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Title: Early Child Development and Language and Culture


1
Early Child Development and Language and Culture
La Commission Nationale des Parents Francophones
Winnipeg, Manitoba
By J. Fraser Mustard Founding President, CIAR
October 28, 2004
2
03-072
CIAR
The Canadian Institute for Advanced Research
3
03-073
CIAR Programs
Population Health Human Development Economic
Growth
4
03-077
Books
Why Are Some People Healthy
And Others Not?
Developmental Health and
the Wealth of Nations
General Purpose Technologies and Economic Growth
5
Presentation
  • Economic Growth Human Capital and Social Change
  • Neuroscience
  • Health
  • Behaviour
  • Learning
  • Outcome Measures EDI
  • Early Child Development and Parenting Centres
  • Building Pluralistic Tolerant Democratic
    Societies

6
04-195
  • Globalization - Continuing Technological and
    Socioeconomic Revolution
  • Economic Growth
  • Human Capital
  • Social Change

7
01-002
The Growth of the World Population and
6000
Some Major Events in the History of Technology
?
5000
Exponential
Knowledge
and
4000
Technology
Growth
3000
Population (Millions)
2000
Beginning of
Industrial
Revolution
Printing
1st Agricultural
Press
1000
Revolution
9000
6000
4000
2000
0
3000
2000
1000
5000
1000
Year
Robert W. Fogel. Economic Growth, Population
Theory, and Physiology, April 1994
8
03-042
The Fourth Awakening
Increasing intrusion of knowledge and schools on
the
mystery of life
Complexity of economic and social life
Ethical Challenges Governance
Fogel, 2000
9
99-087
Trends in Lifetime Distribution of Time
(Lifetime Hours)
Year
1880
1995
2040
Type of Work
225,900
298,500
321,900
Discretionary
182,100
122,400
75,900
Earnwork
43,800
176,100
246,000
Volwork
10
91-063
A. Traded Goods
and Services
C. Consumption
1. Non-Market
Education
Health Care
Social Services
Public Administration
B. Dynamic Services
Transportation
Communication
2. Market
Finance
Business Services
Retail
Personal Services
11
04-196
The point is that leisure time activities
(including lifelong learning) volwork and
health care are the growth industries of the 21st
century.
Fogel, 2004
12
04-197
the issue of lifes meaning and other matters
of self-realization may take up the bulk of
discretionary time.
Fogel, 2004
13
04-198
The Dynamics of Globalization and Socioeconomic
Change
Population growth Change in age
distribution Migration Concepts of work and
activities Language and cultural changes
14
04-199
Socioeconomic Change and Pluralistic Societies
Homogeneous vs heterogeneous societies Homogeneou
s nation states vs heterogeneous (pluralistic)
nation states Can we evolve pluralistic,
tolerant, democratic societies?
15
04-200
Early Child Development and Language
Starts early first 12 months The early period
of brain development sets capability for
mastering multiple languages What is a good
early start?
16
03-074
Rates of Return to Human Development Investment
Across all Ages
8
6
Pre-school Programs
Return Per Invested
School
4
R
Job Training
2
Pre- School
School
Post School
0
6
18
Age
Carneiro, Heckman, Human Capital Policy, 2003
17
03-131
NEUROSCIENCE
18
03-078
Experience and Brain Development
Stimuli in early life switch on genetic pathways
that differentiate neuron function sensitive
and critical periods
Stimuli affect the formation of
the connections (synapses)
among the billions of neurons
From studies in humans, monkeys, cats, rats and
other species.
19
04-039
Two Neurons
RECIPIENT NEURON
Axon
Synapse
SIGNAL-SENDING NEURON
Dendrite
20
04-012
Summary (1) Brain Plasticity
Sensing pathways set in early life key for
language
Vision Hearing Touch
HPA Pathway (stress) set in early life
(HPA-Immune Pathway)
Hippocampus - Memory
Plasticity sustained throughout life Affected by
HPA Pathway
Experience and gene expression
21
01-003
Human Brain Development Synapse Formation
Language
Sensing
Pathways
Higher
(vision, hearing)
Cognitive Function
9
0
1
4
8
12
16
3
6
-3
-6
Months
Years
Conception
AGE
C. Nelson, in From Neurons to Neighborhoods, 2000.
22
04-201
Sounds and Language
R and L English -- Fried rice Japanese -- Flied
lice Before 7 months Japanese and American
infants discriminate R and L equally. Not by 12
months.
23
03-155
HPA - STRESS PATHWAY
24
03-002
Emotional Stimulus
HPA Pathway Control
Amygdala
Hippocampus
-

