MANUFACTURING - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The first factories in the world made textiles in England and Scotland ... Hand tools are those that use the power of our hand or arm hammer and pliers ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • Consumers are people who buy and use the items
    made in factories soap, food, shoes, cars, and
  • Industrial revolution in late 1700s new methods
    of manufacturing
  • The first factories in the world made textiles in
    England and Scotland between 1750 and 1800
  • Factorys power usually came from rivers that
    turned water wheels
  • James Watt later designed a steam engine that
    could operate machines in factories
  • Manufacturing is the application of physical and
    chemical processes to alter the geometry,
    properties, and/or appearance of a starting
    material (raw or semi finished) to make parts or
  • Manufacturing also includes assembly of multiple
    parts to make products
  • A sequence of operations adds value to the
    material by changing its shape or properties

Manufacturing Industries
  • An industry/company may not span the whole cycle
    of manufacturing crude raw material to the
    finished product
  • Industry consists of enterprises and
    organizations that produce or supply goods and
  • Industries can be categorized as basic producers,
    converter or fabricator and service industries
  • The first three categories form a connecting
  • Basic producers cultivate and exploit natural
    resources and transform these into raw materials
    e.g. steel producers
  • Converters take the output of the basic producer
    and transform these raw materials into various
    industrial products and some consumer items
    e.g. producers of sheet-metals and plastics
  • Fabricators fabricate and assemble final products
    e.g. manufacturers of automobiles, appliances
    and garments

Manufacturing Industries
  • Service industry works in parallel with the other
    three and constitutes the service sector of the

Manufacturing Industries
  • Another classification of manufacturing firms may
    be by the quantity of the products they make
  • Job shop production, batch production and mass

Resources for Manufacturing
  • Companies use a complex but coordinated setup of
    all the basic resources
  • People
  • Large companies employ a huge workforce because
    they manufacture several products at the same
  • People to put forward the requirement of a new
  • Research engineers and design engineers/drafters
  • Development engineers decide the steps of
    manufacturing the product
  • They make a prototype (a test version of the
    product ) of the new product before going onto
    the full scale or mass production
  • Production engineers implement the plan given by
    development department
  • Hundreds of laymen workers work in the production
  • These workers may be working on or repairing and
    maintaining the machines
  • Skilled and qualified people are required for
    quality control
  • Planning, managing warehouses, dispatching etc
  • Marketing and distribution of the product in the
    local and international markets

Resources for Manufacturing
  • Information
  • Trends in the market
  • Different type of materials, their costs and
    quality standards
  • Mechanical drawings of different parts
  • Knowledge of manufacturing processes
  • Companies may launch new research projects in
    collaboration with universities
  • Materials
  • It is not always a raw material materials in
    the natural state, e.g. iron ore, trees, and
  • Steel sheets come from iron ingots made from
    coal, limestone and iron ore
  • Companies often make a trade-off between the cost
    and the quality of a material

Resources for Manufacturing
  • Tools and Machines
  • A tool changes the shape of material or fastens
    it together
  • Hand tools are those that use the power of our
    hand or arm hammer and pliers
  • A power tool uses a small motor and is usually
    held in our hands Electric drills
  • Jigs and fixtures facilitate the process of
    manufacturing devices used to locate and hold
    work pieces.
  • Machines are usually operated by electric motors
    bending, cutting, drilling, grinding, and
  • Modern manufacturing processes run under program
    and feedback control

A jig used in carpentry shop
Resources for Manufacturing
  • Energy
  • Mostly in the form of electricity
  • Thermal power electricity from fossil fuels,
    i.e. coal, oil and natural gas
  • Own power source or near the government power
    supply low transmission costs
  • A chemical plant can use its waste heat energy to
    generate steam co-generation
  • Capital
  • Buy land, build factories, purchase equipment,
    pay workers, maintain machines, and advertise
    their products
  • A company may sell shares of stock
  • Capital may also come from a venture capitalist
  • Venture capital is money used to finance the
    costs of starting a new company
  • Time
  • Productivity is how quickly and cheaply a product
    is made
  • F. W. Taylor suggested the idea of scientific
    management study every movement that a worker

Industrial Materials
  • Four basic categories metals, ceramics wood and
  • Other useful materials are natural
    rubber/leather, glass, cotton, silk and wool
  • Criteria for selecting the right material
    properties of the material, its
    deterioration-rate and its cost
  • Manufacturing process that can be used to make
    products depend on the mechanical and physical
    properties of the materials
  • Metals
  • Alloys are composed of two or more elements
  • Metals can be divided into two basic groups (1)
    ferrous, and (2) nonferrous
  • Steel contains 0.02 to 2.11 carbon. It may also
    have manganese, chromium and nickel to enhance
    the properties of the metal
  • Cast iron is an alloy of iron, carbon (2 to 4 )
    and silicon (0.5 to 3 )
  • Gray cast iron is used in blocks and heads of
    internal combustion engines

Industrial Materials
  • Ceramics
  • Compounds of metallic (or semi metallic) and
    nonmetallic elements oxygen, nitrogen, ad
  • Traditional ceramics clay for brick, tile and
    pottery, silica for glass products and alumina
    and silicon carbide for abrasives used for
  • Newer ceramics tungsten carbide and titanium
    carbide for cutting tools and grinding abrasives
  • Crystalline ceramics are formed from powders and
    then sintered
  • Sintering heating to a temperature below the
    melting point to achieve bonding between the

Industrial Materials
  • Wood
  • Natural wood can be classified into two forms
    hardwood and softwood
  • Hardwood trees that lose their leaves in
    winter, such as maple, oak and walnut
  • Softwood evergreen trees such as fir, pine and
  • Plywood is made by gluing together a number of
    thin veneers or plies of softwood or hardwood.
    There is always an odd number of veneers
  • Hardboard is made from wood fiber extracted from
    chips and pulped wood waste a cheaper option
    than plywood

Industrial Materials
  • Polymers
  • A compound formed of repeating structural units
  • They consist of carbon plus one or more other
    elements such as hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and
  • Thermoplastic polymers soften when heated and
    when cooled, they are hard again polyethylene
    bags, PVC pipes and nylon
  • Thermoset polymers char and burn when heated
    plastic cups and dishes made of melamine.
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