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ATTITUDES TOWARDS INTEGRATION WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION

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Title: ATTITUDES TOWARDS INTEGRATION WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION


1
ATTITUDES TOWARDS INTEGRATION WITH THE EUROPEAN
UNION
  • PRESENTATION OF QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE
    RESEARCH
  • MARCH, 2003

2
RESEARCH DESCRIPTION AND OBJECTIVES
CONTENTS
INTEREST IN EUROPEAN INTEGRATION PROCESS
VIEWS ON OUTLOOK FOR FARMING AND BUSINESS
GAINS AND LOSSES IN EUROPEAN INTEGRATION
WHAT WILL CHANGE AFTER ADHERENCE?
INFORMATION NEEDS
REFERENDUM
3
RESEARCH DESCRIPTION AND OBJECTIVES
4
RESEARCH DESCRIPTION AND OBJECTIVES
  • In January and February 2003 the Pentor
    Institute, commissioned by European Integration
    Office, carried out a qualitative and
    quantitative research project on public opinion
    about the European Union.

5
RESEARCH DESCRIPTION AND OBJECTIVES
  • The qualitative study covered a sample of farmers
    and entrepreneurs, and aimed to defined
  • state of knowledge about the EU,
  • hope and perceived benefits of Poland joining EU
    structures,
  • perceived threats and obstacles.
  • The quantitative research part was fielded on a
    representative sample of the general public, and
    aimed to identify
  • public acceptance of views expressed by farmers
    and entrepreneurs,
  • public interest in integration issues,
  • perceptions of loses and befits from integration.

6
Qualitative Research
  • The study was effected by Focused Group
    Interviews.
  • Overall 6 FGI were held on 17 -22.01.2003.
  • FARMERS
  • Group 1 18.01.2003
  • farm up to 5 ha
  • Bilgoraj woj. Lubelskie
  • Group 2 21.01.2003
  • farm 10 - 20 ha
  • Ostrów Mazowiecka
  • woj. Mazowieckie
  • Group 3 22.01.2003
  • farm 20 - 50 ha
  • Srem, Wielkopolska

7
Qualitative Research
  • MSP
  • Group 4 17.01.2003
  • small firms, under 10 employees
  • Lublin
  • Group 5 22.01.2003
  • small/medium firms 10 - 50 employees
  • Poznan
  • Group 6 21.01.2003
  • medium/larger firms 50 250 employees
  • Katowice

8
Quantitative Research
  • The Quantitative Research was carried out on
    22-23 February 2003
  • sample representative for Poland over 15 year of
    age,
  • N 1000.
  • Face to face interviews.
  • Maximum statistical error for such sample size
    (1000) is 3,2 at 95 confidence interval.

9
INTEREST IN EUROPEAN INTEGRATION PROCESS
10
INTEREST IN INTEGRATIONQualitative Research
  • Village dwellers show limited interest in the
    integration process and consider the enthusiasm
    shown by city folk and politicians to be
    unfounded.

TV shows bombastic propaganda, farmers in Spain
dozing under olive trees, and where are we? What
sense does it make?
farmer 10-20 ha, Mazowieckie
  • Entrepreneurs and managers expressed the view,
    that Polands entry to the EU will be a fact of
    large importance for Polish firms and were
    greatly interested in the issue.

11
INTEREST IN INTEGRATION Quantitative Research
  • The public showed moderate interest in the
    integration process.
  • One one third rated this issue as very important
    or important.
  • Different attitudes amongst farmers and managers
    is well illustrated by qualitative research.
  • Farmers and villagers, compared to the general
    public, rate European integration issues as
    relatively less important,
  • Managers and private entrepreneurs attach much
    higher importance to it.

12
On a scale from 1 to 10 please tell me how
important is Polands integration with the EU for
you personally? Average rating
very important
not at all important
N1000
13
INTEREST IN INTEGRATION
  • When studying interest in integration we asked
    the respondents how often do they happen to
  • talk about integration, 24
  • read about it, 23
  • follow this issue on TV and radio, 42
  • take part in meetings. 1
  • the results confirm the thesis, that in early
    2003 interest in integration issues is moderate.

2-3 RAZY W TYGODNIU I CZESCIEJ
14
How often do you ...?
N1000
15
INTEREST IN INTEGRATION - FARMERS AND MANAGERS
  • managers compared to the rest of the public,
    more often
  • talk about the EU,
  • read about, and
  • watch and listen to programs about it.
  • Farmers
  • have an above average contact with the EU
    through the radio and TV,
  • are much less likely to read about in the press
    or information materials.