-

Hypothalamus PVN
Cortisol
Cortisol
CRF
PIT
ACTH
Adrenal Cortex
LeDoux, Synaptic Self
25
04-023
Paraventricular Nucleus
Hypothalamus
Vasopressin
CRH
Cortisol
Pituitary Gland
ACTH
Adrenal Gland
Blood Vessel
ACTH
Cortisol
Kidney
Stress Pathway
Cortisol
26
03-110
Interaction of the Brain and Immune System
CRF
Hypothalamus
Cortisol
Locus Ceruleus
CRF
Adrenal Gland
ACTH
Pituitary Gland
Vagus
Cortisol
Cytokines
Sympathetic Nervous system
Immune Cells
Nerve
Immune Organs
27
01-023
Genes and Brain Stimulation
in the dance of life, genes and environment
are absolutely inextricable partners. On the one
hand, genes supply the rough blueprint for the
brain. Then stimulation from the environment,
whether its light impinging on the retina or a
mothers voice on the auditory nerve, turns genes
on and off, fine-tuning those brain structures
both before and after birth.
Hyman, S., States of Mind, New York John
Wiley, 1999
28
03-089
Serotonin Gene, Experience, and Depression Age 26
Depression Risk
.70
SS
S Short Allele L Long Allele
.50
SL
LL
.30
No Abuse
Moderate Abuse
Severe Abuse
Early Childhood
A. Caspi, Science, 18 July 2003, Vol 301.
29
03-080
Experience-Based Brain Development in the early
years of life sets neurological pathways that
affect
Health
Learning
Behaviour
30
03-063
HEALTH
31
04-006
Swedish Longitudinal Study ECD and Adult Health
Number of Adverse ECD Circumstances
1
2
4
0
3
Adult Health
Odds - Ratios
General Physical
1
1.39
1.54
2.08
2.66
1
1.56
1.53
2.91
7.76
Circulatory
Mental
1
1.78
2.05
3.76
10.27
Economic, family size, broken family and family
dissention
Lundberg, Soc. Sci. Med, Vol. 36, No. 8, 1993
32
00-069
Health Problems Related to Early Life
and Brain Development
Coronary Heart Disease Non-insulin Dependent
Diabetes Obesity Blood Pressure Aging and
Memory Loss Mental Health (depression)
33
01-010
"Follow up through life of successive
samples of birth has pointed to the
crucial influence of early life on
subsequent mental and physical health
and development."
Acheson, Donald -
Independent Inquiry into
,1998
Inequalities in Health
34
03-065
BEHAVIOUR
35
01-008
"Longitudinal studies show most seriously
antisocial adolescents and adults who had
behavior problems during childhood showed as
antisocial behavior when they enter the school
systems."
Tremblay, R
. - Developmental Health and the
Wealth of Nations, 1999
36
01-009
"The origin of these behavior problems can be
traced back to fetal development and infancy.
High quality care-giving support during the
first three years reduces the seriousness
of behavior problems."
. - Developmental Health and the
Tremblay, R
Wealth of Nations, 1999
37
02-008
Maltreatment at an early age can
have enduring negative effects on
a child's brain development and
function.
Martin Teicher
Scientific American, 2002
38
02-011
"The aftermath can appear as
depression, anxiety, suicidal thoughts or
post-traumatic stress - or as aggression,
impulsiveness, delinquency, hyperactivity
or substance abuse."
Martin Teicher
Scientific American, 2002
39
02-041
Substance Abuse and Childhood Abuse
Odds Ratios for Drug
and Alcohol Use
Exposure to
Drugs
Alcohol
Child Abuse

