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I. What is Biology

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... Dictionary: 'the science that deals with the origin, history, physical ... processes, habits, etc. of plants and animals: it includes botany and zoology. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: I. What is Biology


1
I. What is Biology? A. Definitions
2
I. What is Biology? A. Definitions Websters
New World Dictionary "the science that deals
with the origin, history, physical
characteristics, life processes, habits, etc. of
plants and animals it includes botany and
zoology."
3
I. What is Biology? A. Definitions B.
Conclusion The scientific study of life
4
I. What is Biology? A. Definitions B.
Conclusion The scientific study of life -
begs two questions What is Science? What is
Life?
5
II. What is Science (and what is not)?
6
II. What is Science (and what is not)? A.
Definition Websters systematized knowledge
derived from observation, study, and
experimentation carried on in order to determine
the nature or principles of what is being
studied. The systematized knowledge of nature
and the physical world.
7
II. What is Science (and what is not)? A.
Definitions Websters systematized knowledge
derived from observation, study, and
experimentation carried on in order to determine
the nature or principles of what is being
studied. The systematized knowledge of nature
and the physical world. B. Limitations
8
II. What is Science (and what is not)? A.
Definitions Websters systematized knowledge
derived from observation, study, and
experimentation carried on in order to determine
the nature or principles of what is being
studied. The systematized knowledge of nature
and the physical world. B. Limitations 1.
What is Studied -
9
II. What is Science (and what is not)? A.
Definitions Websters systematized knowledge
derived from observation, study, and
experimentation carried on in order to determine
the nature or principles of what is being
studied. The systematized knowledge of nature
and the physical world. B. Limitations 1.
What is Studied - nature and the physical world.
10
II. What is Science (and what is not)? A.
Definitions Websters systematized knowledge
derived from observation, study, and
experimentation carried on in order to determine
the nature or principles of what is being
studied. The systematized knowledge of nature
and the physical world. B. Limitations 1.
What is Studied - nature and the physical
world. 2. HOW is nature studied?
11
II. What is Science (and what is not)? A.
Definitions Websters systematized knowledge
derived from observation, study, and
experimentation carried on in order to determine
the nature or principles of what is being
studied. The systematized knowledge of nature
and the physical world. B. Limitations 1.
What is Studied - nature and the physical
world. 2. HOW is nature studied
scientifically- from observation, study, and
experimentation
12
II. What is Science (and what is not)? B.
Limitations 1. What is Studied - nature and
the physical world. 2. HOW is nature
studied? Scientifically- from observation, study,
and experimentation. Scientists dont just think
about stuff (philosophy) and come up with good
ideas not ideas are scientific. Nor do they
just read books and accept the opinion of experts
(faith). They do experiments in the physical
world. 3. Philosophical Approaches
13
II. What is Science (and what is not)? B.
Limitations 1. What is Studied - nature and
the physical world. 2. HOW is nature studied
scientifically? from observation, study, and
experimentation 3. Philosophical
Approaches a. REDUCTIONISM
14
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15
II. What is Science (and what is not)? B.
Limitations 1. What is Studied - nature and
the physical world. 2. HOW is nature studied
scientifically? from observation, study, and
experimentation 3. Philosophical
Approaches a. REDUCTIONISM b. THE
COMPARATIVE METHOD
16
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17
II. What is Science (and what is not)? B.
Limitations 1. What is Studied - nature and
the physical world. 2. HOW is nature studied
scientifically? from observation, study, and
experimentation 3. Philosophical
Approaches a. REDUCTIONISM b. THE
COMPARATIVE METHOD c. EXPERIMENTATION
(methodological materialism)
18
II. What is Science (and what is not)? c.
EXPERIMENTATION - replicated observations of
natural phenomena
19
II. What is Science (and what is not)? c.
EXPERIMENTATION - replicated observations of
natural phenomena - identification of
correlated events
20
II. What is Science (and what is not)? c.
EXPERIMENTATION - replicated observations of
natural phenomena - identification of
correlated events - Construction of a
HYPOTHESIS of causality
21
II. What is Science (and what is not)? c.
EXPERIMENTATION - replicated observations of
natural phenomena - identification of
correlated events - Construction of a
HYPOTHESIS of causality This particular gene
causes eye development...