16
Intensive and regular interest in integration
problems
53
74
talk with family/ friends about integration
56
48
read press articles/leaflets/information
materials about
84
integration
31
66
78
watch TV/listen to radio programs about
integration
74
0
20
40
60
80
100
farmers
managers
total
N1000
17
BUSINESS OUTLOOK - FARMERS AND ENTREPRENEURS(Qua
litative Research)
18
BUSINESS OUTLOOK - FARMERS
Its better to keep to pensioners on the farm
than 1000 pigs.
  • Regardless of segment respondents agreed, that
    Polish agriculture is going through difficult
    times.
  • The main problem of agriculture is impossibility
    of rational planning .
  • This state of the affairs, in farmers eyes, is
    the result of years of neglect of the Polish
    Government, which has never developed any
    agricultural policy and production planning
    methods.
  • Today, as stated in all segments, farming in
    unprofitable, does not support farmers nor give
    them means to expand their farms.
  • Low profitability is especially pronounced in
    small farms under 5 ha.

19
BUSINESS OUTLOOK - FARMERS
  • Farmers emphasised, that they cannot get loans.
  • Some say that bank employees are discriminate
    against farmers, and immediately say no when
    they hear that the loan taker would be a farmer.

I want to buy a straw press and called the store
in Kalinowice and they told me, that they start
at 9,5000 and I can buy it with payment stretched
out to 10 years, but to buy it, Id have to have
minimum 800 zl income, and where am I to get it?
farmers up to 5 ha, Lubelskie
20
POLISH AGRICULTURE - STRENGTHS
  • lower usage of fertilisers and herbicides, as
    well as low popularity of preservatives and
    colorants makes Polish produce - in farmers eyes
  • much more natural
  • healthier
  • tastier than comparable EU products.

21
POLISH AGRICULTURE - STRENGTHS
We have that love for the land, the farmer will
not buy bread for himself, but he will feed the
horse. There is nothing like that in the West, we
dont have economics, we have - for lack of
better word - love.
I can see that it doesn't pay, but my heart is in
that farm, it would not be easy for me to give it
up.
My father loves it so much that instead of
resting in retirement, he grabs the buckets and
rushes to work, to take a look at the pigs
feeding, he knows which one has a spot behind the
ear. They are afraid of that, the West, of this
attachment, of this love to the land.
farmer 10-20 ha, Mazowieckie
22
BUSINESS OUTLOOK - ENTREPRENEURS
  • Business outlook among entrepreneurs and
    managers was mostly negative.
  • The dimmest view was held by small
    entrepreneurs and companies operating exclusively
    on the domestic market, without any contacts with
    foreign partners.
  • Medium and lager firms were slightly more
    upbeat, especially exporters and managers of
    local branches of firms with international scale
    of operations.

23
BUSINESS OUTLOOK - ENTREPRENEURS
  • the largest problems experienced by
    entrepreneurs are
  • illegal competition,
  • low demand for goods and services,
  • low liquidity
  • low availability of investment loans.

24
BUSINESS OUTLOOK - ENETRPRENEOURS
  • Entrepreneurs see the legal framework as not
    being favourable for running a business.
  • The problems most often mentioned in all groups
    were
  • high tax and ZUS rates,
  • complicated legal language,
  • lack of published materials with unequivocal
    interpretation of laws and regulations.

The very fixed costs, e.g. ZUS, are a large
burden. To make ends meet you really have to
slave away, as top cover the fixed charges, and
if you employ people,e, than the cost is even
higher.
Lublin
25
BUSINESS OUTLOOK
SIZE
FARMERS
MSP
SMALL
  • Dramatically bad
  • Bad

MEDIUM/ SMALL
  • Very bad
  • Rather bad

MEDIUM/ LARGE
26
ADAPTATION
SIZE
FARMERS
MSP
  • Improving product quality
  • new market acquisition
  • buying new machines, tools

SMALL
SMALL
  • no action to adapt

MEDIUM/ SMALL
MEDIUM/ SMALL
  • Modernisation of barns and pigsties
  • modern raising methods
  • quality norms
  • the Union is imposing very strict regulations on
    Poland
  • ISO applications
  • gaining certificates and improving qualifications
  • training staff
  • expanding product portfolio

MEDIUM/ LARGE
MEDIUM/ LARGE
27
GAINS AND LOSSES INVOLVED WITH EUROPEAN
INTEGRATION
28
GAINS AND LOSSES - FARMERS (QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH)
  • Farmers expect to lose out due to integration,
    and that they will be in economic dire straits.