0 1.0 1.0
1 2.7 2.0
2 2.9 4.0
3 3.6 4.9

4 4.7 7.4
Scale 0 none

4 intense
40
03-064
LEARNING
41
01-040
Levels of Literacy A Reflection of ECD
Level 1
indicates persons with very poor skills.
Level 2
people can deal with material that is simple
Level 3
is considered a suitable minimum for coping with
the demands of everyday life
Level 4 and 5
describe people who demonstrate command of
higher-order processing skills
42
02-061
Document Literacy
1994 1998, Ages 16 to 55
Level 1 and 2 Level 4 and 5

Sweden
23
34
Canada
42
23
Australia
43
17
United States
48
18
Chile
85
3
43
00-085
Literacy Gradients
Mean scores
350
Document
Literacy Scores
330
310
290
International
Sweden
Mean
270
250
Netherlands
230
Canada
210
190
Chile
170
0
5
10
15
20
Parents Education (years)
44
04-025
Gradients and Literacy
800
700
V
600
IV
III
500
Level
Reading Score
II
400
I
300
0
200
-2
-1
2
0
1
SES Status
Willms
45
02-001
Literacy Early Vocabulary Growth
1200
High SES
Middle SES
Cumulative Vocabulary
600
Low SES
0
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
Age - Months
B. Hart T. Risley, Meaningful Differences in
Everyday Experiences of Young American Children,
1995
46
04-146
Test of Language Development (TOLD) at Age 9
Correlation between vocabulary growth at Age 3
and TOLD at Age 9.
0.74
47
01-012
Early Learning and Criminal Behaviour
Significant correlation with registered
criminality (teenage) appeared for language
development at 6, 18, and 24 months
Journal of Abnormal
Stattin, H. et al -
102 369, 1993
Psychology
48
03-018
Vulnerable Children Aged 4 to 6 NLSCY 1998
40
30
Ontario
Prevalence of Vulnerable Children
20
Rest of Canada
10

0
-1.5
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
Socioeconomic Status
49
01-053
Odds - Ratio for Children's (0-5)
Cognitive and Behaviour Problems
Behaviour
Cognitive
Parenting (vs good)
Authoritarian
1.53
2.01
Permissive
1.23
1.80
Inadequate
1.85
2.14
Parents Read to Child
0.92
0.96
Local Support
0.93
1.00
50
02-036
Intervention Studies
Grantham-McGregor Abecedarian Ypsilanti Osborn
and Milbank Bergmann France AKDN Madrassa
Program Other (World Bank Report)
Compatible with biological and animal studies
51
93-040
Mental Development of Undersized Children
(Low Height for Age) The Jamaican Study
110
children of
normal height
stimulation
supplement
105
develop-
stimulation
ment
100
quotient
supplement
95
control
90
baseline
6 mo
24 mo
12 mo
18 mo
52
02-068
Growth Retardation and Development
Jamaica
Stimulation and supplements normalized
development by 2 years
Age 11 - Benefits of stimulation still
present but not supplementation
53
94-114
The High/Scope Perry Preschool
Study Through Age 27
program
no program
married at age 27
females
high school graduate
ever in program for
educable mental impairment
homeowner at age 27
males
social services ever in
previous 10 years
5 or more arrests by age 27

