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What is Cardiovascular Disease

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What is Cardiovascular Disease? Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels. ... dies of heart disease. More than 2,500 Americans die from heart disease each day. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What is Cardiovascular Disease


1
What is Cardiovascular Disease?
  • Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels.
    (Cardio means heart vascular means blood
    vessels.) The circulatory system of the heart and
    blood vessels is the cardiovascular system.

2
Why Should We Care?
  • Coronary heart disease is the  1 cause of death
    in the United States.
  • 1 Lifestyle Disease.
  • Every 34 seconds someone dies of heart disease.
  • More than 2,500 Americans die from heart disease
    each day.
  • Every 20 seconds, a person in the United States
    has a heart attack.

3
Why Should We Care
  • Our habits begin at a young age and effect us the
    rest of our life.
  • At least 250,000 people die of heart attacks each
    year before they reach a hospital.
  • Studies show that under-educated people are more
    likely to suffer heart attacks.
  • Men suffer heart attacks about 10 years earlier
    in life than women do.

4
Why Should We Care?
  • The countries with the highest death rates from
    heart disease are the Soviet Union, Romania,
    Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia.
    The countries with the lowest are Japan, France,
    Spain, Switzerland, and Canada.
  • Almost 6 million hospitalizations each year (in
    the United States) are due to cardiovascular
    disease.
  • Since 1900, Cardio Vascular Disease has been the
    number 1 killer in the United States for every
    year but 1918.

5
Types of Heart Disease
  • Congential and Aquired
  • Arrythiamias
  • Atherosclerosis
  • High Blood Pressure

6
Types of Heart Disease
  • Children
  • The two types of heart disease in children are
    "congenital" and "acquired."
  • About 36,000 children are born with a heart
    defect each year.
  • There is nothing that parents could have done to
    prevent these defects.

7
Types of Heart Disease
  • Arrhythmias
  • disorders of the regular rhythmic beating of the
    heart
  • 2.2 million Americans are living with
    arrhythmias.
  • can occur in a healthy heart and be of minimal
    consequence.
  • They also may indicate a serious problem and lead
    to heart disease, stroke or sudden cardiac death.

8
Types of Heart Disease
  • Atherosclerosis
  • plaque builds up in arteries over time and may
    become large enough to significantly reduce blood
    flow.

9
Types of Heart Disease
  • Blood Pressure Facts
  • One in three U.S. adults has high blood pressure.
  • There are no symptoms, so nearly one-third of
    these people don't know they have it.
  • In fact, many people have high blood pressure for
    years without knowing it.
  • Uncontrolled high blood pressure can lead to
    stroke, heart attack, heart failure or kidney
    failure.
  • Blood pressure is often called the "silent
    killer." The only way to tell if you have high
    blood pressure is to have your blood pressure
    checked.

10
Types of Heart Disease
  • Heart Failure
  • More than 5 million Americans are living with
    heart failure.
  • 550,000 new cases are diagnosed each year.

11
Types of Heart Disease
  • Blood Pressure Ranges
  • Systolic Diastolic Normal less than 120 and less
    than 80
  • Hypertension, Stage 1 140159 or 9099
  • Hypertension, Stage 2 160 or higher or 100 or
    higher
  • Unusually low readings should be evaluated for
    clinical significance.

12
Risk Factors
  • Uncontrollable risk factors include
  • Male sex
  • Older age
  • Family history of heart disease
  • Post-menopausal
  • Race (African Americans, American Indians, and
    Mexican Americans are more likely to have heart
    disease than Caucasians)

13
Risk Factors
  • Controllable Risk Factors
  • Smoking
  • High LDL, or "bad" cholesterol and low HDL, or
    "good" cholesterol.
  • Uncontrolled hypertension (high blood pressure).
  • Physical inactivity
  • Obesity (more than 20 over one's ideal body
    weight).
  • Uncontrolled diabetes.
  • Uncontrolled stress and anger

14
Heart Disease Warning Signs
  • The most common symptom is angina. Angina can be
    described as a discomfort, heaviness, pressure,
    aching, burning, fullness, squeezing or painful
    feeling in your chest.
  • Shortness of breath
  • Palpitations (irregular heart beats, skipped
    beats or a "flip-flop" feeling in your chest)
  • A faster heartbeat
  • Weakness or dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Sweating

15
Heart Attack Warning Signs
  • Discomfort, pressure, heaviness, or pain in the
    chest, arm or below the breastbone.
  • Discomfort radiating to the back, jaw, throat or
    arm.
  • Fullness, indigestion or choking feeling (may
    feel like heartburn)
  • Sweating, nausea, vomiting or dizziness
  • Extreme weakness, anxiety or shortness of breath
  • Rapid or irregular heartbeats

16
Treatments
  • Pacemaker- Heart failure which doesnt respond to
    medical treatment sometimes requires this
    lifesaving transplant procedure.
  • Angioplasty- is a nonsurgical technique for
    opening a blocked artery. A stent is a tube used
    to keep the artery open.

17
Treatments
  • Heart bypass surgery- is just what it sounds
    like. A surgeon builds a bypass around a blocked
    artery.
  • Heart Transplant- Drastic but more common today.

18
What is Stroke?
  • Stroke is a type of cardiovascular disease.
    It affects the arteries leading to and within the
    brain. A stroke occurs when a blood vessel that
    carries oxygen and nutrients to the brain is
    either blocked by a clot or bursts.