We have no benefits from the Union, as we will
be absorbed, buried completely .
farmers up to 5 ha, Lubelskie
Nobody cares what will happen to the farmer, his
family, his means of support.
farmers 21 ha and more, Wielkopolska
TV shows bombastic propaganda, farmers in Spain
dozing under olive trees, and where are we? What
sense does it make?
farmer 10-20 ha, Mazowieckie
29
GAINS AND LOSSES - ENTREPRENEURS (QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH)
  • Entrepreneurs have both hope and fears connected
    with EU access.
  • Fears are found mostly amongst small firms,
    family businesses,
  • although these are also felt by larger
    entrepreneurs.

I believe that the EU will make something happen,
that something will start moving, that people
will have more money. When they'll have more
money, that will surely change things around and
not only in my trade,but all over the place.
When I look at the EU I see some clarity there,
some clearer rules, whereas in Poland we swim in
murky waters.
30
LOSSES DUE TO ADHERENCE- Qualitative Research
SIZE
FARMERS
MSP
SMALL
  • weakened position on local market
  • competition backed by large capital
  • Poles being forced out off the markets
  • lowered income
  • higher unemployment
  • higher prices
  • higher cost of living
  • smaller subsidies to farming
  • closures of many farms
  • expansion of strong foreign firms
  • Speculation in farmland
  • no interest in farmers shown by Government
  • foreign cultural patterns seeping in (liberalism)

MEDIUM/ SMALL
MEDIUM/ LARGE
31
GAINS DUE TO ADHERENCE- Qualitative Research
SIZE
FARMERS
MSP
SMALL
  • unification and simplification of Law
  • introduction of clear rules for economic life
  • simple loan system
  • higher availability of loans
  • economic revival
  • drop in unemployment
  • improved quality of goods and services
  • higher living standard
  • freedom of travel
  • Production
  • fruit
  • vegetables
  • agrotourism

MEDIUM/ SMALL
  • alliances, producer groups, large firms
  • Production
  • milk
  • cattle
  • eco-food

MEDIUM/ LARGE
32
GAINS AND LOSSES - FROM NATIONAL AND PERSONAL
VIEWPOINT (Quantitative Research)
  • Views on the impact for the Country is very
    strongly correlated with the expected effects for
    oneself.

33
Overall, will EU membership bring...?
N1000
34
GAINS AND LOSSES - FROM NATIONAL AND PERSONAL
VIEWPOINT (Quantitative Research)
  • Quantitative Research confirmed the findings and
    conclusions from the FGI.
  • Farmers and city dwellers (in relation to
    average ratings)
  • were more pessimistic as to the effects of
    integration, both from personal and national
    viewpoint.
  • Their ratings tended to be extreme as concerns
    effects of integration to themselves.
  • managers were more positive as to the effects of
    integration for the sate of the Country.

35
Overall, will EU membership bring more benefits
or loss to you personally? - average rating -
Much more gains than losses
Much more losses than gains
N1000
36
Overall, will EU membership bring more
benefits or loss to Poland as a whole?- average
rating -
Much more gains than losses
Much more losses than gains
N1000
37
GAINS AND LOSSES - ATTITUDE TOWARDS FEARS -
FARMERS AND MANAGERS
  • Poles well understand the grounds for farmers
    and managers fears. The accurately mentioned the
    causes which these had given on the qualitative
    stage.
  • Higher consistency was observed as concerns
    managers.
  • Farmers
  • were more drastic about their plight than the
    general public, and accentuated threats much more
    often,
  • were less likely to noticed their faults.

38
What makes Polish businessmen be wary of the EU?
N1000
39
What makes Polish farmers be wary of the EU?
N1000
40
GAINS AND LOSSES - WHO LOSES WHO GAINS
Public view of effects of integration
  • Gain
  • young people,
  • educated,
  • enterprising,
  • political elite
  • Lose
  • older folks,
  • uneducated,
  • struggling in market economy conditions

41
Who will gain and who will lose from Polands
joining the EU?
N1000
42
Who will gain and who will lose from Polands
joining the EU?
N1000
43
WHAT WILL CHANGE AFTER ADHESION ?
44
WHAT WILL CHANGE IN YOUR PERSONAL SITUATION?
  • Half of the population expects EU membership to
    affect their lives.
  • More than half do not expect any positive nor
    negative changes in
  • satisfaction with life,
  • scope for personal development,
  • material situation,
  • toughness of job,
  • highest hopes scope for personal development
  • highest fears heavier work burden

45
Do you expect Polands joining the EU in 14
months time will affect you personally?
N1000
46
How do you imagine your future after joining the
EU?
N1000
47
WHAT WILL CHANGE IN YOUR PERSONAL SITUATION?
  • A significant aspect from the viewpoint of
    expected effects of integration of personal
    situation is the time horizon.
  • Poles are more optimistic when we ask about a
    distant perspective, 10 years after joining the
    EU, than when we ask about the immediate post
    entry period.
  • Work burden even after 10 years there are fears
    related with this issue

48
How do you envision your future after 10 years
of Poland in the EU, i.e. 2014?
Growth in positive expectations
1
11
17
13
N1000
49
WHAT WILL CHANGE IN THE COUNTRYS SITUATION?
  • In early 2003 the Polish public was interested
    in ....