22
II. What is Science (and what is not)? c.
EXPERIMENTATION - replicated observations of
natural phenomena - identification of
correlated events - Construction of a
HYPOTHESIS of causality - Test this
hypothesis .....
23
II. What is Science (and what is not)? c.
EXPERIMENTATION - replicated observations of
natural phenomena - identification of
correlated events - Construction of a
HYPOTHESIS of causality - Test this
hypothesis ..... the hypothesis must be
testable with observations from the physical
world in order to be a scientific hypothesis. It
must also be falsifiable.
24
A testable hypothesis Scientists dont simply
seek patterns that confirm their idea…. look at
this, see? This fits my idea…
25
A testable hypothesis Scientists dont simply
seek patterns that confirm their idea…. look at
this, see? This fits my idea… Rather, Scientist
s test their hypotheses. This means gathering
data or conducting an experiment in which the
hypothesis could be proven false.
26
A testable hypothesis Scientists dont simply
seek patterns that confirm their idea…. look at
this, see? This fits my idea… Rather, Scientist
s test their hypotheses. This means gather data
or conducting an experiment in which the
hypothesis could be proven false. Scientific
hypotheses must be falsifiable you must be able
to envision data from nature that would disprove
the hypothesis.
27
II. What is Science (and what is not)? c.
EXPERIMENTATION - replicated observations of
natural phenomena - identification of
correlated events - Construction of a
HYPOTHESIS of causality - Test this
hypothesis ..... Turn "eye gene" OFF in eye cells
of some fly embryos Turn gene ON in other body
cells of some fly embryos
28
II. What is Science (and what is not)? c.
EXPERIMENTATION - replicated observations of
natural phenomena - identification of
correlated events - Construction of a
HYPOTHESIS of causality - Test this
hypothesis ..... Turn "eye gene" OFF in eye cells
of some fly embryos Turn gene ON in other body
cells of some fly embryos Repeat both
methodologies on non-coding regions, as
controls... so you know that it's changing this
gene that is causing the effect, and not the
manipulation of cells, itself.
29
II. What is Science (and what is not)? c.
EXPERIMENTATION - replicated observations of
natural phenomena - identification of
correlated events - Construction of a
HYPOTHESIS of causality - Test this
hypothesis ..... - RESULTS
OFF ON
30
II. What is Science (and what is not)? c.
EXPERIMENTATION - replicated observation
- create a falsifiable hypothesis - test
the hypothesis (experiment?) - analysis
often involving statistical analysis to determine
how likely it is that your results could have
been produced by chance. If this probability is
low, you have greater confidence that the change
in your response variable was caused by the
change in your manipulated variable.
31
II. What is Science (and what is not)? c.
EXPERIMENTATION - replicated observation
- create a falsifiable hypothesis -
experimental design - analysis -
conclusion we either ACCEPT or REJECT our
hypothesis. Did we falsify our hypothesis, or
support it? We never PROVE it in a universal
sense it is accepted based on statistical
likelihood (so there is always the chance of
error.)
32
II. What is Science (and what is not)? c.
EXPERIMENTATION The result of this
experiment is a new observation… which may lead
to new, more refined hypotheses. CHANGE in
science is cumulative and progressive it is not
simply a function of fashion or perspective.
33
II. What is Science (and what is not)? c.
EXPERIMENTATION ...which lead to new
hypotheses and experiments...
34
II. What is Science (and what is not)? B.
Limitations 1. What is Studied - nature and
the physical world. 2. HOW is nature studied
scientifically? from observation, study, and
experimentation 3. Philosophical
Approaches a. REDUCTIONISM b. THE
COMPARATIVE METHOD c. EXPERIMENTATION d.