19
Types of stroke
  • Stroke can be caused either
  • by a clot obstructing the flow of blood to the
    brain.
  • by a blood vessel rupturing and preventing blood
    flow to the brain.

20
Why Should We Care?
  • Stroke Survivors
  • I became a first-time grandmother in December
    2007 and traveled on an emergency flight to
    Hawaii to be with my daughter and new grandson.
    We were told that Oliver Michael suffered two
    strokes less than 24 hours after he was born.
  • Oliver had a stroke

21
Why Should We Care???
  • Stroke Survivors
  • Less than a month before he turned 13, Erik
    Dornbush woke up barely able to move his left
    side.  He was suffering from the worst headache
    of his life. When he tried to get up, he knocked
    over an end table and realized something was
    terribly wrong.
  • Erik had a stroke

22
Why Should we Care???
  • She was obese as a child and her family has a
    history of diabetes and high blood pressure.
    Still, Yvette Fields admits, I didnt make an
    effort to get healthy. She even ignored the
    symptoms and signs of heart disease.
  • Yvette had a stroke

23
Did You Know???
  • Of every 5 deaths from stroke, 2 occur in men and
    3 in women.
  • The 2004 stroke death rates per 100,000
    population for specific groups were 48.1 for
    white males, 47.2 for white females, 74.9 for
    black males and 65.5 for black females.
  • Americans will pay about 65.5 billion in 2008
    for stroke-related medical costs and disability.
  • On average, every 3 to 4 minutes someone dies of
    stroke.

24
Did You Know???
  • 780,000 Americans each year suffer a new or
    recurrent stroke. That means, on average, a
    stroke occurs every 40 seconds.
  • Stroke kills more than 150,000 people a year.
    That's about 1 of every 16 deaths.
  • It's the No. 3 cause of death behind diseases of
    the heart and cancer.
  • Its also a leading cause of serious, long-term
    disability.
  • Many survivors are left with mental and physical
    disabilities.

25
Effects of stroke
  • Left Brain If the stroke occurs in the left side
    of the brain, the right side of the body (and the
    left side of the face) will be affected,
    producing some or all of the following
  • Paralysis on the right side of the body   
  • Speech/language problems   
  • Slow, cautious behavioral style   
  • Memory loss

26
Effects of stroke
  • Right BrainThe effects of a stroke depend on
    several factors including the location of the
    obstruction and how much brain tissue is
    affected. Paralysis on the left side of the body.
     
  • Vision problems   
  • Quick, inquisitive behavioral style   
  • Memory loss

27
Warning signs of stroke
  • Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm
    or leg, especially on one side of the body.
  • Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or
    understanding
  • Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes.
  • Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of
    balance or coordination.
  • Sudden, severe headache with no known cause.

28
Diagnosis of Stroke
  • someone has shown symptoms of a stroke.
  • The following are test to diagnose stroke
  • get a medical history
  • do a physical and neurological examination
  • have certain laboratory (blood) tests done
  • get a CT scan of the patient
  • study the results of other diagnostic tests that
    might be needed

29
Stroke Risk Factors
  • Controllable Risk Factors
  • Age  The chance of having a stroke approximately
    doubles for each decade of life after age 55. 
    While stroke is common among the elderly, a lot
    of people under 65 also have strokes.
  • Heredity (family history) and race  Your stroke
    risk is greater if a parent, grandparent, sister
    or brother has had a stroke.  African Americans
    have a much higher risk of death from a stroke
    than Caucasians do.  This is partly because
    blacks have higher risks of high blood pressure,
    diabetes and obesity.

30
Stroke Risk Factors
  • Controllable Risk Factors
  • Sex (gender)  Stroke is more common in men than
    in women.  In most age groups, more men than
    women will have a stroke in a given year. 
    However, more than half of total stroke deaths
    occur in women.  At all ages, more women than men
    die of stroke.
  •  
  • Prior stroke or heart attack  The risk of stroke
    for someone who has already had one is many times
    that of a person who has not.  

31
Stroke Risk Factors
  • Uncontrollable Risk Factors
  • High blood pressure  High blood pressure is the
    most important controllable risk factor for
    stroke. 
  • Cigarette smoking  In recent years, studies have
    shown cigarette smoking to be an important risk
    factor for stroke.  
  • Diabetes mellitus  Diabetes is an independent
    risk factor for stroke.  Many people with
    diabetes also have high blood pressure, high
    blood cholesterol and are overweight. 

32
Stroke Risk Factors
  • Uncontrollable Risk Factors
  • Heart disease  People with coronary heart
    disease or heart failure have a higher risk of
    stroke than those with hearts that work
    normally.  
  • High blood cholesterol  People with high blood
    cholesterol have an increased risk for stroke. 
  • Poor diet  Diets high in saturated fat, trans
    fat and cholesterol can raise blood cholesterol
    levels.  
  • Physical inactivity and obesity  Being inactive,
    obese or both can increase your risk of high
    blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, diabetes,
    heart disease and stroke.  

33
Treatments for Stroke
  • Surgery, drugs, acute hospital care and
    rehabilitation are all accepted stroke
    treatments.
  • Living with stroke
  • Rehabilitation is a critical part of recovery for
    many stroke survivors.
  • The effects of stroke may mean that you must
    change, relearn or redefine how you live.
  • Stroke rehabilitation helps you return to
    independent living.

34
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