50
WHAT WILL CHANGE IN THE COUNTRYS SITUATION?
  • Poles expect
  • positive changes in the areas they deem to be of
    utmost importance,
  • changes for the worse in relative less important
    areas.
  • The is one exception the majority fear that
    cost of living will go up after EU entry.

51
INFORMATION NEEDS- QUALITATIVE RESEARCH-
52
FARMERS - INFORMATION NEEDS
  • All respondents expressed the need for deeper
    going information about the functioning of
    agriculture in the EU.
  • Information needs focused on the demand for
    specifics. The respondents would like to know
    about
  • planing production,
  • money ,
  • problems in farming.

Finances as information go, everything is based
on some kind of percent. A percent of this, a
percent of that, no mention of money as such, so
that a farmer could do his sums how much will he
really get.
farmers 21 ha and more, Wielkopolska
53
ENTREPRENEURS - INFORMATION AND TRAINING NEEDS
  • In all groups the respondents declared that they
    do not know enough about what they should do to
    conform with EU membership standards.
  • Some declared to have searched for such
    information on their own.
  • Such actions did not meet with much success, as
    the scope, depth or form of information did not
    correspond with expectations, or their knowledge
    level.

54
POLAND JOINING EU - INFORMATION AND TRAINING
NEEDS
  • Respondents revealed to be in need of
    information about necessary certificates and
    licenses and practical data - how, where can
    these be obtained, what should be done to get
    them.
  • They also lack information about
  • necessary changes - in organisation, legal
    (Employment Law in particular, Taxes, Corporate
    Law, Trade Law),
  • technical norms in vigour in member countries
  • modern technology.

55
REFERENDUM
56
REFERENDUM - FARMERS
  • Respondents overwhelmingly agreed, that farmers
    are not a group which will particularly gain from
    EU entry, hence the question about referendum
    plans generated highly diverse reactions.
  • NO
  • (several people in each group)
  • Polands joining the EU is bad for Polish
    agriculture
  • and for Poland
  • the country will become economically
    overwhelmed,
  • it will become solely an area for selling EU
    production .
  • YES
  • (2-3 people per group)
  • positive effects for further generations
  • the lesser evil.

Many are still undecided.
farmers up to 5 ha, Lubelskie
I havent made up my mind yet, but logically,
looking at Polands location, the market
situation, then generally speaking we have no
other choice. Remaining in the present state and
such economic condition is even worse than
joining the Union.
57
REFERENDUM - ENTREPRENEURS
  • A large majority of entrepreneurs declared
    support for EU membership.
  • This is based in the hope, that the new
    situation will be better than that at present.
  • The yes decision is based upon care for their
    childrens future, the faith, that they will have
    new opportunities open to them, that their life
    standard will improve greatly.

To late for me to benefit from EU,but it will be
a boon for the young generation. I am of an age
at which - as they say - to old for one, to young
for other, but those who are 15 today, will not
have anything to be ashamed about. They will be
European, regardless of here or there, they will
feel equally. We will have to struggle for our
lives.
Poznan
Our life standard will improve. None of us is
deluded that our pensions will be like in
Germany, but I feel that a sense of
stabilisation.
Katowice
58
There will be a referendum on joining the EU in
June. Do you plan to vote?
N1000
59
How do you plan to vote in the referendum?
N752
60
REFERENDUM- WHAT WILL HAPPEN IF WE DONT JOIN THE
EU
POSSIBLE SCENARIOS
  • Likely
  • Nothing will happen, things will continue as
    they are now
  • Unlikely
  • Poland will gradually become a poor and backward
    country by European standards
  • We will bind ourselves with the USA, which will
    bring about greater benefits than EU membership
  • On our own we will achieve high development
    levels that would be possible as part of EU
  • Poland will come under Russian influence

61
What will be Polands fate if it will not join
the EU. How likely is it ...?
N1000
62
  • Contact
  • Agnieszka Morysinska
  • e-mail amorysinska_at_pentor.com.pl
  • tel. (00 48 22) 60 61 471
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