THEORY
35
d. THEORY Scientific theories are -
explanatory models - simplifications
36
d. THEORY Scientific theories are -
explanatory models - predictive
37
d. THEORY Scientific theories are -
explanatory models - predictive - HAVE
BEEN TESTED they have been verified and
validated by experiments.
38
d. THEORY Scientific theories are -
explanatory models - predictive - HAVE
BEEN TESTED they have been verified and
validated by experiments. THEY ARE NOT
UNTESTED HYPOTHESES….. just a theory is an
oxymoron in scientific discourse…..
39
d. THEORY Scientific theories are -
explanatory models - predictive - HAVE
BEEN TESTED Examples Astronomy heliocentric
theory Physics atomic theory Chemistry
bond theory Biology evolutionary theory
40
III. Ways of Knowing A. Searching for Truth -
How do we come to know or accept things as
true?
41
III. Ways of Knowing A. Searching for Truth -
How do we come to know or accept things as
true? 1. Faith Websters - unquestioning
belief not require proof or evidence
42
III. Ways of Knowing A. Searching for Truth -
How do we come to know or accept things as
true? 1. Faith Websters - unquestioning
belief not require proof or evidence 2. Logic
the science of correct reasoning science which
describes relationships among propositions in
terms of implication, contradiction, contrariety,
conversion, etc. Evidence is a "clean argument"
43
III. Ways of Knowing A. Searching for Truth -
How do we come to know or accept things as
true? 1. Faith Websters - unquestioning
belief not require proof or evidence 2. Logic
the science of correct reasoning science which
describes relationships among propositions in
terms of implication, contradiction, contrariety,
conversion, etc. Evidence is a "clean
argument 3. Science Logical argument and
physical evidence.
44
III. Ways of Knowing A. Searching for Truth B.
Questions and Tools
45
III. Ways of Knowing A. Searching for Truth B.
Questions and Tools - not all ways of knowing
are equally applicable to every question….
46
III. Ways of Knowing A. Searching for Truth B.
Questions and Tools - not all ways of knowing
are equally applicable to every
question…. Should abortion be illegal? Science
- cant answer it. Use logic and ethics, often
based on faith.
47
III. Ways of Knowing A. Searching for Truth B.
Questions and Tools Should abortion be
illegal? How old is the earth? Physical evidence
is available - lets date the oldest rocks....3.8
billion years old, based on atomic theory (NOT
evolutionary theory!!). Science is the best
method, because the question concerns the
physical world.
48
III. Ways of Knowing A. Searching for Truth B.
Questions and Tools Should abortion be
illegal? How old is the earth? Is there a
God? Cant be addressed by science…the hypothesis
God exists can not be disproven with evidence
from the physical world, because it could all be
just as God wants. So, this question is not
addressable by science. It is not a question that
can be falsified with evidence from the physical
world.
49
III. Ways of Knowing A. Searching for Truth B.
Questions and Tools Should abortion be
illegal? How old is the earth? Is there a
God? Creationism and Intelligent Design are not
science because they assume the existence of
supernatural agents that, by definition, are
beyond nature and can not be tested by science.
If you cant disprove the existence of God with
science, you cant disprove any hypothesis BASED
on this assumption with science. (So why call
it science, or teach it in science class?)
50
Study questions 1) Define biology and science.
2) What are the two limitations of science? 3)
Describe reductionism. 4) Why is the comparative
method so useful in biology? 5) How do
correlation and causality differ? Relate this to
the difference between observations and good
experiments (and the use of controls). 6) Why
must hypotheses be falsifiable to be
scientific? 7) If statistics determine the
probability that chance caused a pattern, how are
they used in science to determine whether that
pattern was caused by the independent
variable? 8) How is the term theory use in
science? How is it misused by the public? 9)
Describe why scientific creationism and
"intelligent design" are not scientific ideas.
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