0
20
40
60
80
100
54
03-086
1970 British Birth Cohort
Preschooling improved performance
in school system
Benefits children in all social classes
The effects of preschooling persist
Egerton and Bynner (2001)
55
04-153
Abecedarian Study Reading
Effect Size
Primary Grades
Preschool
Preschool Primary Grades
1.2
0.8
0.4
0
Age 8
Age 12
Age 15
Age 21
Age at Testing
56
99-129
Abecedarian Project
Attending 4 Year College
12.5
Control
Preschool
35.0
57
03-005
WISC Verbal Scores Age 8 Low Birth Weight
Children in ECD Centres (Ages 1 to 3)
Low Birth Weight
16
All
14
Very Low
12
Low
10
8
6
4
2
0
-2
Intention to
350 Days or
400 Days or
Treat
Less in Centre
More in Centre
Hill, Brooks-Gunn, Waldfogel. Dev. Psychol. 2003
July.
58
03-032
Most Effective Programs For Early Child
Development
Centre Based ECD


Linkages to Primary Schools

Integrated Program

Parent Involvement
Begin Early
59
99-004
Source of Brain Stimulation
parent-oriented
child-oriented
age
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Components of Early Childhood Development and
Parenting Centres
ECD care (parental and non-parental)
arrangements
Play-based learning
Resources
Prenatal postnatal supports
Nutrition programs
60
04-029
Community Initiatives
Involves
School Boards Municipal Governments Public
Health Childrens Programs Foundations
61
03-116
OUTCOME MEASURES
62
02-065
Percentage of Children in Kindergarten Scoring in
Bottom 10 by District - Vancouver
34.5
15
27.5
8.5
21.5
EDI, February 2000
63
02-064
Percentage Grade 4 Students Below Numeracy
Expectations
0-11
12-22
23-34
35-46
47-58
Source Ministry of Education
64
04-195
Continuing Technological and Socioeconomic
Revolution
65
04-203
Globalization and Pluralism
How do we sustain tolerant, prosperous,
democratic countries?
66
04-204
Sustaining Culture and Language in An
Increasingly Globalized World
The importance of early child development The
critical role of early language exposure
67
03-074
Rates of Return to Human Development Investment
Across all Ages
8
6
Pre-school Programs
Return Per Invested
School
4
R
Job Training
2
Pre- School
School
Post School
0
6
18
Age
Carneiro, Heckman, Human Capital Policy, 2003
68
00-068
ECD
Social
Equality
Education
Health
Capital
Economic
Growth
Human Development
69
02-018
From Early Child Development

To
Human Development
World Bank Report, 2002
70
01-039
www.founders.net
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References
References
  • From Early Child Development to Human
    Development. Editor Mary Eming Young, World
    Bank, Washington, 2000.
  • Synaptic Self How Our Brains Become Who We Are.
    Joseph LeDoux, Viking Penguin, New York, 2003.
  • The End of Stress As We Know It. Bruce McEwen,
    Joseph Henry Press, Washington, 2002.
  • Developmental Health and the Wealth of Nations.
    Editors Daniel P. Keating, Clyde Hertzman, The
    Guilford Press, New York, 1999.
  • From Neurons to Neighborhoods. The Science of
    Early Child Development. Editors Jack P.
    Shonkoff and Deborah A. Phillips, National
    Academy Press, Washington, 2000.
  • Early Years Study, Final Report Reversing the
    Real Brain Drain. Hon. Margaret Norrie McCain and
    J. Fraser Mustard, Publications Ontario,
    Toronto,1999.
  • Vulnerable Children. Editor J. Douglas Willms,
    University of Alberta Press, Edmonton, 2002.
  • Readiness to Learn at School. Magdalena Janus and
    Dan Offord, In Isuma (Canadian Journal of Policy
    Research) Vol. 1, No. 2, 2000.
  • Why are some people healthy and others not?
    Editors Robert G. Evans et al, Aldine De
    Gruyter, New York, 1994.
  • The Early Years Study Three Years Later. Hon.
    Margaret Norrie McCain and J. Fraser Mustard, The
    Founders Network, 2002.
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