slow sales.
  • The aim is effective service-specific monitoring
    and to manage service levels to meet SLA
    commitments and standard commitments for the
    specific service.

95
Network Operational Management ProcessesThe
service quality management process
  • There have been quality metrics for voice
    services for a long time.
  • For IP-based services, the term quality is
    relatively new.
  • Philosophy behind IP-based services is to offer
    best-effort quality depending on the capacity
    constraints of networking infrastructures-but
    there are no guarantees even for that.

96
Network Operational Management ProcessesThe
service quality management process
  • There are two alternatives with IP-based
    services
  • - Integrated Services (IntServ) this alternative
    supports RSVP and, as a result, bandwidth is
    guaranteed for application network ingress and
    egress points.
  • - Differentiated Services (DiffServ) This
    alternative analyzes the type of service (ToS)
    header of IPv4 and assigns priorities.

97
Network Operational Management ProcessesThe
network maintenance and restoration process
  • This process encompasses maintaining the
    operational quality of the network in accordance
    with required network performance goals.
  • Network maintenance activities can be
  • preventative-such as scheduled routine
    maintenance or
  • or corrective. Corrective maintenance can be in
    response to faults or to indications that
    problems may be developing (proactive).

98
Network Operational Management ProcessesThe
network maintenance and restoration process
  • Supervisory functions should be extended for
    IP-based services- In most cases, distributed
    monitoring capabilities must be implemented.
  • Voice networks use Transaction Language 1 (TL 1),
    Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP),
    and TMN as the basis of supervising status and
    resource utilization.

99
Network Operational Management ProcessesThe
network maintenance and restoration process
  • The IP world brings Simple Network Management
    Protocol (SNMP) and Remote Monitoring (RMON) into
    the supervisory scenario.
  • Powerful filters and correlation engines are
    required for the reduction of the total amount of
    data generated by the supervisory function.

100
Order Processing and provisioning ProcessThe
inventory management process
  • This process encompasses physical equipment and
    the administration of this equipment
  • installation and acceptance of equipment, with
    the physical configuration of the network, and
    handling of spare parts and the repair process.
  • Software upgrades, implementing IP-based
    services, the number of managed objects is going
    to grow.
  • Physical assets also include servers, access
    servers, gateways, gatekeepers, routers, and new
    connections.

101
Order Processing and provisioning ProcessClosing
(finally!)
  • Below these business processes, there are many
    support, documentation, and management systems
    most of them are legacy applications.
  • Some of them are best-of-breed. and just a few of
    them are integrated with each other.
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